Hup

Family
Nadahupan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
jup
Location
0.59°, -69.84°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Epps, Patience. Fieldnotes (2000-2011). Epps, Patience. 2008. A Grammar of Hup. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Ramirez, Henri. 2006. A Língua dos Hupd'äh do Alto Rio Negro: dicionário e guia de conversação. São Paulo: Associação Saúde Sem Limites.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location buycóʔ buj-cóʔ loan from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar cã́p taʔ (lit. other time) ~cáp taʔ (lit. other time) unique See Language page Pattie Epps
all todo todos other nihṹʔ, ʔápyɨʔ ~dihúʔ, ʔápjɨʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
and y e grammar missing See Language page Pattie Epps
ankle tobillo tornozelo body j’ib kãkã́w ɟ’ib ~kakáw inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
armpit axila, sobaco axila body hahád hahád unique See Language page Pattie Epps
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment teg hɔ́w, tuh ('char') teg hɔ́w, tuh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Pattie Epps
back espalda costas body cĩcĩ́ʔ ~cicíʔ doubtful loan into H-Y subgroup, from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
belly barriga barriga body tók tók unique See Language page Pattie Epps
below abajo, debajo abaixo location mɨ̌ʔ ~bɨ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
big grande grande quality pǒg pǒg inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
bite morder morder body g’ǝç- g’ǝç- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
black negro preto colour j'á ɟ’á inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
blood sangre sangue body biyǐw bijǐw inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
blow soplar soprar body pohow’- pohow’- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body hɔ̃p típ (lit. fish egg) ~hɔp típ (lit. fish egg) inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
bone hueso osso body g'æ̌g g'æ̌g inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
breast pecho, seno peito body pǔd pǔd inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
breathe respirar respirar body haŋ-cak- ~hag-cak- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
burn quemar queimar environment hɔ̃- ~hɔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body y’aw’- j’aw’- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
child niño, niña criança human dóʔ dóʔ unique See Language page Pattie Epps
climb subir subir motion cak- cak- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
cloud nube nuvem environment j'ɨk kudú ɟ’ɨk kudú loan loanblend in subgroup; kudu from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
cold frío frio quality tút, m'ǽ [water] tút, ~b'ǽ [water] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
come venir vir motion næn- ~dæd- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
cook cocinar cozinhar impact j’ɨw- ɟ’ɨw- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality dɔʔkěy dɔʔkěj unique See Language page Pattie Epps
count contar contar mental dɔʔ- dɔʔ- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
cry llorar chorar mental ʔɔt- ʔɔt- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kɨt-, hɔ̃k- kɨt-, ~hɔk- inheritance; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
day día dia time wág wág inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
die/be dead morir morrer state naʔ- ~daʔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
dig cavar cavar impact hat- hat- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Pattie Epps
dirty sucio sujo quality titíʔ, j'ǎw' titíʔ, ɟ'ǎw' unique; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
dream soñar sonhar mental cɔ̃hni- ~cɔhdi- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔǝg- ʔǝg- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
dry seco seco quality hǝb- hǝb- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality j'ɨg-nɨh (lit. 'not sharp') ɟ'ɨg-~dɨh (lit. 'not sharp') unique See Language page Pattie Epps
dust polvo poeira environment j'ɨ́k ɟ'ɨ́k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
ear oreja orelha body bɔtɔ́k bɔtɔ́k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
earth/soil tierra terra environment j'áh, b'ɔ̌k [= mud] ɟ'áh, b'ɔ̌k [= mud] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
eat comer comer body wæd- wæd- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
egg huevo ovo fauna típ típ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
eye ojo olho body kǝwǝ̌g kǝwǝ̌g unique See Language page Pattie Epps
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body j'æ̌ʔ ɟ'æ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fall caer cair motion nɔh- ~dɔh- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
far lejos longe quality w’ěh w’ěh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fat/grease grasa gordura body náŋ ~dág inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔíp ʔíp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fear miedo medo mental ʔɔm- ~ʔɔb- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
feather pluma pena fauna hũ tæ̃h pã́t ['bird hair'] ~hutæh ~pát ['bird hair'] unique from 'hair' See Language page Pattie Epps
fire fuego fogo environment teg hɔ̃́ ['wood burn'] teg ~hɔ́ ['wood burn'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fish xx xx fauna hɔ̃̌p ~hɔ̌p inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion hi- (lit. 'go down') hi- (lit. 'go down') inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
flower flor flor environment j’ɔ́ ɟ’ɔ́ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fly volar voar motion way-d'oʔ- ['leave-take'?] waj-d'oʔ- ['leave-take'?] unique See Language page Pattie Epps
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment j’ɨ̌k ɟ’ɨ̌k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
foot pie body j'ǐb ɟ’ǐb inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔág ʔág inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
good bueno bom quality náw ~dáw inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
grow crecer crescer state cap- cap- unique shared Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pã́t ~pát inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
hand mano mão body d'apṹh d'apṹh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
head cabeza cabeça body núh ~dúh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
hear oír ouvir mental wɨʔ- wɨʔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
heavy pesado pesado quality yiwík jiwík inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
hide esconder esconder motion yǝd- jǝd- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
hit golpear, pegar bater impact m’æh- ~b’æh- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tɔn- ~tɔd- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
how? como como grammar hɨ̃p ~hɨp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
if si se grammar tæn ~tæd unique See Language page Pattie Epps
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location g’ǒdan g’ǒd-~ad inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
intestines intestinos intestinos body tok tɨ́t tok tɨ́t unique See Language page Pattie Epps
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body j’uk- ɟ’uk- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
kill matar matar impact mæh- ~bæh- semantic shift hit' See Language page Pattie Epps
lake lago lago environment mɔ́h ~bɔ́h inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
laugh reír rir mental tæ̃ʔnɔ- ~tæʔdɔ- unique shared Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
leaf hoja folha environment cug'æ̌t, -g'æt cug'æ̌t, -g'æt inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cɔ̃h cáʔah ~cɔh cáʔah inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yæt- jæt- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment cə́p cə́p inheritance Hup-Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ʔɨb-, ni- ʔɨb-, ~di- unknown; doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
liver hígado figado body hɔ́ hɔ́ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
long largo comprido, longo quality w’ə̌t w’ə̌t inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna næ̌m ~dæ̌b inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
lung pulmón pulmão body hɔ wowǒw’ hɔ wowǒw’ unique See Language page Pattie Epps
meat/flesh carne carne fauna d'áp d'áp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
moon luna lua environment wædhɔ́ wædhɔ́ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔín ~ʔíd loan into proto-language, direction unknown Puinave, Kakua-Nukak See Language page Pattie Epps
mouth boca boca body nɔg'ǒd ~dɔ-g'ǒd inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
name nombre nome human hǎt hǎt inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body nuh totóy’ ~duh totój’ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
near/close cerca de perto quality máh-yɨʔ ~báh-jɨʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
neck cuello pescoço body kaʔtɨ́t kaʔtɨ́t unique See Language page Pattie Epps
new nuevo novo quality d’ǝw-, tuhúp [tɨh + hup, 3g + person] d’ǝw-, tuhúp [tɨh + hup, 3g + person] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
night noche noite time j'ǝ́b ɟ’ə́b inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
no/not no não grammar pã̌ [Neg exist] ~pǎ [Neg exist] unknown See Language page Pattie Epps
nose nariz nariz body tǒj tǒɟ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
old viejo velho quality tɨh-wǝhə́d (man), tɨh-wá (woman), bɨ̌g (inanimate), tɨh-wǝhə́d (man), tɨh-wá (woman), bɨ̌g (inanimate), inheritance; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
one uno um number ʔayǔp ʔajǔp unique See Language page Pattie Epps
open/uncover abrir abrir other poʔ- poʔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
other otro outro grammar j’ã́p ~ɟ’áp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body peʔ- (v.) peʔ- (v.) unique See Language page Pattie Epps
person/human being persona pessoa human húp húp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact j’ɔŋ- ~ɟ’ɔg- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
rain lluvia chuva environment d'oj- (v.) d'oɟ- (v.) inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
red rojo vermelho colour inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pɨb cáʔah ('strong/quick side') pɨb cáʔah ('strong/quick side') unique See Language page Pattie Epps
road/path camino caminho manufacture tǐw tǐw inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
root raíz raiz flora tǐh tǐh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
rotten podrido podre quality d'ɔh- (v.) d'ɔh- (v.) inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sand arena areia environment wæg yɔ̌h wæg jɔ̌h unique See Language page Pattie Epps
say decir dizer mental nɔ- ~dɔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
scratch rascar rasgar impact kokoj-, hæp- kokoɟ-, hæp- unknown; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
see ver ver mental key- kej- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality j’ɨ́g ɟ’ɨ́g unique See Language page Pattie Epps
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact cɔw- (w/blowgun), teghɔ̃- (w/ gun), g’ig- (w/ arrow), b'u cɔw- (w/blowgun), teg-hɔ- (w/ gun), g’ig- (w/ arrow), b'u- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
short corto curto quality wǝt-nɨ́h (tall-neg) wǝt-~dɨ́h (tall-neg) unique See Language page Pattie Epps
shoulder hombro ombro body cǎc cǎc unique See Language page Pattie Epps
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hutbi- hutbi- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sit sentar(se) sentar state pæm- pæb- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
skin piel pele body b’ɔ́k b’ɔ́k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sky cielo céu environment pǎç pǎç semantic shift See Language page Pattie Epps
sleep dormir dormir body ʔɔ̃h ~ʔɔh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
small pequeño pequeno quality cĩ́pm'æh ~cípb'æh unique See Language page Pattie Epps
smoke humo fumaça environment j'ɨk ɟ'ɨ́k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body cĩh-wɨʔ- ~cih-wɨʔ- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
spit escupir cuspir body j’ɔç- ɟ’ɔç- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact b’ah-, pob b’ah-, pob inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact koʔwow’- koʔwow’- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact yok-, cĩy' jok-, ~cij' inheritance; unknown See Language page Pattie Epps
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state g’et- g’et- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
star estrella estrela environment wædhɔm'æ̌h [mæh 'small'] wædhɔ-~b'æ̌h inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
steal robar roubar other j’ek- ɟ’ek- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora těg těg inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
stone piedra pedra environment pǎç pǎç inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
suck chupar chupar body ʔaj’-, ʔun' ʔaj’-, ~ʔud' unknown; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sweat sudar suor, suar body kub'ǎh-deh way- kub'ǎh-deh waj- inheritance? See Language page Pattie Epps
swell hincharse inchar body puhu- puhu- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
swim nadar nadar motion j'ɔm-ham- ['bathe-go'] ɟ'ɔm-~hab- ['bathe-go'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
tail cola, rabo rabo body d'ǔb d'ǔb inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
that ese/esa esse grammar n'íp, yúp ~d'íp, júp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality g’ə́ʔ g’ə́ʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
thin delgado fino quality cə̌pmæh cə̌p-~bæh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
think pensar pensar mental hipãh- ~hipah- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
this este/esta este grammar nu-, n'i- ~du-, ~d'ɨ- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
2sg xx xx grammar ʔám ~ʔab inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
three tres tres number mɔtaʔǎp, mɔtwɨgʔap ['rubber-tree-seed-quantity'] mɔtaʔǎp, mɔtwɨgʔap ['rubber-tree-seed-quantity'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
throat garganta garganta body ʔɔ̃́g’ ~ʔɔ́g’ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact b’uy- b’uj- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
thunder truenos trovão environment pǽ̃y ~pǽj inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact j'ɨ̃p- ~ɟ'ɨp- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
tongue lengua lingua body nɔg'æ̌d ~dɔ-g'æ̌d inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
tooth diente dente body tǝ́g tǝ́g inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other d’oʔkǝd-, hupkǝd- d’oʔkǝd-, hupkǝd- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
two dos dois number koʔap, kəwǝgʔap ['eye-quantity'] koʔap, kəwǝgʔap ['eye-quantity'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
vomit vomitar vomitar body hɔn- ~hɔd- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
walk caminar, andar andar motion g'et-ham-, ham-g'oʔ- g'et-~hab-, ~hab-g'oʔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
water agua agua environment děh děh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
wet mojado molhado quality pu- pu- loan Tukano puu- See Language page Pattie Epps
what? que, qué que grammar hɨ̃n'ɨ̌h ~hɨd'ɨ̌h inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
when? cuando quando grammar hɨ̃-m'ǽ ~hɨ-~b'ǽ unique See Language page Pattie Epps
where? donde onde grammar hɨ̃-cóʔ, hɨ̃t ~hɨ-cóʔ, ~hɨt inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
white blanco branco colour tohó tohó inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
who? quien, quién quem grammar ʔǔy ʔǔj inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
wife esposa esposa kinship tæ̃h-ʔín ~tæh-~ʔíd unique See Language page Pattie Epps
wind viento vento environment bohót bohót inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
wing ala asa body inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
woman/female mujer mulher human tãʔã́y [1st syllable comes from 3sg pn tɨh] ~taʔáj inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
work trabajar trabalhar other bɨʔ- bɨʔ- unique shared Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
yawn bostezar bocejar body nɔg’a- ~dɔ-g’a- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
yellow amarillo amarelo colour pohó pohó unique See Language page Pattie Epps
bad mal mal quality páy páj unique See Language page Pattie Epps
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tɨ́h tɨ́h inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
1sg yo eu grammar ʔã́h ~ʔáh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
leg/foot pierna perna body tɔk [thigh], j'ɨ [calf] tɔk [thigh], ɟ'ɨ [calf] unique See Language page Pattie Epps
man/male hombre homem human tiyǐʔ [1st syllable comes from 3sg pn tɨh] tijǐʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar hɨ́d hɨ́d inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hipãh- ~hipah- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ʔɨ́n ~ʔɨ́d inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Pattie Epps
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nɨ́ŋ ~dɨ́g inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
bark corteza casca environment b'ɔk b'ɔk inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
fingernail uña unha body cob b'ɔk ['finger skin/bark'] cob b'ɔk ['finger skin/bark'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
heart corazón coração body hãwɨg [wɨg 'seed'] ~hã-wɨg [wɨg 'seed'] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
sun sol sol time wædhɔ́ wædhɔ́ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment pǎç [=stone] pǎç [=stone] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
green verde verde quality pɔ̃pɔ̃h ~pɔpɔ́h unknown See Language page Pattie Epps
hot caliente quente quality g'ɨ́ g'ɨ́ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hǝ́w hǝ́w inheritance underived See Language page 1 decorative paint 0 0 cultivated seeds mashed and used for paint 0 1 attained through exchange with Tukanoans secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Pattie Epps
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. mǐn mǐn doubtful loan into protolanguage Tukanoan mene underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women, children eaten raw 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Pattie Epps
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mæ̌t mæ̌t inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hǎt hǎt inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted mostly men roasted, boiled, smoked 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Pattie Epps
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis tǎy tǎj unique underived See Language page 1 but high mythological significance 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Pattie Epps
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wáh-wǝg, bǐʔ wáh-wǝg, bǐʔ unknown; loan Tukanoan underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes deh-hũt-cǝ́g deh-hũt-cǝ́g calque East Tukanoan 'water tobacco piece' compound water-tobacco-piece See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Pattie Epps
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora mɨ́ʔ mɨ́ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered men, children 0 0 no Pattie Epps
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae [no generic] [no generic] missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨ̌g bɨ̌g doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw Tukanoan doubtful loan, e.g. Tukano bɨko underived See Language page 0 1 0 ? 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Pattie Epps
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri yěw jěw inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 yes 0 hunted men, women, children dug out of burrow, roasted in coals of fire 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Pattie Epps
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum mǔh-teg mǔh-teg unique 'arrow-stick' compound arrow-stick See Language page 0 0 0 cultivated / gathered men? 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Pattie Epps
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana yũhúm jũhúm inheritance East Tukanoan underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women, men? eaten raw 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Pattie Epps
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pɨhɨ́t pɨhɨ́t semantic shift? prob a markedness shift from 'sororoca' (wʉt in Dâw); cf. Hup-Tukano calques 'forest banana' (sororoca) doubtful, from wild heliconia sp. underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women eaten raw, made into mash and drunk 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Pattie Epps
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. cɨb'ɨ́h cɨb'ɨ́h inheritance other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. peyã̇w pejã̇w loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 1 imported by whites only 0 0 0 no plant Pattie Epps
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis næ̃ŋ ʔã́w næ̃ŋ ʔã́w inheritance compound honey-insect See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna hũtæ̃́h [Martins: wět] hũtæ̃́h [Martins: wět] unique animal-small' compound animal-small See Language page 0 0 many species, esp. by children 0 hunted men, children shot with arrows or darts 0 0 no Pattie Epps
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala cǽ cǽ unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered bark peeled and used for tumplines 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Pattie Epps
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba ciwǐb ciwǐb inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 fruit 0 gathered women, men fruit boiled 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Pattie Epps
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae doubtful loan cf. Pume po, TG jiboja underived unusual tone pattern - rising tone not usually found in V-final words See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) b'ɔ̌ʔ b'ɔ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 cultivated women dried, cut in half to make dippers 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans indigenous gardens no plant; tree Pattie Epps
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tɨ́w tɨ́w unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered men, women eaten raw 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Pattie Epps
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha ʔóh ʔóh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wǐw wǐw inheritance underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Pattie Epps
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera b'eb'ěp b'eb'ěp inheritance Hup-Yuhup reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris deh-tǎh deh-tǎh calque East Tukanoan water-tapir' compound water-tapir See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum yãhám jãhám unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered men, women 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum jãhám jãhám unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered men, women 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda cǎy cǎj inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea cǽy' cǽɟ' doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW onomatopoeic underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. yúb júb inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered men, women pulled from trees, peeled; bundled for sale to Brazilian traders, used to make baskets and for tying 0 0 currently with Brazilians secondary forest, floodplain no vine Pattie Epps
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pũʔṹk pũʔṹk unique contains ʔuk 'convey powder to mouth'? compound cf. verb ʔuk- 'scoop up powdered substance' See Language page 1 0 ingested by placing in mouth, but not swallowed 0 cultivated 1 powdered and mixed with toasted embauba leaves; placed in mouth; used by men and old women only 1 attained through exchange with Tukanoans secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Pattie Epps
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria dadáp dadáp doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown Kakua? Jivaroan? cf. Arawak *taparutu reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tɔ̃hód' tɔ̃hód' unique peccary + ?' compound peccary-? See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) cuwúk cuwúk semantic shift kapok underived See Language page 0 0 0 cultivated? 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Pattie Epps
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura cɔhɔ́ cɔhɔ́ unique other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae unique East Tukanoan see Tanimuca dyĩ'bĩã underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. cɨ́b cɨ́b unique underived See Language page 0 1 prized game bird 0 hunted men shot with arrows or darts 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans Amazonia no Pattie Epps
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus mɔhɔ̃̌y mɔhɔ̃̌j inheritance Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yãʔamhóʔ jãʔamhóʔ semantic shift Hup-Yuhup-Daw from jaguar + ? jaguar' + ? compound jaguar-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 dogs are prized for hunting Not native; widespread no Pattie Epps
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis yãʔám wãwã̌t jãʔám wãwã̌t unique jaguar pace.about' compound jaguar RED-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wɔhwǽw wɔhwǽw inheritance onomatopoeic underived onomatopoeic See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family deh pǔp deh pǔp unique possible calque from Tukano? 'water + ?' compound water ? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. j'ak-tɔ̃̌h j'ak-tɔ̃̌h inheritance compound buriti.palm-larva See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women, also men? trunks felled and left; grubs gathered later 0 0 no Pattie Epps
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus cub'út cub'út inheritance other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Pattie Epps
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hɔ̃̌p hɔ̃̌p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 most species 0 fished men, children, sometimes women (when fish poison is used) boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas pidadacú pidadacú loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 1 but not normally available as food source 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. d'ǔç d'ǔç inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered, cultivated? men lengths are beaten into water to release poison; stuns fish 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Pattie Epps
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera n'án-kɔ́b n'án-kɔ́b inheritance compound flea-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera j'ɨj'ɨ̌b', hǒh, wowǒw ɟ'ɨɟ'ɨ̌b', hǒh, wowǒw unique reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana d'ǎd, pú ʔág ('wetness fruit'), bobo ʔág (Um Norte, 'bird sp. fruit') d'ǎd, pú ʔág ('wetness fruit'), bobo ʔág (Um Norte, 'bird sp. fruit') doubtful loan North Arawak e.g. Baniwa dáana underived See Language page 1 decorative paint 0 0 gathered 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Pattie Epps
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis yɔ́k jɔ́k inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) cǐh cǐh unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans mæmǽç mæmǽç inheritance reduplicated See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Pattie Epps
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba bohów' bohów' unique underived See Language page 0 1 not regularly, but may be at least by children 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Pattie Epps
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti g'áj g'áɟ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. yěç jěç inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans Different types have different localized ranges no Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kapíʔ kapíʔ loan - WW %kaapi, East Tukanoan Wanderwort; found widely in No. Arawak, Sikuani, Kskus, E. Tuk WW %kapi underived See Language page 1 ingested (traditionally); associated dance/songs 0 ingested but not a food source 0 gathered men 1 ritual use, now rarely used; traditionally taken by older men, associated with dance/song cycle; songs with unintelligible words, possibly Arawak origin 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Pattie Epps
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wǐh wǐh inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawáyu [Pt loan] kawáju [Pt loan] loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɔ́w kɔ́w inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 fruit - cultivated 0 cultivated women used to season most food 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Pattie Epps
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] tǔg tǔg inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae cúg cúg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Pattie Epps
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. cǝw'ǝ́b cǝw'ǝ́b unique other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 1 0 hunted mostly men roasted, boiled, smoked 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Pattie Epps
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yãʔám jãʔám inheritance underived See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Pattie Epps
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura yawák jawák inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered men, women boiled and mashed for cassava dip, buried to store 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) no large tree Pattie Epps
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra cuwúk cuwúk inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 cultivated, gathered? 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Pattie Epps
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. g'ædʔǽg g'ædʔǽg unique Hup-Yuhup compound ?-fruit See Language page 2 1 fruit 0 gathered women, men mashed and drunk 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Pattie Epps
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. j'ã ̌h ɟ'ã ̌h doubtful loan into protolanguage East Tukanoan compare e.g. Candoshi tʃámó underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Pattie Epps
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae deh-cák deh-cák unique water-climb' compound water-climb? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. hǔd hǔd inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 delicacy 0 gathered men, women, children big drones gathered seasonally when leaving nests; heads broken off and eaten live or toasted 0 0 no Pattie Epps
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae huhǔy, kedo huhǔj, kedo doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW; loan %kukuj;Tukano kero Tukano kero reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. yǎk jǎk unique underived See Language page 1 feathers for decoration 1 0 hunted men 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays pɨhɨt-yṹm pɨhɨt-jṹm semantic shift parallel E.Tukanoan, Bora maize-sow' compound banana-plant See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women very little raised; mostly used for beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Pattie Epps
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing not present in region missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. hudúk hudúk unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 fished mostly men boiled or smoked 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kayák kaják unknown perhaps loan East Tukanoan kii + native form? Tukanoan kii, Arawak ka- underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women processed to make flatbread, tapioca, meal 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Pattie Epps
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kayak wæ̌d ('manioc eat') kajak-wæ̌d unique Hup-Yuhup manioc-eat' compound manioc-eat See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Pattie Epps
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa j'ǎk ɟ'ǎk inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 fruit 0 gathered women, men eaten raw, mashed and drunk 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Pattie Epps
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. g'í g'í inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera nunút nunút unique reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pǝ́b' pǝ́b' inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Pattie Epps
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yɔk-kúç jɔk-kúç inheritance otter + ?' compound otter-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae caʔmáy caʔmáj unique other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes cǔk, pǝpǝp cǔk, pǝpǝp unique; doubtful loan - WW %pupu underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Pattie Epps
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) hũyæ̃́w hũjæ̃́w unique animal good' compound animal-good [tasty] See Language page 0 1 valued food animal 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. húhuʔ húhuʔ doubtful loan East Tukanoan e.g. Makuna uxuga reduplicated See Language page 0 1 0 fished mostly men boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana tɔ̌p-g'æt tɔ̌p-g'æt unique 'house-leaf' compound house[archaic]-leaf See Language page 0 0 0 gathered men grows in particular places, may require a long trek 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Pattie Epps
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica j'ɔ́y' ɟ'ɔ́j' inheritance underived See Language page 1 feathers for decoration 0 0 hunted men 0 1 Widespread no Pattie Epps
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea pǔp [loan Arawak?] pǔp doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw North Arawak e.g. Baniwa poópa underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered men wood used for building, etc. 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Pattie Epps
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes j'ɨ́w ɟ'ɨ́w inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 fruit - cultivated 0 cultivated, gathered women, men fruit boiled 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) no Pattie Epps
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea y'æʔ-tutúʔ j'æʔ-tutúʔ unique Hup-Yuhup (no further data) compound feces-RED.submerge See Language page 0 1 seed - cultivated 0 cultivated women 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus caná, yɔ̌y caná, jɔ̌j loan East Tukanoan senã (jɔj inheritance?) underived See Language page 0 1 fruit - cultivated 0 cultivated women eaten raw, mashed and drunk 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ʔɨ́t ʔɨ́t unique underived See Language page 0 1 valued food source 0 fished mostly men boiled or smoked 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Pattie Epps
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae pǔg pǔg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum píʔ, cɔ̃cɔ̃̌p píʔ, cɔ̃cɔ̃̌p unique e.g. Tukano jãpi, Cubeo japika underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Pattie Epps
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae pɔnǽn pɔnǽn unique other complex form suggests multimorphemic, but components not identifiable See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. pãhã́y, mɔ̌t pãhã́j, mɔ̌t unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 gathered 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Pattie Epps
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones cǝ́ʔ cǝ́ʔ semantic shift? from shrimp? underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Pattie Epps
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua wáh wáh inheritance unknown See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Pattie Epps
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. pán pán unique underived See Language page 0 1 sometimes 0 hunted men killed in treetops 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ʔɔ́w ʔɔ́w unique underived See Language page 0 1 mostly eaten by children 0 hunted esp. children roasted 0 0 no Pattie Epps
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda g'ɔ́̃j g'ɔ́̃ɟ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna [no generic] [no generic] missing missing See Language page 0 1 some kinds and some people only 0 hunted? 0 0 no Pattie Epps
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox tǝ̃hǝ̃́y, b'aw tǝ̃hǝ̃́j, b'aw inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Pattie Epps
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. hɔ̃pɔ̌y hɔ̃pɔ̌j unique from hɔ̃p pɔj 'fish ?' compound fish-? See Language page 0 1 0 fished mostly men boiled or smoked 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bɔyɔ́ʔ bɔjɔ́ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. b'ɔʔ-wæ̌d b'ɔʔ-wæ̌d semantic shift cuia/Crescentia-eat' eating gourd' compound gourd-eat See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled and eaten; little used 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wɔ̌m wɔ̌m inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. j'æ̌ʔ ɟ'æ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas píʔ píʔ doubtful loan East Tukanoan underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tǎh tǎh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera b'úʔ b'úʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw East Tukanoan e.g. Tukano butu underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women, men eaten raw 0 0 no Pattie Epps
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tahcěb tahcěb inheritance compound tapir-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. b'ǒy b'ǒj unique underived See Language page 0 1 valued food source 0 fished mostly men boiled or smoked 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae mɔ̌h mɔ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura hɔhɔ́h hɔhɔ́h doubtful loan West Tukanoan Siona/Secoya hoho reduplicated See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hũ̌t hũ̌t inheritance underived See Language page 1 smoked in ritual, curing, and everyday contexts 0 smoked 0 cultivated dried and smoked 0 1 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no plant Pattie Epps
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria mǐh mǐh inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 check 0 0 0 Widespread no Pattie Epps
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. cɔkw'ǝ́t cɔkw'ǝ́t inheritance compound ?-long See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tegd'ǔh, -teg tegd'ǔh, -teg inheritance unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella yawǎç jawǎç inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana pěd pěd inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui mɨ̌h mɨ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women, children eaten raw, mashed and drunk 0 0 in 'dabacuri' exhange rituals with other Hup groups (clans, villages, etc.) native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Pattie Epps
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wã̌ʔ wã̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Pattie Epps
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita yɔ̌ʔ jɔ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons hǽw hǽw inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus b'ɨ́j b'ɨ́ɟ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men boiled or smoked 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tɔ̃́h tɔ̃́h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 hunted men 0 0 meat in general was once traded extensively with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia pɨ̌ŋ, buhúh pɨ̌ŋ, buhúh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 gathered women, children eaten raw, mashed and drunk 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Pattie Epps
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae hǒb hǒb inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Pattie Epps
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kopǒy' kopǒj' unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans no Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola cæ̃hæ̃k 'paricá' cæ̃hæ̃k 'paricá' See Language page Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yaʔamhóʔ jãʔamhóʔ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna mɔhɔ̌y ~bɔhɔ̌j inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Pattie Epps
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mǔh mǔh unique Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Pattie Epps
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mɔm mɔm inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Pattie Epps
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool mɨʔ mɨʔ unknown May be related to 'under' Simplex can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Pattie Epps
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ticeda=b'ɔk (bowl=round thing) ticeda=b'ɔk (bowl=round thing) bowl loan Tukano? Port source Other complex loan 'bowl' + native class term 'vessel' See Language page Pattie Epps
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material máj aturá Inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material paʔ paʔ shallow, flat basket unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material g'ǎç g'ǎç doubtful loan - WW %kasiru Wapishana (Arawak) kʰaʃuru; Carib (e.g. Akawaio kazuru); Matses (Pano) kasɨɾɯ WW %kasuru Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
bed cama cama culture-material káma káma loan Portuguese Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kǝd kǝd unique Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool capb'ak capb'ak inheritance Proto-DYH No info May be etymologically complex, lexicalized;c.f. -b'ak 'clump, cluster' currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Pattie Epps
bottle botella garrafa acculturation tód' tód' Semantic shift Probably from 'hollow' Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
bow arco arco subsistence tool g'ǐg b'ah g'ǐg b'ah inheritance Proto-DYH Derived shoot.arrow= CL:split/flat.thing arco See Language page Pattie Epps
broom escoba vassoura culture-material hæp=bɔg hæp=bɔg unique from 'sweep' Derived sweep-clump See Language page Pattie Epps
canoe canoa canoa transport hɔh=těg hɔh=těg inheritance Proto-Nadahup Compare Puinave ha:ʔ Derived smoke-log See Language page Pattie Epps
cat gato gato acculturation picana picana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cadakaʔ cadakaʔ loan - WW %karaka, via Tukano Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology yɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh jɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh unique Derived power-MSC See Language page Pattie Epps
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Pattie Epps
coca narcotics pũʔṹk Unique Other complex Probably lexicalized compound, containing verb ʔuk- 'scoop up powdered substance' See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food cɨw- Inheritance Proto-HY Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology d'oh-ʔãy d'oh-ʔãj unique Other complex Lexicalized, probably from 'spell-FEM' malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Pattie Epps
dance (generic) culture-mythology yám- dance, since kapiwaya Inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool wah ʔǔt unique Compound patoá (tree sp.) spine hunting and warfare See Language page Pattie Epps
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology g'æg=tæ̃h g'æg=tæ̃h Bone-Son calque ET 'Bone-Son' Compound bone son In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology cɔ̃hni (verb) cɔ̃hni (verb) inheritance Proto-Nadahup Also in Nadeb Other complex cɔ̃h (also 'left hand [side]') + ni 'be' (verbalizer) See Language page Pattie Epps
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology m'æt=b'ɔk (cutia=skin) m'æt=b'ɔk (cutia=skin) drum, lit. 'cutia skin' unique Compound cutia skin See Language page Pattie Epps
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool heb' heb' inheritance Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Pattie Epps
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology yak pãt 'macaw feathers' jak pãt 'macaw feathers' unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology pɨn' pɨn' unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
fireplace hogar lareira other teg-hod (fire-hole) teg-hod (fire-hole) unique Compound wood hole See Language page Pattie Epps
firewood leña lenha other těg těg inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food b'ak, tǝd ('beat timbo') b'ak, tǝd ('beat timbo') unknown; inheritance Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hɔ̃p kǝk (fish pull) hɔ̃p kǝk (fish pull) inheritance Lit. means 'pull', but exists in Nadeb too; may derive originally from noun 'line' Compound fish-pull See Language page Pattie Epps
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool d'ǔç timbó Inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool hɔ̃p kǝk tɨt (fish pull line) hɔ̃p kǝk tɨt (fish pull line) unique kǝk is inherited form, but phrase appears to be unique to Hup Compound fish pull line See Language page Pattie Epps
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool wɨç wɨç unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food b'ǎʔ, pǎn' b'ǎʔ, pǎn' doubtful loan; inheritance Proto-DYH Tukano 'eat' Possibly a loan from Tukanoan 'eat' baʔa Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Pattie Epps
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kæ̌n, cíh kæ̌n, cíh doubtful loan; unknown North Arawak 'manioc' Simplex agriculture See Language page Pattie Epps
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pĩh=teg pĩh=teg inheritance Proto-HY Derived play.flute=CL:stick multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Pattie Epps
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Pattie Epps
genipap culture-mythology d'ǎd Doubtful loan North Arawak Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool b'ɔ̌ʔ b'ɔ̌ʔ inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨ̃p hɨ̃p inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Pattie Epps
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology hod (hole) hod (hole) unique Compound person hole See Language page Pattie Epps
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool wab wab inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool b'ɔk-káb b'ɔk-káb inheritance Proto-DYH Daw has cognate form for 'plate' Compound clay griddle? agriculture? See Language page Pattie Epps
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation teghɔ̃=teg teghɔ̃=teg calque from 'fire' Derived fire (wood-burn)=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material yág jág inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
hat sombero chapéu dress nuhuy-tuk (head-upside down) nuhuj-tuk (head-upside down) unique Other complex head-DYNAMIC upside.down See Language page Pattie Epps
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology cǝw cǝw inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Pattie Epps
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics huptok hɔ=těg (beer canoe) huptok hɔ=těg (beer canoe) unique Compound caxiri canoe See Language page Pattie Epps
honey miel mel food næŋ næŋ inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Pattie Epps
hunt cazar caçar food hũ mæh- hũ mæh- unique Phrase game kill See Language page Pattie Epps
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wan=tæ̃h (knife=small) wan=tæ̃h (knife=small) unique see 'machete' Phrase knife small See Language page Pattie Epps
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress bobob bobob Unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
machete machete facão culture-material wan wan inheritance Proto-DYH But see Tariana wánaɾi Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tok teg tok teg doubtful loan E. Tukanoan; cf. Tuyuka doka-ri-ga; onomatopoeic same as 'pestle' Derived pound=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
fence, palisade cerco cerca other hicǎd hicǎd inheritance Tukano? Other complex FACTITIVE-? may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Pattie Epps
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology heheh heheh unknown Reduplicated lexicalized; no base form known See Language page Pattie Epps
paper papel papel acculturation cug'æt cug'æt semantic shift leaf' From 'leaf' Other complex Lexicalized, prob. from 'forest-leaf' See Language page Pattie Epps
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tok teg tok teg unique same as 'mortar' Derived pound=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material padatu=b'ɔk padatu=b'ɔk loan Portuguese (via Tukano?) Port source Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
policeman polícia policía acculturation podiciya (policia) podicija (policia) loan Portuguese maybe via Tukano Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool b'ɔk b'ɔk inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology tǎy tǎj unknown East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool wɔ̃h wɔ̃h doubtful loan, direction unknown Kakua Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology yam jam Semantic shift From 'dance' Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
salt sal sal food b'ǒh b'ǒh unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
school escuela escola acculturation b'oy mɔy b'oj mɔj Unique Compound study house' See Language page Pattie Epps
shoes zapatos sapatos dress capatu (sapato) capatu (sapato) loan East Tukanoan Port source; Tariana sapatu; Yanomam sapato; Hup capatu Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material caya (saia) caja (saia) loan Port/Span saia Port > Nheengatu > others? Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja See Language page Pattie Epps
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sudada sudada loan - WW %surara Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Nheengatu, Yanomamo WW %surara Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology yamhidɔʔ jamhidɔʔ inheritance Phrase music FACTITIVE-tell/count? See Language page Pattie Epps
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cɔ̃h(teg) cɔ̃h(teg) pronged fish spear inheritance Proto-Nadahup Derived spear(v.)=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food nǔh nǔh inheritance Proto-Nadahup Used for any solid that precipitates out of a liquid Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Pattie Epps
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation mǔh=teg (arrow/sugar cane); acuka (sugar) mǔh=teg (arrow/sugar cane); acuka (sugar) unique Compound arrow=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food wɔ̌n' wɔ̌n' inheritance Proto-HY Simplex agriculture See Language page Pattie Epps
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material tɔ̌p-g'æt tɔ̌p-g'æt unique Compound house(archaic)=CL:leaf See Language page Pattie Epps
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food yɔ̃̌h jɔ̃̌h unique Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Pattie Epps
tobacco (native) narcotics hũ̌t Inheritance Proto-Nadahup But may ultimately be derived from 'blow', Hup pũhũt Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool mɔhɔ̌y mɔhɔ̌j Semantic shift East Tukanoan lit. 'deer' (loan translation: same semantic overlap as in Tukano) Simplex agriculture See Language page Pattie Epps
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool nám nám doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW? %namo Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Pattie Epps
wax cera cera other næ̌ŋ cak (beeswax) næ̌ŋ cak (beeswax) beeswax inheritance Compound bee climb? See Language page Pattie Epps
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool koyǒy kojǒj, cɨm' unique Probably derived from 'tie with vines'; also koyǒy Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Pattie Epps
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology dohó-d'ǝh ['transformers'?] dohó-d'ǝh ['transformers'?] unique doho literally means 'transform' Other complex d'ǝh is plural animate marker; 'transforming-ones' a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Pattie Epps
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material máj máɟ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Pattie Epps
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology kǝd=ʔĩh kǝd=ʔĩh Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Pattie Epps
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology yǔd jǔd inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology baktɨb', nɨm baktɨb', nɨm unknown See Language page Pattie Epps
paddle/oar remo remo transport hæ̃̀y'=b'ah hæ̃̀j'=b'ah unique See Language page Pattie Epps
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tɨ́t (cord, vine) tɨ́t (cord, vine) inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Pattie Epps
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Pattie Epps
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture húptok [person-belly] húptok [person-belly] unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Pattie Epps
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Pattie Epps
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Pattie Epps
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Pattie Epps
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Pattie Epps
house other mɔ̌y ~bɔ̌j inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes c, ɟ, ɟ' c, j, j' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no phonetic effect of vocalic laryngealization when preceded by a glottalized C Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no but preferred Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes 2 tone contrasts Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes limited to vowel-copying suffixes and diachronic processes affecting Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes imperative inflection involves tone change Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes d'əh Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes and'əh Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 near, far, intangible Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes other' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 3 Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes ǎn Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes 2 = 'eye-quantity'. 3 = 'rubber-tree-seed quantity'; (in Umari Norte dialect) 'without sibling' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes perfective, inchoative Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes nɨ̌h Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes tɨh 3rd person singular pronoun Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes bare verb stem with rising tone Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes bare verb stem + classifier Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes ni related to verb 'be' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes distant and recent past; optional Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes teg / te Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes various suffixes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes bare verb stem with high tone Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes alternative use of Perfective aspect marker Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes Vh same as Declarative suffix Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes usually involves verb 'know' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes ʔũh Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes jæ̃h Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual [this is better classified as aspect than mood] Modal expressing habituality yes bɨg Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes bare verb stem, tone appears to be lexically determined Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes ʔaj go do V and return' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes hɔ̃ / hɔ̃h Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes cud Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes mah Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes ni construction calqued from Tukano; ni probably related to 'be' verb Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes may be either; 'fluid' morphemes can appear in either inner suffix or enclitic position Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes nɨŋ do V in cooperation' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Dem no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Num-Noun yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Num no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: A (subject of a trans clause) or for nom-acc S (subject of intrans) 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: O (object of trans) or for erg-abs S (subj of intrans) 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes nɨh Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes nɨh Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes jóʔ (SEQ), mɨ̌ʔ (SIM) Epps 2008 Pattie Epps


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
1500 medium HG low mobile Interfluvial Clan exogamy