Question word is clause initial

Category
Word Order
Notes
'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 125 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Not always, it seems as though most question words fill sentence-initial "slots," but when core participants are the questioned elements, these remain in situ. Allin, 1976:346-352 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes No information of form of question word Aikhenvald, 1995: 45 Ana Paula Brandao
Warekena yes In content questions, in polar questions, the verb is sentence-initial. Aikhenvald, 1998: 261 Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes See examples on 273-275 Galindo, 2002: 273-275 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 34-35 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes All examples on page 79 have the question word/question phrase in initial position. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 79 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 234 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes The examples of content questions in the text in Mansen & Mansen (1979) have the question word clause-initially. Mansen & Mansen (1979). Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 503 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 537 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1982:20 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:51-52 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:184 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:348-72 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 391 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:203 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965:57 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:104 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 54 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 123 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:380 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 143 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes it can also remain in-situ Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no in-situ Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1985:112 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Question words can stay in situ Quesada 2008:87-88 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:44; Queixalós - 2000:387-400 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes also attach prefix (ba-) to verbs Buenaventura - 1993:46 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:365-70 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:93 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no Peeke 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1972:260-1 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 254 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:186 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Soto 1976:53-55 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Question word can appear both clause initial or non-clause initial Montes 2004b:153 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:814 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Based on examples Sanchez and Castro 1977:26 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p394 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.58 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984:109-110 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 131 Amanda Novak; notes by Chris Clack The interrogative pronouns used to form questions either begin the sentence or directly follow the topic.
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 144 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.61 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.57-58 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Question-word questions begin with an interrogative pronoun. Jones & Jones 1991, p.120 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:137 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 328-331 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 217 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez: 60 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 67 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:324 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:348 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:39 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:545 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra no ms7.4 done 0
Garrwa yes 76 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes L203 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 76-78, 106 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 164 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 27 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 47 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 55 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 77-78 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 91-3 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 56 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 55 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r26 done 1
Uradhi No 390 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 156-157 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 126 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 148 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 120 Done-Dan 1
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi yes 70 done 1
Martuthunira yes 107, 109, 237-238 done 1
Marrgany yes 338 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 232 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 140 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 404 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 103 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr yes 288-290 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 133-9 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 57 1
Dyirbal No 264-6 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu yes 63 done 1
Djinang No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 149 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 25-27 done 1
Bularnu yes 97 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 56 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 47; 49 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 126-7 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 128-9 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 83 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 104-105 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 48 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 35 done 1
Katthang yes 56 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima n/a 164 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 30-31 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 217-220 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 338 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 131 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 106 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 504 done 1
Bandjalang yes 134 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 101 done 1
Arrernte No 97 0
Kokatha No 66 0
Karajarri Yes 347 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 249 0
Ritharrngu Yes 57 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 36 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 874 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 40 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri yes 39 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 69 Y2 1
Narungga No 91 done 0
Tharrkari No 17 0
Wajarri No 86 0
Warungu yes 2 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:310 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps