Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference

Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense
e.g. distant vs. recent past


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 107 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald 1995: 31 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 161-172 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes The distant past is infrequently used and mainly occurs with statives. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43, Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:167 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain (2000) note that there is a general/unmarked past/present tense, a remote past, and an immediate past (perfect?). Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes There is a distinction between recent past and remote past. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:1113, Payne 1983:12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:39 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes But this is distinguished by temporal adverbs Duff-Tripp 1997:118 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Palikur no no tense Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965:72-73 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Remote, recent. Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Recent past: completive: -i, incompletive: -anö; Distant past: completive: -ne, incompletive: -akene Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Past and proximate Abbott 1991: 116 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes It is distinguished recent past, medial past and distant past with three different morphmes Gildea 1989:8 Daniel Valle
Pemon no There is, however, a distinction between simple past tense and the preterito perfecto, which indictates that an action is either complete or precedes another action, according to my source (pg. 119). de Armellada 1999: 110 to 120 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:56-58 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes There are two past tenses: past tense which reffers to previous events in the same day and past tense which refferes to events further back in the past than the present day. Margery 1985:106-15 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Guaymi distinguishes between recet, remote and testimonial past Quesada 2008:100-8 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:334 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:71-4 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:38-9 Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses yes There are three different past-tense morphemes Fleck:397-9 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Marked by the combination of the non-present suffix plus other aspect suffixes Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Sánchez and Castro 1977:57 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes suffixes on pronoun; recent past: -ñé, more distant past: -pé, (present/general past (non-situated realis) or virtual/possible/permanent is null.) Landaburu 1979: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes past/recent past (respectively) Giron 2008: p277 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes All of these are suffixes Deza Galinda1992: 93 Shannon Dardis Whether or not the past event was experienced by the speaker is also indicated by the past morpheme
Kakua yes attached to the verb construction Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.23 Christopher Clack
Hup yes distant and recent past; optional Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes recent (-a) and remote (-ra) Miller 1999, p. 69 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack Desano distinguished between remote and recent past and has a three-way system of marking future tense.
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 38 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.49 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.62-73 Chris Clack
Barasano yes There are three basic past tenses for realis events: immediate & far past, and inferred. Jones & Jones 1991, p.85 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Immediate/Recent/Remote and General Past Strom 1992, p.73-74 Chris Clack
Siona yes Distant ("not relevant to present circumstances") and recent past. Wheeler - 1970:107 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes at least 2: recent (minutes ago to 3 days ago) and distant (more than 3 days ago) West and Welch 2004: 12-13, 50 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 295 Kelsey Neely
Ninam n/a Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:265-74 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:317-9 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:89 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes immediate, medial and remote pasts Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no 51-2 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no n40 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 84 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 126 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 115 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 43 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 33 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes r12-13 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no 198, 200, 203 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 202 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 91 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 158 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 56 done 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 done 0
Marrgany yes 317 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 353 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 92 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 407 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 291 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 74 1
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 70 done 0
Djinang Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 89-91 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung maybe 42 done 1
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 35-6 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 163-75 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no 49 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 79 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 97 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 73-74 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 43-4 done 0
Katthang no 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 169-170 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 325 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 108 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K85c 83, 87-8 done 1
Wakaya no info 209 done x
Yindjilindji no 510 done 0
Bandjalang yes 94 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 32 done 0
Arrernte No 169 0
Kokatha No 29 0
Karajarri Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri yes? m289 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari No 39 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 259-276 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes three different past tense markers Payne and Payne 1990:386 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps