Yukuna

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ycn
Location
-0.76°, -71.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Kondo, R. 1983. La classificación de mamiferos y reptiles por los indigenas Guahibo, Cuiba, Piapoco, y Yucuna. In L. Criswell (ed.), Articulos en Linguistica y Campos Afinas 12. Bogota: SIL. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Shauer, Stanley and Junia G. Shauer. 1972. Fonología del Yucuna. In Viola G. Waterhous (ed.) Sistemas fonológicas de idiomas colombianos 1, 65-76. Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno. Shauer, S. and J. Shauer. 1978. Una Gramática del Yucuna. In Shirly Fetter (ed.) Lingüística y Campos Afines, 5 Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno, ILV. Shauer, S. and J. Shauer. 2000. El Yucuna. In González de Pérez, María Stella and María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes, (eds.), Lenguas Indígenas de Colombia: Una Visión descriptiva. Santafé de Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Schauer, Junia, compiler, and others. 2005. Meke kemakánaka puráka7aloji: wapura7akó chu, eyá karíwana chu (Diccionario bilingüe: Yukuna - Español; Español - Yukuna). 1st ed. Bogotá: Editorial Fundación para el Desarollo de los Pueblos Marginados.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location cha, richaya tʃa, ritʃaja unknown doubtful loan, direction unknown; Kakua ʧāʔ, Yagua ntʃa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar piño piño inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
all todo todos other piyukeja pijukeha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ko'ojélaji koʔohélahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ja'awílaji haʔawílahi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pai'ilá, pari'ilá paiʔilá, pariʔilá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
back espalda costas body wajleji wahlehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
belly barriga barriga body julaji hulahi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kawakó kawakó unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
big grande grande quality ñópo'ojlo ɲópoʔohlo unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bite morder morder body ajma'akaje ahmaʔakahe unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
black negro preto colour kameni kameni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blood sangre sangue body íraji, jirá íɾahi, hiɾá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blow soplar soprar body apho'okaje apʰoʔokahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body chi'iji tʃiʔihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bone hueso osso body aphinámiji (de algo muerto) apʰinámihi (de algo muerto) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body chu'uchú tʃuʔutʃú doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breathe respirar respirar body re'iyayó ña'akana (inside# come out) reʔijajó ɲaʔakana (inside# come out) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kára'akaje káraʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ajma'akaje (=bite) ahmaʔakahe (=bite) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
child niño, niña criança human to'ojmá toʔohmá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
climb subir subir motion i'ijrakaje iʔihrakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment [juni] juwáka'ala [huni] huwákaʔala inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cold frío frio quality ipe'ení ipeʔení inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
come venir vir motion iphakaje, waícha ipʰakahe, waítʃa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact moto'okaje motoʔokahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality kewákaje kewákahe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
count contar contar mental lapa'atákaje lapaʔatákahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cry llorar chorar mental iyákaje ijákahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact mata'akaje mataʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
day día dia time we'echú, ka'alá weʔetʃú, kaʔalá unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state taka'akaje takaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dig cavar cavar impact ichakaje, jichakaje itʃakahe, hitʃakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality kapijani kapihani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tapú tapú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body i'irakaje iʔiɾakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dry seco seco quality makajreni makahɾeni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dust polvo poeira environment mu'upé muʔupé unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ear oreja orelha body i'ijwijí iʔihwihí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment te'erí teʔeɾí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eat comer comer body ajñakaje ahɲakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna ejweji ehwehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eye ojo olho body ijlují ihluhí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body i'ijñejí iʔihɲehí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fall caer cair motion ja'akajo haʔakaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
far lejos longe quality ya'ajná, juká jaʔahná, huká unique; loan, direction unknown Witoto hɯ́ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body jilaji hilahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship hara'apaji -haɾaʔ [pá] (hr01), haɾaʔapahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fear miedo medo mental kero'okajo keroʔokaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather pluma pena fauna chijneji tʃihnehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fire fuego fogo environment jiyá, kera'atani hijá, keɾaʔatani inheritance shared Kabiyari See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish xx xx fauna kúpe (dp91) kúpe (dp91) inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flower flor flor environment iwijí iwihí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fly volar voar motion ajrakaje ahɾakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
foot pie body ji'imaji hiʔimahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora íchaji ítʃahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
good bueno bom quality palani palani unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grow crecer crescer state tawá'akajo tawáʔakaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body wilaji, chijneji 'pelo de su corpo' wilahi, tʃihnehi 'pelo de su corpo' unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hand mano mão body yáte'elaji játeʔelahi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
head cabeza cabeça body wíla'aruji wílaʔaɾuhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hear oír ouvir mental jema'akaje hemaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality kachini katʃini inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hide esconder esconder motion riliyá rilijá unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ña'akaje ɲaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
how? como como grammar meke meke unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
if si se grammar ee ee unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location chiyá, chu tʃijá, tʃu unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body i'ijñepichiji iʔihɲepitʃihi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
kill matar matar impact nókaje nókahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lake lago lago environment kaeja, kaesa kaeha, kaesa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
laugh reír rir mental i'ichakaje iʔitʃakahe unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf hoja folha environment wíchu'upe wítʃuʔupe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body pajrú, pa'ajú pahrú, paʔahú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion to'okajo toʔokaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pichaní pitʃaní unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body i'imakaje iʔimakahe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
liver hígado figado body panaji panahi inheritance doubtful loan Arawak > several Witoto languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality waphérekuni wapʰérekuni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body maja'ajéreji mahaʔahérehi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna i'iji iʔihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moon luna lua environment keri keɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship aloji alohi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouth boca boca body numaji numahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
name nombre nome human iíji iíhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body i'iji, i'ímiji iʔihi, iʔímihi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality núrupiji núrupihi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neck cuello pescoço body núrupiji núrupihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
new nuevo novo quality wajé wahé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
night noche noite time lapí lapí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
no/not no não grammar unká unká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nose nariz nariz body takuji takuhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
old viejo velho quality jupichumi (algo), phíyu'uke (alguien) hupitʃumi (algo), pʰíjuʔuke (alguien) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
one uno um number pajluwa pa(hluwáha) (dp91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other me'etákeja meʔetákeha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
other otro outro grammar apú apú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kewini kewini inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human ina'uké ina'uké inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ñatakaje ɲatakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment juni (=water) huni (=water) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
red rojo vermelho colour kerani keɾani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ka'añá kaʔaɲá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture iñe'epú iɲeʔepú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
root raíz raiz flora ji'ilaji hiʔilahi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rotten podrido podre quality majani mahani inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sand arena areia environment ke'epé keʔ-pé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
say decir dizer mental mí- mí- inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact jarípa'akaje, sarípa'akaje harípaʔakahe, sarípaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
see ver ver mental amákaje amákahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality puwe'ení puweʔení unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact majáka'akaje mahákaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
short corto curto quality metajlani metahlani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body wakúla'apaji wakúlaʔapaji inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state yá'akajo, yá'akaje jáʔakaho, jáʔakahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skin piel pele body ímaji ímahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sky cielo céu environment je'echú heʔetʃú unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sleep dormir dormir body kamátakajo kamátakaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality kamu'ujini: kamu'ují kamuʔuhini: kamuʔuhí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ija iha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ama'akaje amaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spit escupir cuspir body athupákaje, awijákaje atʰupákahe, awihákahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ata'akaje, jata'akaje ataʔakahe, hataʔakahe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
star estrella estrela environment iwijrí iwihɾí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
steal robar roubar other ata'akaje ataʔakahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora a'awaná aʔawaná inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone piedra pedra environment jipa hipa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
suck chupar chupar body i'irakaje iʔirakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swell hincharse inchar body jenátakajo henátakaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swim nadar nadar motion i'iwapakaje iʔiwapakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body jipiji hipihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar marí maɾí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ñópo'ojlo ɲópoʔohlo unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thin delgado fino quality melanani melanani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
this este/esta este grammar kele kele unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2sg xx xx grammar piká piká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
three tres tres number weji kele wehi kele unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throat garganta garganta body rinúrupi aphú (cuello=?) rinúrupi apʰú (cuello=?) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kupakaje, ka'akaje kupakahe, kaʔakahe inheritance Bora See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment pichaní mejé (rayo=?) pitʃaní mehé (rajo=?) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact jepo'okaje hepoʔokahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tongue lengua lingua body lenaji lenahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tooth diente dente body aijí aihí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pilóro'okaje pilóroʔokahe doubtful loan, direction unknown Macaguan pirárre; see also Chocoan See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
two dos dois number iyamá ijamá (dp91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body chilákakaje tʃilákakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
water agua agua environment juni húni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wet mojado molhado quality ijani ihani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
what? que, qué que grammar na na inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
when? cuando quando grammar mékechami méketʃami unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
where? donde onde grammar méño'ojo méɲoʔoho unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white blanco branco colour kameni kameni unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar najlo nahlo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship yajáloji jahálohi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wind viento vento environment karená karená inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wing ala asa body yupheji jupʰehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human inanaru inanaɾu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other jápakaje, sápakaje hápakahe, sápakahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body a'apakaje aʔapakahe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour jewani hewá-ní loan (into protolg?), direction unknown E. Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bad mal mal quality chapú tʃapú unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar riká, ruká ɾiká (m), ɾuká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1sg yo eu grammar nuká nuká inheritance no/nu forms cognate in Arawak; but compare quechuan nuka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body tajneji tahnehi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
man/male hombre homem human achiñá atʃiɲá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar neká neká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental we'epíkaje weʔepíkahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar weká weká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar iká iká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bark corteza casca environment ímaji ímahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fingernail uña unha body ju'upaji huʔupahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heart corazón coração body wajweji wahwehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sun sol sol time kamú kamú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yenuri jenuɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green verde verde quality ipureni ipuɾeni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hot caliente quente quality ima'aní imaʔaní inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana phirí pʰiɾí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ña'akú, wíru (R01) ɲaʔakú; wíru (R01) unique; inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. pitʃi (dp91) pitʃi (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kajyú (big caiman), yujremi, lánawaru kahjú (big caiman), juhɾemi, lánawaɾu inheritance Also lánawaɾu; kahjú (big caiman) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis jamaná kerani (jamaná 'dolphin', kerani 'red' ), pirarihuara (R95) hamaná keɾani doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Central North Arawak Ramirez reconstructs; cf. other Arawak source loans for dolphin Also jamaná kerani (jamaná 'dolphin', kerani 'red'), pirarihuara (R95) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus jirí hiɾí (dp91) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes piyuté pijuté unique uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kahaʔajúna ('black ant type') kahaʔajúna ('black ant type') unique Also kuxwéna, karín-a, puhína uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) jaru, saru haɾu, saɾu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ye'é, pusarú/pujarú (Choloepus didactylus, rk83), capaáru (dasypus kappleri, R95), ye'ehuani (dasypus novemcinctus R95) jeʔé (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also pusarú/pujarú (Choloepus didactylus, rk83), capaáru (dasypus kappleri, R95), ye'ehuani (dasypus novemcinctus R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ijijila ihihila unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana piriyé piɾiyé inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paru (banana), paɾu wani (plantain+true, 'plantain') paru (banana), paɾu wani (plantain+true, 'plantain') loan Carib: probably Carijona before p > h Wanderwort, Carib, e.g. Carijona paru (esp. attested in names for bastard plantain); also Tanimuca pa'ru-a (Carib > Yucuna > Tanimuca?) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. pijirí pihiɾí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumaná kumaná loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %kumana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mápa, munumunú 'abeja de mel' mápa, munumunú 'abeja de mel' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also munumunú 'honey bee'; compare Sikuani bánamánü uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kupira'aphá kupiraʔapʰá inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala wéri (R01) wéri (R01) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba pupé (R01) pupé (R01) inheritance missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jewé hewé unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ipatuku (calabash type, maybe for coca?; forest tree), tuku (calabash type, tree), jipa (calabash type, tree), kuya (calabash type, bush), aka'aru (calabash tree, wild and planted; Crescentia?); juruma (H&R) ipatuku (calabash type, maybe for coca?; forest tree), tuku (calabash type, tree), hipa (calabash type, tree), kuja (calabash type, bush), aka'aru (calabash tree, wild and planted; Crescentia?); jurumá (H&R) doubtful loan Paez Paez tuka; but compare Paresi (South Arawak) maˈtoko. Also hipa, tuku uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] kajáphi, kula, lapakaku, wacharú, jaju, jujré kahápʰi, kula, lapakaku, watʃa'ɾu, hahu, huh'ɾe unique Also kula, lapakaku, watʃa'ɾu, hahu, huh'ɾe uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kaparú kapaɾú inheritance - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch %kaparu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mané mané inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kaijmeru kaihmeɾu unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris keju, kesu kehu, kesu inheritance North Arawak Likely loan Arawak into Yanomam, e.g. kaʃu a, katsu, Nukak kԑʧuʔ4 uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum jilu hilu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum (árbol silvestre y cultivado) akaʔaɾú doubtful loan Nheengatu? Nheengatu akaju; see also Baniwa WW %akaju uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda ja'akurú haʔakuɾú unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. yuriyú jurijú missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca ipatú ipaˈtu loan, direction unknown - WW %patu Attested at least Rio Negro North Arawak. Wanderwort: E. Tukanoan, e.g. Bará pátu, Nheengatu ipadu, Nadëb batoʔ, Carijona ihatu WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria yawichóro'oko jawitʃóɾoʔoko unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu apiyé apijé semantic shift Proto-Arawak (North and South) from White-lipped peccary Broader (peccary) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapiji; calapiji (R95) kapíθi (hr01), kapihi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) jaɾaya, saɾaya haɾaya, saɾaya inheritance Also pilumitʃi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura jipóro'oji, ipóro'oji hipóɾoʔohi, ipóɾoʔohi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pitú (R01), wawa'á, jara'ayú (there are more species) pitú (R01), wawaʔá, haɾaʔajú (there are more species) inheritance Also haɾaʔajú (and more species) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kuchí 'paujil', wepana 'paujil de rebalso'; piirú (H&R92) kutʃí 'paujil', wepana 'paujil de rebalso' inheritance Central North Arawak Also wepana 'paujil de rebalso'; piirú (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kawayá kawajá inheritance? *kiraʔana - Yukuna/Piapoco? May be inherited; appears to be a loan into Nadeb kawajad uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris walú, yahui (also jaguar; rk83); huerateyaniminami (R95) walú unknown/sem shift? - WW Also yahui (also means jaguar; rk83); huerateyaniminami (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis juhuala que (rk83) loan Tupi-Guarani See Nheengatu, yawara ka'apura uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae uku'ukuri 'paloma torcaz' (Columba subvinacea) ukuʔukuɾi 'paloma toɾcaz' (Columba subvinacea) inheritance? WW %motkuku Likely inheritance Piapoco-Yucuna uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kumalá kumalá inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. wawaru (large mojojoy); ñamana (más grande que el mamú, comestible), mumú (pequeña y comestible) mumú, ñamaná, wawaru unknown Also ñamana (más grande que el mamú, comestible), mumú (pequeña y comestible)Also ñamana (más grande que el mamú, comestible), mumú (pequeña y comestible)Also ñamana (más grande que el mamú, comestible), mumú (pequeña y comestible)Also ñamana (más grande uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kapi kapi unknown Yucuna-Kabiyari shared Kabiyari uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kúpe (dp91); híiɲa (H&R92) kúpe (dp91) inheritance Also kúpe (dp91) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kuna 'barbasco cultivado', kuna'apí 'barbasco silvestre', pupe'ejrí 'barbasco cultivado' kuna, kunaʔaˈpi, pupeʔehˈɾi inheritance North Arawak Also kuna'apí 'barbasco silvestre', pupe'ejrí 'barbasco cultivado' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kawa'ajné kawaʔahné inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera jamu'uná, jamo'oná hamuʔuná, hamoʔoná unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana lana 'genipapa, jagua', kala'muɾaʔapa(ɾu) 'maluco' lana 'genipapa, jagua', kalaʔmuɾaʔapa(ɾu) 'maluco' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also kala'muɾaʔapa(ɾu) 'maluco' uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis iñewi, jiñewi iɲewi, hiɲewi inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) jimichi himitʃi inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans mayá majá inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba juwa, kari'itú huwa, kari'itú unique but cf. Witoto huma uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti phichí pʰitʃí inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ma'aré maʔaɾé inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) WW%mare, Arawak origin Wanderwort? Likely loan into some Carib, Guahiban, Yanomami lgs uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kapi kapi doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch (?) %kaapi Wanderwort: E. Tukanoan, e.g. Bará ka'pí, Kakua kapi, Hup kapíʔ, Sikuani kapinae WW %kapi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kapana 'especie más grande', kalapichi perí kapana 'especie más gɾande', kalapitʃi peɾí doubtful loan Tukanoan: Macuna/Siriono gaparɨ, or Nheengatu karipira Also kalapitʃi peɾí Narrower: large hawk type uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawarú kawarú missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens a'ají aʔahí inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Arawak is thought to be source of Spanish ají uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] jímu'u 'Alouatta seniculus' hímuʔu loan Tukanoan Tukanoan, e.g. Cubeo ɛ̃mu; see also Piaroa imú uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pi'imí piʔimí inheritance Central North Arawak Compare Tukanoan (E&W) forms mimi, etc. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. mañao, matsihui [Guahiban loan?] (rk83) maɲao loan - WW %maɲaʔo, cf. Bora/Resigaro Shared with Resigaro; see Bora and Ocaina, e.g. máányaʔo, mááñaho; Wanderwort - also borrowed into Kakua? WW %mañaʔo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yawi jáwi (hr01) doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown North Arawak Tukanoan *jai, cf. Tupi-Guarani *jawar Compare similar Tukanoan forms, e.g. e.g. Cubeo ja'wí, javi. uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra pirumítʃi (R01) pirumítʃi (R01) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. malakala malakala inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ɲaʔkú ɲaʔkú inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae kari'iché kaɾiʔitʃé unknown Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kujwé kuhwé inheritance North Central Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kute 'lucienarga mediana', pujiyú, puyajnechí 'lucienarga pequeña' kute 'lucienarga mediana', puhijú, pujahnetʃí 'lucienarga pequeña' inheritance? - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Attested Yucuna and Piapoco. Also puhijú, pujahnetʃí 'lucienarga pequeña' Narrower (large lightning bug) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. la'arú laʔaɾú doubtful loan into protolg - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) %arara Wanderwort: see Cocama arara, Wanano daharo, Carib forms, Spanish ara, Portuguese arara WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kaxné (h) kaxné (H&R) inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. yuwarawá [loan Tupi-Guarani?] juwaɾawá loan Tupi-Guarani Tupi-Guarani, Nheengatu iwarawá, also Yagua jawara uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. bagre, capaz' jutʃi unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ka'achí (planta y palo), kajiru (tubérculo) kaʔaˈtʃi, kahiɾu semantic shift? Proto-Arawak (North and South) prob. related to other tuber terms Manioc plant: ka'achí uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta parí paɾí unknown cf. other Arawak terms relating to manioc, flatbread uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa itewí itewí inheritance? - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. janijú, anigú hanihú, anigú inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pa'ajrú paʔahɾú doubtful loan, direction unknown Secoya Secoya puʔhu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis apatujmé apatuhmé doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib: Pemon/Akawaio aparuuwa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ichirí (rk83); majechí (R95) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Also majechí (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pupú; papapiwá (H&R92) pupú inheritance - WW? onomatopoeic Central North Arawak %pupu; P-A *punpuli (Payne91) See similar forms in Tukanoan, Yagua, etc.; probably onomatopoeic. Also papapiwá (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kuwajari kuwahaɾi unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. aneri, janeri aneɾi, haneɾi inheritance Yucuna-Kabiyari uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana karu kaɾu inheritance Attested Yucuna, Resigaro uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica pakoró pakoɾó inheritance? - WW %kuli, loan into Tanimuca Tanimuca pakoro-ka uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea pupa pupa inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pipirí pipiˈɾi doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Central North Arawak %pipiri uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mawiru mawiɾu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae maí; hipuʔuhmá (H&R92) maí; hipuʔuhmá (H&R92) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also hipuʔuhmá (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae wapuchi waputʃi unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae jumane'ené humaneʔené unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. jechi hetʃi unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ipijí, ipijrí, ipisí ipihí, ipihɾí, ipisí inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua punama; masiri punama; masiri missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. mulu mulu unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata lupu, parayú lupu, paɾajú inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also paɾajú uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda waroro waɾoɾo inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Loan INTO Yanomami uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jeina, jeí (rk83); heíŋ (H&R92) heina unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox janaʔatú (H&R92) janaʔatú (H&R) unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kuríri (R01) kuríri (R01) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kati kati, hẽí-ta, umit∫íri (H&R) unique Also hẽí-ta, umit∫íri (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. yurumá jurumá loan Tupi-Guarani missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae ijyé, melé ihjé, melé inheritance; loan Carib, Carijona? Also melé uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. nukumi, jiña iwaká nukumi, hiɲa iwaká unique Also hiɲa iwaká uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ujrí uhrí; kuwajú, paihí (H&R) unknown Also paihí (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris jema; he'echú (R95) héma (hr01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also he'echú (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamara 'comején blanco', karí, yamuchi kamaɾa 'comején blanco', kaɾí, jamutʃi inheritance North Arawak Also kaɾí, jamutʃi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kúpá-rhu (R01), hemakupaju 'garrapata grande', pujuta 'g. mediana', mu'utuyú 'g. muy pequena' kúpá-rhu (R01), hemakupahu 'garrapata grande' (hema 'tapir', kupahu '?'), puhuta 'g. mediana', muʔutujú 'g. muy pequena' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also puhuta 'medium-sized tick', muʔutujú 'very small tick' Narrower (large tick) uncoded hema 'tapir', kupahu '?') See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae yariwapu jaɾiwapu (Crypturellus erythropus) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kururú; makaxmé (H&R92) kuɾuɾú loan Yucuna-Kabiyari TG kururu Also makaxmé (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum lichi litʃi doubtful loan cf. Resigaro Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ipú (dp91), iyari, jiyari 'tortuga terrestre'; háara (H&R92) ipú (dp91), ijaɾi, hijaɾi 'toɾtuga teɾɾestɾe' inheritance Also ipú (dp91), háara (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. yaje, yase jahe, jase inheritance loan into Tukanoan? Similar forms in East and West Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano dase uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna a'awaná aʔawaná inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella põʔí (hr01), waʔakú; calapichi (R95) põʔí (hr01), waʔakú inheritance Also waʔakú; calapichi (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui jirí hiˈɾi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae waajú waajú (H&R) inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita jai hai inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons kalapichi; poí (R95) kalapitʃi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Or? poí (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus kuwatá, parahuacú (rk93) kuwatá loan - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch (?) %kuwata Wanderwort: probable loan into Cubeo, Tanimuca, Makuna; and (from Cubeo?) into Kakua "koatá", and (from Arawak?) into Waimiri Atroari "kwata"; Yagua, others. Also parahuacú (rk93) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari je'erú eja'awá e'iyajé (je'erú 'pig', eja'awá 'forest', e'iya 'in') heʔeɾú ehaʔawá eʔijahé, apijé wanakújari (H&R) unique Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also je'erú eja'awá e'iyajé (je'erú 'pig', eja'awá 'forest', e'iya 'in') Broader (peccary) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia kajmú kahˈmu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae mera'aní, mera'amí, θu waʔphá, kuwajé mera'aní, mera'amí, θu waʔphá, kuwajé unique cf. 'kuwaje' form, compare Baniwa, Makiritare uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ña'akú ɲaʔakú doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib Carijona naha’kɯ ‘yam’ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna walú walú inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kawayá kawajá doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ijijila ihihila unique Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jipa jiñekaná (jipa 'stone', jiñekaná '?') hipa hiɲekaná 'para prender fuego' inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Alternate: peɾu (axe) Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yenaji jenahi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tujláka'aruna tuhlákaʔaɾuna unique Derived Looks like tuhlá is a common element to a number of words to do with food processing, but unclear what the exact meaning is. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kuwáʔala large basket, to carry yuca Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ijnejí ihnehí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material jeta'apá, eta'apá heta'apá, eta'apá inheritance Also eta'apá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool wapa'aná wapaʔaná inheritance Proto North Arawak currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wíluru wíluɾu unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool wira'apara wiɾaʔapaɾa loan TG *ɨβɨrapa Compare also Carib, e,g, Akawaio uuraba arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material chiyo'opá t͡ʃijoʔopá inheritance Proto Rio Negro cf. Tupi-Guarani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport jita hita inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cat gato gato acculturation michi mit͡ʃi loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kapére kapéɾe unknown Alternate: kapéɾeɾu (specifically female chicken) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wakára'ajeri wakáraʔahe-ri inheritance? shared Achagua Derived command' + masculine marker -ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool kujyuwa'ala kuhjuwaʔala unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
coca narcotics ipaˈtu Unknown Local Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food motoʔokahe Unknown Derived kahe 'type' - nominalizer? See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology kuwañá kuwaɲá unknown Simplex malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dance (generic) culture-mythology aɾápaʔakahe Inheritance Proto Rio Negro Derived kahe 'type' - nominalizer? See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kapichirí kapitʃiɾí unknown Simplex hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tupana, je'echú tupana, heʔetʃú loan; unique Nheengatu Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tapú tapú inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology kumu missing Bora Likely loan from Bora. Signal drum: Bora, Muinane, Resigaro, Yucuna, (Paez?); bench: ET: Macuna, Tukano, Tanimuca, Bará, Waimaja (also means 'benzador' in some of these lgs); canoe: ET: Bará, Carapana, Macuna, Yuruti, Siriano, Tanimuca, Waimaja (definitel WW %kumu Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool majma'ajoji mahmaʔahohi unique Derived mahmaʔa, “to fan” esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology pútenaji pútenahi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firewood leña lenha other siyá, jiyá sija, hijá inheritance Proto Central North Arawak from 'fire' Also: hijá Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ana'akaje anaʔakahe unique Derived anaʔa “fish” -kahe “verbalizer” (perhaps a deverbal “infinitive” form?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kuna Inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: kunaʔaˈpi (wild), pupeʔehˈɾi (cultivated) Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool cha'awí, wécha'aji tʃaʔawí, wétʃaʔahi unknown Alternate: wétʃaʔahi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pupuchí 'torta hecha del almidón de yuca) puputʃí 'torta hecha del almidón de yuca) flatbread made from manioc or umari (huacuri) fruit unknown Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food u'uwí uʔuwí loan - WW %uʔwi Immediate source other? WW %uʔwi Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology kewirí kewiɾí inheritance Proto North Arawak May be cognate Wapishana Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food eja'awa e'iyo-waje ehaʔawa eʔijo-wahe unique Alternate: kameheɾi Phrase May mean 'jungle-in-recently' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
genipap culture-mythology lana Inheritance Proto Arawak Alternate: kalamúɾaʔapa(ɾu)(maluco [adj?]) Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kuya; akáʔrú (R01); tuku kuja; akáʔrú (R01); tuku loan; inheritance; inheritance - WW? Nheengatu; %koto/matoko Nheengatu kuja (inherited Tupi) Baniwa kóoja, Yucuna kuja, Yagua kuju 'gourd', Tanimuca koʔa 'gourd' WW %kuja Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ta'ajónaji (de yuca) taʔahónahi (de yuca) unique Derived taʔa “to grate” -honahi nominalizer? esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology liri liɾi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kuwelá, yurá kuwelá, jurá unknown, direction unknown; loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool po'orí poʔoɾí inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation hijá hijá shotgun unique Local Similar term 'fire-stick' found in many of the regions languages Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material jamaká; hetá (R01) hamaká; hetá (R01) inheritance, inheritance Proto Arawak Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna. Taylor 1957 argues that origin is in Arawak 'sleep-NMLZ' WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress japewa hapewa loan Port chapeu Hup, Arawak (e.g. Yucuna hapewa); Pemon sapewa; Tukanoan E. (e.g. Desano sapea) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology mari'ichú maɾiʔitʃú shaman inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honey miel mel food munumunújalá munumunúhalá unique Derived munumunú = “honeybee” only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hunt cazar caçar food missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material irajú iɾahú unique Tanimuca Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wajmereji wehmeɾehi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex -hi masculine/neuter gender marker See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
machete machete facão culture-material jajalu hahalu unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tujláka'aruna tuhlákaʔaɾuna inheritance? cf. Ignaciano See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other kurára (R01) kurára (R01) loan Spanish/Portuguese may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology kewirí kewiɾí missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paper papel papel acculturation papera papeɾa loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material i'ichí patá (de arcilla), paratú iʔitʃí patá (de arcilla), paɾatú loan Spanish/Portuguese Nheengatu parátu (from POR); see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool i'ichí iʔitʃí doubtful loan Bora Derived iʔi “pot” -tʃí “non-possessed” See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology la'arí laʔaɾí unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool mã́i mã́i inheritance Probably from 'bee/wax' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
salt sal sal food yukira; (híwi=carurú) (R01) jukiɾa; (híwi=carurú) (R01) loan - WW; inheritance %jukira Alternate: hiwi (vegetable salt used in ceremonies). Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
school escuela escola acculturation jewíña'akajo ñakarelana hewíɲaʔakaho ɲakarelana unique Phrase hewíɲaʔakaho = “study” ɲakarelana “house with a special use” See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ji'ima'ulaji hiʔimaʔulahi doubtful calque Local See Bora, Resigaro Derived hiʔima = “foot” ʔulahi = “cover” See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material jaya haja loan Port/Span saia Port > Nheengatu > others? Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surara suɾaɾa loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ataníkaje ataníkahe unique Alternate: káwijala, lumaʔala, peʔiyoɾola, jáleji, meɾaʔaɲala, aʔahitakahe Derived atan appears to be root for “sing”, -kaje some kind of nominalizer? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool wejrukú wehɾukú inheritance? Also: kahilá (ritual lance, used in dances) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food itu'urú ituʔuɾú starch unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material jipa jiñakaná hipa hiɲekaná unique Phrase hipa “stone,” hiɲekaná”to set fire” See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kana kana missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food kuli'iyá kuliʔijá inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material karu kaɾu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food piyutena (lit. 'good-tool') pijutena (lit. 'good-tool') unique word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tobacco (native) narcotics litʃi Unknown Payne gives yamá Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool kawayá (= 'deer') kawajá (= 'deer') doubtful loan, semantic shift Kakua Both the Yucuna and Kakua terms also mean “deer” Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ja'apá haʔapá unknown Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wax cera cera other pi'ijulaji piʔihulahi beeswax unknown Alternate: riʔihwí taɾaná; taɾanahi (earwax) Simplex -hi masculine/neuter gender marker See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool jirú hiɾú unknown Proto North Arawak Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology waka'aperi wakaʔapeɾi 'flauta Yuɾupaɾí' Yurupari flute (flauta Yurupari) inheritance Proto Rio Negro Cognate Tariana? luwiluwí 'ceremonial trumpet' Derived possibly something relating to 'command' + flute? a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kuwá'ala kuwáʔala (grande para cargar yuca) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture kumu kumu loan - WW %kumu Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology a'arumakaji aʔaɾumakahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jiñá pechu hiɲá petʃu inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport we'echí weʔetʃí doubtful loan East Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture íñeji íɲehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology lana lana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kawí 'bebida fermentada' kawí 'bebida fermentada' loan Tupi-Guarani prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
house other ñakareji ɲakaɾehi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Shauer and Shauer, 1972 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p.12 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p.12 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p.12 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p.5-6 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 4 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Only /n/ and /h/ appear in coda position. CVC syllables are rare. It's not explicit, but there don't seem to be any examples word-finally. Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 4 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 4 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 1-14 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 10-11 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 8 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 12 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Shauer & Shauer, 1972, p. 10 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes The progressive category on nouns and reflexives on verb is manifested by changing the final vowel to /-o/, but most categories simply use suffixing. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Examples of partial and total reduplication. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 517 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Examples of partial and total reduplication. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 517 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no There are compounds, but these are rare. Shauer, 1978: 49 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes The remote past is expressed with the auxiliary verb iʔima'ka. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no No mention of incorporation processes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Subject noun class is marked with suffixes on the verb if the subject is an overt NP (otherwise, the subject is indicated with cross-referencing prefixes). Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 40 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 3 -ri (masculine), -yo (feminine), -ño (plural) -ri (masculine), -yo (feminine), -ño (plural) Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Numeral classifiers, perhaps also possessive classifiers? Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no All gender examples are with animates, adjectives don't agree with inanimate nouns. Shauer & Shauer 2000: 519, 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Gender only seems to be marked on animates, inanimates are neutral-marked. ?? Shauer & Shauer 2000: 519, 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Elements of noun phrases also are distinguished by gender, but no other pronouns do. Shauer & Shauer 2000: 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no All humans get one classifier, all animals get a different classifier, and other things are classified by shape. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Only possessive and numeral classifiers, no mention of repeaters. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -na -na Only on animate nouns. Shauer 1978: 43 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Shauer 1978: 43 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Shauer 1978: 43 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Shauer 1978: 43 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Marked only on animate nouns. Shauer, 1978: 40 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes There is a category of "determiner" but no discussion of it. Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer 1978: p. 29 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Articles/demonstratives not discussed among other word classes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Articles/demonstratives not discussed among other word classes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Not in subject prefixes. The pronouns in Arawak languages are built on subject prefixes. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42, Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system no info Demonstratives are not discussed among other part of speech. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Demonstratives are not discussed among other part of speech. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes They are formed using regular pronoun and common element. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 297 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes liyá liyá Recipients (referente 2) receive case marking? Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes No subset is mentioned, the examples include both case-marked animates and inanimates. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no No subset is mentioned, the examples include both case-marked animates and inanimates. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Postpositions Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no aú (instrumental), hua'até (comitative) aú (instrumental), hua'até (comitative) "Instrumental" and "Accompaniment" case markers. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes 20 Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50, Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50, Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 301 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no There seems to be a copula that gets the person marking (see clause 2 on page 528), but the examples under "attribute clauses" on p. 524 do not have person marking on the predicates. Shauer & Shauer 2000, p. 524, 528 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47, Shauer & Shauer, 200: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47, Shauer & Shauer, 200: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes -leʔe'ha -leʔe'ha This marker occurs on the possesser of alienably possessed nouns, in which case the possessive classifier (?) doesn't appear on the possessed noun. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes -te, -ne, -re and cross-referencing prefixes -te, -ne, -re and cross-referencing prefixes -te is the marker on animate possessed nouns (with some exceptions), -re and -ne are markers of inanimate possessed nouns, but -re is less frequent. Possessive prefixes also attach to the head. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no There are markers on the possessed noun that may be acting like classifiers? These occur on the head noun when it's possessed. -te marks animate nouns, and -ne and -re mark inanimates. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes -te, -ne, -re -te, -ne, -re These markers are found on alienably possessed nouns. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 300, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes -hi/-ji -hi Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, Shauer, 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, Shauer, 1978: 44 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Adjectives are marked with masculine (unmarked), feminine, or plural markers to agree with the noun they modify. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 302, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 44 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no There are three nominalizing markers. One seems to be an object nominalizer, (see line 97), suggesting that agentive and action/state nominalizers, if present, aren't productive. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no There are three nominalizing markers. One seems to be an object nominalizer, (see line 97), suggesting that agentive and action/state nominalizers, if present, aren't productive. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -tʃa/-tʃare =J223-cha/-chare+F223 Shauer (1978) notes that this is a nominalizer. He doesn't note its specific function, but it does create an obligatorily possessed noun. The example is "his heat." Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -a'a -a'a Applies to nouns, adjective, adverbs AND verbs. There are only a few verb nuclei that consist solely of a vebral root. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no There is a comitative case marker, but no mention of NP coordination in section on NP syntax. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes -tʃa/-tʃiya -cha/-chiya Shauer notes that other in the imperative mood, a verbal suffix marks immediate past tense. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38, 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes -tʃa/-tʃiya (immediate past), -que (distant past, in 1978 source?), iʔima'ka (remote past), iʔima'ka aʔa'-ka (more remote past) -cha/-chiya (immediate past), -que (distant past, in 1978 source?), iʔima'ka (remote past), iʔima'ka aʔa'-ka (more remote past) The distant past is infrequently used and mainly occurs with statives. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43, Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -he, -hi-ka -he, -hi-ka When the verb is preceded by some modifiers, -hi-ka is used, rather than -he Schuaer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Schuaer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Schuaer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Schuaer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Schuaer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no The imperative mood "covers up" the declarative. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 314, Shauer & Shauer, 1987: p. 38 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes -niya -niya This marker is intrinsically an imperative negative, although the declarative negative can also be used for this function. Fill in page number!!! Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523, Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Not mentioned overtly, but the first example in the second column on page 523 of Shauer & Shauer (2000) has "exhortative morpheme." However, the example is translated with a second-person subject, and carries a second-person subject prefix, although it's Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 523 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes There is a "subjunctive mood," with "possibility" listed as one of the functions. From the examples, it seems to be situational possibility/ability. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978; Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978; Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info There are "subjunctive markers," one of these functions is to indicate possibility, but it looks like situational, rather than epistemic possibility. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978; Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978; Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -no -no Shauer & Shauer 2000: 313, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Shauer identifies a "subjunctive" category used to express desire, intention, or possibility, but each of these subtypes have distinct morphological expression. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no No difference is drawn between word order in transitive and intransitive clauses. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes SVO Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence, Ana Paula Brandao
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518, Shauer 1978: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28, Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978 p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28, Shauer and Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28, Shauer and Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28, Shauer and Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28, Shauer and Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes The "appositive" (which the relative clauses are identified as) follows the noun. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 34-35 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects n/a No case marking on A/O Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked n/a No case marking on A/O Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative n/a No case marking on A/O. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes The verbal paradigm has the same subject prefixes for transitive, intransitive and stative verbs. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes There are "complete pronouns" in addition to verbal prefixes, but no examples or indication of their uses. However, no differences are noted in word order for sentences with NP subjects and pronominal subjects. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no There are "complete pronouns" in addition to verbal prefixes, but no examples or indication of their uses. However, no differences between NP subjects with full pronouns and NP subjects with nouns Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Feminine, masculine, and plural affixes on transitive verbs, but these seem to be coreferent with subjects, not objects. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Shauer & Shauer 2000: 297, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence, Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Shauer & Shauer 2000: 297, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence, Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Shauer & Shauer 2000: 297,299 Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 524, Shauer 1978: p. 42 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes dative -hlo dative -hlo Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 524 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 524 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 524 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes pa- -chaca pa- -chaca Shauer 2000: 308, Shauer 1978: Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes final vowel changes to -o final vowel changes to -o For reflexives as well as intransitivizing. Shauer 2000: 308, Shauer 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Shauer 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no No passivizing morphology in the Yucuna verbal template. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no No antipassive noted in the verbal template. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ta -ta Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521, Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer, 1978 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes unká uncá Proclitic form Shauer and Shauer 1978: p. 18, 36-37 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes calé calé Enclitic form Shauer and Shauer 1978: p. 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Proclitic and enclitic negation, sometimes both are used. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523, Shauer 1978: 39 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes unká uncá Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes In Shauer (1978), he notes pro- and enclitics that can occur together. In Shauer & Shauer (2000), he notes that negation is normally expressed with a negation word before the verb, as well as the negation suffix -la on the verb. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 523, Shauer 1978: 39 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 523, Shauer 1978: 39 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 523, Shauer 1978: 39 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes e-chi e-chi Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18, 38 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Adjectives don't seem to get any person/tense marking in predicative position. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Adjectives and nouns both seem to lack time and person marking when they appear in predicative positions. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, 524 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Examples show no copula. Shauer & Schaer, 2000: 520, 524 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no The "appositive" (which the relative clauses are identified as) follows the noun. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes "Agreement" with number and gender marked on the relativized verb. One example on page 526 (Shauer & Shauer, 2000) shows a relativized verb with a "feminine" marker. It looks like object marking, but it is "outside" of the relativizing marker. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 p. 526, 528 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes There are four relativizers that are attached to the verb, one for relativizing singular nouns, three for plural nouns. Shauer & Shauer, 1978, p. 23-24 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes -ka -ka -ka functions as a nominalizer and a subordinator for relative clauses (as well as complement and adverbial clausess). Shauer & Shauer, 2000, p 526 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -hla -hla Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no All of the examples of multiple clauses have person marking on all the verbs. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 21-23 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no No mention in discussion of dependent clauses. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 21-23 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes Simultaneous clauses are marked morphologically, while sequential clauses are identified by a missing subject. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 21 Aimee Lawrence


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
1000 medium AG medium sedentary Riverine approx 1200 persons within 60-mile radius (Fabre)