Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal)

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
'my-leg' but *leg


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes examples given of inalienable body-part terms, but no mention of whether all kin terms are inalienable Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 20 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 166 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Captain, David and Linda Captain. 2005. Diccionario Básico Ilustrado: Wayuunaiki-Español Español-Wayuunaiki. Bogotá: Editorial Fundación para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Marginados Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 154 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:123 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Body parts are usually possessed but they need not be Duff-Tripp 1997:31 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p119 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 299 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:78 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:53 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 58 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000: 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 133 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p176 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes either with possesive marker, or with proclitic when indefined possesor Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.9 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no body parts (ex. Head) can be used with the alienable possesion marker but it is more common to promote the owner as one of the major grammatical elements Miller 1999, p. 48 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18-25 Chris Clack
Barasano no To indicate the possession of body parts, a noun or pronoun is directly followed by the term for the body part. Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no Body parts are treated no differently than other nouns when it comes to possession marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely as evidenced by examples
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 117-119 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.55 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: p. 128 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms13.1 done 1
Garrwa yes 25 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 143-144 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung maybe 64 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 51 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 34 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 55 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi Yes 378 Y 1
Paakantyi no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 230-232 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 45 done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany yes 308 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 325 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 51 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 14 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 58 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 261 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 49 1
Dyirbal yes 105 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 99 done 1
Djinang Yes 199 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 138; 140 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 135 done 0
Bularnu yes 38 Done-Austin 1
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no? 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 118-9 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 29 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 77 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati maybe 86-7 done 1
Katthang no 295 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No 31-2 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 37; cf 35, 2.29 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 308 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 38 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info FO 127 done x
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji yes 506 done 1
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 41 done 1
Arrernte Yes 150 1
Kokatha Yes 57 1
Karajarri Yes 309 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 14 1
Ritharrngu No 232 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 898 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes? 124 1
Bilinarra yes 4.7 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 59 Y2 1
Narungga No info 65 done x
Tharrkari No info 26 x
Wajarri Yes 48 1
Warungu yes 646 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps