Sikuani

Family
Guahiban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
guh
Location
5.82°, -68.98°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. de Kondo, Reina, 1985. El Guahibo Hablado. Asociación Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, Lomalinda, Colombia. Queixalós, Francisco. 1988. Diccionario sikuani-español Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes, Centro Colombiano de Estudios en Lenguas Aborígenes. Queixalós, Francisco. 2000. Syntaxe sikuani. Paris. Peeters (Langues et Sociétés d'Amérique traditionnelle n° 7).


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location atjübüyo (3) atjɨ́bɨyo unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar aurijibia (24), orijibia (3), matawüjüa (3), ikatsia (1) auríjibía, orijíbia, matawǘjüa, ikatsiá unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
all todo todos other daxita (2) daxíta inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
and y e grammar missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body taxuyabere (35) taxujáberé unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body koro (2), korona (13)(vello de las axilas) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ipumana (3) inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
at en, a em, a location ta ta inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
back espalda costas body juma (2), jumawi (13), húma (also has koϕé:ϕere which means 'shoulder blade') inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
belly barriga barriga body kotsoro (2) (stomach) pe-kóto-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location büxü (2) bɨ́xu unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
big grande grande quality boü (2) bóɨ, ajái-hawa (piníhi-hawa 'cosa grande, mucho' - 'large thing, much') doubtful loan Piaroa buo, buɣ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
bite morder morder body sí:ne inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
black negro preto colour tsá-bia inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
blood sangre sangue body jana (2) (Fresh blood), janaba (2) (to bleed) pe-hána, pi-hána inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
blow soplar soprar body uxúne, uxúba(pl) (bu:hú:-hai 'el viento sopla' - 'wind blows') unknown may be shared Sik-Cuiva-Playero See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
bone hueso osso body pe-sí:-to unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body mipa (2)(pecho), müpabü (3)(pecho) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body najumalinota (2) nahúmalinota unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment sá:-hawa, tahúa ('arder (la piel)' ('burn (skin)'); 'quemarse' ('burn'); tahúita 'quemar' (burn')) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
child niño, niña criança human tsikiri-híwi-jo: (pehéwa-xi: 'niños' - children) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment ɨta-rɨ́-rɨ-bo unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
cold frío frio quality a-ké: ('tener frío' - 'to be cold', kainéheba 'frío', tɨna 'enfriarse la comida' - 'food gets cold') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
come venir vir motion páta, pata-hó:pa inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact jawa (2) (to be cooked) hawa loan Arawak, cf. Yavitero hawa See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality xanía-hai (mean, 'decir la verdad' - 'tell the truth' inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental aîjai (21) aiháí inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ukúta, nikáta (ka-xiúta, etc. thá:ba 'despedazar' - 'cut into pieces') doubtful loan Carib, cf. Eñepa -ɨkɨtə- See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
day día dia time matakabi (3) (also means 'light,' 'time period,' and 'the duration of a lifetime' inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state tɨ́:pa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact kua (1) kua inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality a-xuíra inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental kamajita (2), kamajitsinae (13) (to intentionally dream) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body apa (2) ápa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dry seco seco quality tsé:wa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality awonobi (3) (verbo estar romo), momoka (2)(verbo estar romo) awónobi, ('sin filo' - 'not sharp' = a-bárɨ-bi) inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment bene (2), beno (2) béne, béne, tsɨxɨ ('en el aire' - in the air) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
ear oreja orelha body pe-muxu-joró-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ira (2) doubtful loan Arutani-Sape iñã See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
eat comer comer body xáne inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna pe-tobɨ́:-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
eye ojo olho body itaxu (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fall caer cair motion jopa (2), otjopa (2), küx (1) hó:pa, othópa (plural, bóka-hunua 'caerse' - 'fall down, suddenly be lying prone') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
far lejos longe quality tá:hɨ (tájɨ-nakua 'terra leja' - 'far country, area') inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body pe-nasí:tsi-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship axa (2) áxa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fear miedo medo mental esusu (2)(fright), kujunawa (3)(to fear something) esúsu , ku-húnawa (hunáwa 'sentir miedo' - 'be afraid') unique; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna mianaja (13) pe-kóro-ɸe-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment isoto (2) i-só-to, náwa unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fish xx xx fauna akairu, apürü, arali, arepi, atsebokojibiwi (fish without scales), baluwe, baxu (generic small fish), daütjüdaütjü, tsutsubo, tsutsupabo, tsalewaübo, dujai, dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also means game animal), jj (1), jaja(1) inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion nawó:ta unique shared Playero See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
flower flor flor environment matapaju (3) pe-matóno-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fly volar voar motion pú:na inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment nohó-bo inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
foot pie body pe-táxu inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora pe-kuái-to inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
good bueno bom quality xánepana inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
grow crecer crescer state juwa (2) huwá unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body matana (13), mataperibü(53)(cuero cabelluro), matayamiyamiwa (27)(to have curly hair), maxüna (13)(hair of arms) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hand mano mão body kabe / kobe (1), kaberürü (31) / kobebürü (32) (the conjuction of the fingers to the hand), kabejapa (23) / kobejapa (23) (palm) doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Arawak ka:pi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body mataboko (1)(head of a person), itapa (1)(face), mata (2)(lexical root for head), mataakata (25)(to cover head), matanae (1)(head of an animal), matatopi (2)(brain) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental húma-tane [?-see] inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality a-réwe inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion akaba (2), akata (2), matayaba (24), matayata (24) akába, akáta unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact amoneyaba (3), bia (1), mataba (2), matatafataraba (3)(hit on the head) amonéyaba, bía, bia, kónita (kuánita, tsakíta, táubabia, matababa 'para que entre, como una puntilla' - 'cause to go in, as a nail') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other xáina unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
how? como como grammar pa-kuénia (dé:tsa: pa-kuénia, int.) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
if si se grammar itsa (1) ítsa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tua-túahɨ-ta ('adentro' = 'within', 'inside') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body p-í:nɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
kill matar matar impact beya(2) béya unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
lake lago lago environment púka inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
laugh reír rir mental jüajüajai (21), kapona (2) (also means to smile or to laugh at something--make fun) unknown; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment pe-báxɨ-to unique shared Playero See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body pe-tsawéno- inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bobena (3), boboka (2), boka (2), bokataba (4) bóbena, bobóka, bóka, bókataba, bó:bena inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment já:maxɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body itawa (3), aitawa (3), jinawanapa (35), jinawonopa (3), jinonopa (3), panapana (2), ponapona (2) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
liver hígado figado body japa (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality apia (1)(verb to be long), apiayai (12)(verb to be very long), matatoxeneta (36)(to be longer) apía, apíayái, a-pía inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tarɨ-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body kafofowi (2) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pe-wí:-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
moon luna lua environment juameto (3) inheritance used for both 'sun' and 'moon' [compare Tukanoan] See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship é:na: inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
mouth boca boca body koibo (2), kuaibo (2), kuibo (2), koibowojo (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
name nombre nome human pe-wɨ́nɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality imoxoyo (2), imoxoyota (2) (to bring something closer or nearer), itamata (3), itjamatja (3), kaejewa (3) imoxó:-jo: (káe-hawa: 'cercano' - 'close by') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body koibosi (13) pe-wɨ:-sí:-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
new nuevo novo quality missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
night noche noite time merawia (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
no/not no não grammar jume (2) ápo-, hú:me: inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
nose nariz nariz body pe-púmu: inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
old viejo velho quality perúha-hawa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
one uno um number kae (1) (it contrasts "various" and not "zero"), kaebeje (some, ones) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other wüpata (2) wɨpáta inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
other otro outro grammar itsa (2) ítsa-hawa (inanimate, ítsa-nɨ: 'otro hombre' - other man) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body awitane (3) (verb to be sick) awítane unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human jiwi (2) (humnas, indigenous people) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tafuta (2) tafúta missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment éma inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour tsó:-bia inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pe-kúha inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture námu-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
root raíz raiz flora pe-tábu-topa: inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality tsabána(tuxu-tsáeba, 'oler a podrido' - 'to smell rotten') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sand arena areia environment tahéta-atsa inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
say decir dizer mental humáitsi, tsipáeba, -hái, al fin de la cita (at the end of a quote) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact iriba (2), irita (2), kasiba (2), katita (2) unknown; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
see ver ver mental táne inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality barü (2)(noun) bárɨ, xíu-hai, tséke-hai ('punta' - 'point') inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
short corto curto quality tojáe-ka inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body kopiaitamata (3)(extremo del hombro) pe-kóϕia unique shared Playero See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental aura (2)(to have shyness/shame) áura unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state eeka (2)(estar sentado), eka (2) (estar sentado), ena (2) (estar sentado), eta (2) eéka, éka, éna, é:ka inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
skin piel pele body boko (2) bóko, pe-perabɨ̃-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sky cielo céu environment itá-boxo inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body mahíta inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality atsi (1) atsí, tʃikiri-jo: unknown; doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) Pemon; but likely sound symbolic See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment jowiba (2) (to smoke), mataütsüxü (35)(vapor) ɨ́:-tsɨxɨ inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body itaboxo (3) tuxúne, tuxúba(pl) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body suaba (2) suába unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wokóta (sing.) wokóba (plur). ukúbaba 'trozar' (split into pieces) unknown; inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kepaba (3) (also means to be narrow), küküna (2) / küküta (2)(both are apretar in spanish), küküpa (2)(to be all squeezed and narrow) ka-tarɨrɨta 'apretar ('squeeze'), júhuka 'exprimir' - 'wring' unknown; doubtful loan (into protolg?) Carib See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ká-ixɨna (sing.) káɨxɨka (plur.), 'con aguja o palo' ('with a needle or stick'); kakúata 'con cuchillo o aguijón' ('with a knife or a sting'); varios verbos que terminan en -ba:kuata (several verbs ending in -ba:kuata) unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nú:ka inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
star estrella estrela environment tulúpu-to loan, direction unknown possibly into Piapoco duluputu, if this form really does include the S. suffix -to See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
steal robar roubar other kajürüba (3) kahɨrɨba unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora náe-hawa, náe-bo inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment ibo (2) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
suck chupar chupar body tsu-tsúne (tsu-tsúba - plur.) inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body jane (2), janeta (2) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body jahína, putúna (sá:na, tháɨ-tʰáɨna, ϕuϕúna) inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group, compare Aymara pʔusuntaɲa See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion jua (1), kotana (2) (to float), kotoba (2)(to float) inheritance; unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body boso (1) bosó inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar báhara-xua 'that thing' inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality aitayaü (3), itayaü (1) áitayaɨ, á-ita-jaɨ (áitati 'tupido' 'dense, close together') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
thin delgado fino quality jiapa (2) (to be thin), koyaüka (2)(to be thin) ita-ϕá:-ka inheritance also koyaüka (2)(to be thin), ita-ϕá:-ka See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
think pensar pensar mental jumatabü (24)(thoughts), jamatabü(24)(thoughts), jumatabükaruta (257)(thoughts), (jamatabükaruta(257)(thoughts), künüba (3)/künüta (3) (to be thinkinng while falling down) na-humatabi-xáina (na-bamatabɨ-xáina) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
this este/esta este grammar ma:-xúa-he doubtful loan Máku, Nheengatu See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar xamü (2) xámɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
three tres tres number akueyabi (3), akueyabi pabeje akúeyabi inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
throat garganta garganta body jumatawi (1) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bijanaxuaba (25), kayajata (3) bijánaxúaba, bixána ('tirar' - 'throw', xúaba 'botar' - 'discard', péneta 'botar varias cosas' - 'discard several things') inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment já:maxɨ (huru-húru-hai 'el sonido del trueno' - 'sound of thunder) inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kerata (2), kereba (3), kereta (3), küba (2), küta (2) kɨ́:ta, kɨ́:ba inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body ebarü (2), jume (1)(also means a word, and a sound) ebárɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
tooth diente dente body pe-wóno-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other jiarabajaraba (4), jiarabajarata (4), jiarabia (1), jiarajiarajai (21), jiaraka (3), jiarata (3) unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
two dos dois number anija (2), anijabe aníja, aníjabe inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group; Arawak, e.g. Warekena enaba, Yucuna iyama See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body ja:ká:ba inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion ekapona (42), enapona (24) ékapóna, énapóna inheritance shared Cuiva See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
water agua agua environment mé:ra inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality sukué-na, tsúnuna inheritance? unknown Carijona See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar dé:tsa: xua [xua='thing'] inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar pa-kúhinae inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
where? donde onde grammar itsa-hóta (dé:tsa: hóta, int.) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
white blanco branco colour niopona, ɸobia ['pale'] inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ipatsa (1), jipatsa (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship pɨ́ha-wa: inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
wind viento vento environment jowibo (2) howí:-bo inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
wing ala asa body korofe (2) pe-kóro-ϕe-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human jiwitowa (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other nakuenaba (3) nakuenába unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour wajána inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
bad mal mal quality abéhe, bijatja (2) abéhe, bijátja inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pó-ni: [he], pó-wa: [she] inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar xanü (2) xánɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body pe-tópa: inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
man/male hombre homem human jiwitanü (2), jiwitonü (2), jiwi (2)(humans, indigenous people) pé:bi inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar po-mó:nae inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental japɨ́:-tane [?-see] inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar wa:xái-tsi, wa:xáni-tsi inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar paxanɨ [Queix1993] inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pa-xámɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
bark corteza casca environment boko (2) bóko inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
fingernail uña unha body kabekopiboko (235)/ kobekopiboko (235) (it can also mean the claws of an animal), katiwi (2) (claw), kopiabokoünü (245)(meat under the nail) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
heart corazón coração body jamatabüütjü (246), jumatabüütjü (246) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
sun sol sol time ikotia (1), juameto (3)(this is a general term that means "astro." It is also applied for moon), juametoikotia (15) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
green verde verde quality axaebi (2) axaébi unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
hot caliente quente quality ataju (2) (verb to be hot) atáju doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Warekena ata See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana jotsi (2) hótsi inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. wiripanae (31); oti (2) wirípanaé, óti doubtful loan Arawak wiru missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bënë (rk83) bɨ´nɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. makibü (2)(Sp: caimán; generic, Crocodilus), maxüneje (3)(Crocodylus intermedius), maxünejepetsaebianü (2) maxɨnehe inheritance also maxüneje (3)(Crocodylus intermedius), maxünejepetsaebianü (2) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis panabë (rk83) inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus iri (2) íːri, óli-to loan (into protolanguage?_) Piapoco Piapoco íri Broader (rat in general) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes jomowabi homowáːbi loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak, cf. Piapoco umawali maybe loan into Baniwa omáwali uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae amái-to, pɨbɨ-to amái-to, pɨbɨ-to unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tsó-nɨ, amuabali (small and white), kofia (Tamandua tetradactyla) tsó-nɨ inheritance also: amuabali (small and white anteater) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri jumabokorubenaewi (268), kayure (2), tubujë (Dactylus novemcinctus, rk83) tuhúbɨ inheritance also jumabokorubenaewi (268), kayure (2) (Queixalós) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum musuliboto (52)(Gynerium sagittatum) múːsuli-boto unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. kasawa (2) (Musa balbisiana), balatunu (3) baláːtuna, kasawa (2) (Musa balbisiana) loan Spanish 'platano', prob via Arawak Piapoco/Achagua Arawak/Sp palatana WW %palana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. jawasiri (2), jawaü [loan Piapoco?] hawasíri-to doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. urítti (Rivet 1948) unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis manü (2) (generic), awiripumujani (246), banamanü (24), jubümanü (24), kanawasi (1), kekere (3), makuwai (1), manakafiafia (14), maniju (2) awíripúmujáni, bánamánü inheritance also awíripúmujáni, bánamánü uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bara-tsuí-to, alirepe, bopena, dowatjikobü bara-tsuí-to, alirepe, bopena, dowatjikobü inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala jipirainae (Duroia longifolia) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba makofaiboto (32) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae homowáːbi; cororo, túnunu (rk83); kasururu (3) (Epicrates cenchria maurus) homowáːbi doubtful loan; loan direction unknown formed from 'snake'; but cf. Piapoco umawali; Saliva tunana dopa also túnunu (rk83); kasururu (3) (Epicrates cenchria maurus) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) dére-bɨ dére-bɨ ('gourd', H&R) inheritance Sikuani-Cuiva? also tsukoto-bɨ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kabalu/kapalu (2) loan - WW %kaparu; North Arawak esp. Piapoco kabalu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera koko (generic), madudu (2), materi (2), matsaleri (3), alibosoli (2), jaranasisi (25), koko, madudu (2) inheritance; loan, direction unknown Makiritare also jaranasisi (25), koko (generic), madudu (2), materi (2), matsaleri (3) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris jómocobi (rk83) hómokobi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum furinae (21), xuruinae (21), kowaraxurui (14) loan - WW %eroi, Carib, via Piapoco also xuruinae (21), kowaraxurui (14) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda metsajajapato (25) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea bolenawa (1) (larva), linu (2) bolenawá unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca patu patu loan - WW %patu missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria alaba, alama (both borrowings from Arawak), bokobokowa loan - WW Piapoco Piapoco, alàaba uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tsamuli (rk83) tsamúli loan (into protolanguage?) North Arawak e.g. Baniwa dzamolíto uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapisi (2) (Nasua nasua) loan Piapoco Piapoco kapìsi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) papáɨ-nae inheritance possibly semantic shift missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kaluwai (1) loan cf. Saliva kalabaʔʤa, Wayana kalapu; maybe from Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ɨthɨbɨrɨ (H&R), kawipi (2)(Crax daubentoni) ɨtʰɨbɨrɨ, kawipi inheritance North Arawak e.g. Baniwa kóitsi; alternative word ɨthɨbɨrɨ (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ovebi/amali (kr83; amali=Arawak?); awali (2), eduma (2), inojopajuli (25), juju (2), kenenali (3), kinanali owéːbi, awáli, edúma inheritance also amali (Piapoco loan), awali (2), eduma (2), inojopajuli (25), juju (2), kenenali (3), kinanali uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris awiri (2)(borrowing from Arawak?), kotsito (2) (puppy), daiubi (2)(over all domisticated animal) awíri, daiúbi loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco e.g. Achagua áuli; alternative word daiúbi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis unutsavini (rk83) loan direction unknown Piapoco Piapoco únichàwini uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ukuku (3) úkuku loan - WW %motkuku missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kutsibo (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) loan Arawak: Achagua uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. simuta (2); matsubo (2)(Rhyncophorus palmarum) simúta; matsúbo (Rhyncophorus palmarum) loan direction unknown Piapoco màachùba uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna baluwe, baxu (generic small fish), akairu, apürü, arali, arepi, atsebokojibiwi (fish without scales), daütjüdaütjü, tsutsubo, tsutsupabo, tsalewaübo, dujai, dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also means game animal), jj (1), jaja(1) dúhuai, baxu inheritance also akairu, apürü, arali, arepi, atsebokojibiwi (fish without scales), baluwe, daütjüdaütjü, tsutsubo, tsutsupabo, tsalewaübo, dujai, dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also means game animal), jj (1), jaja(1) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. araita doubtful loan Carib (Pemon?) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera manepa (3) mánepa-to inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera daina dáina-to inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana mapaütonae (31) unknown uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis matsiruli (Lutra)(Arawak borrowing), menetsamui (1) loan Piapoco Piapoco matʃé:ɾuli 'Giant otter' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) póːnaː póːnaː inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba mali, wakára (Zamponi) mali, wakára (Zamponi) loan; loan - WW Arawak; %wakara uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kuyumi (3), marai (1)(Arawak borrowing) márai, kújuwi loan (into protolg?) - WW North Arawak; Carib Piapoco malài; see also Yanomami; alternative word kújuwi WW %mare uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kapinae (31) xuípa loan - WW; loan into protolanguage? direction unknown - WW %tuipa, %kaapi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae amaro (2), amaru (2), kawakawa (3), kokopi (2), kuyawisi (3)(Pandion haliaetus) amáro, amáru unique also kawakawa (3), kokopi (2), kuyawisi (3)(Pandion haliaetus) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens nónohi (CM72); ikulinonoji (16), jumanialiji (3) nonohí:-to inheritance also ikuli-nonoji (16) [tortoise-pepper], jumanialiji (3) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ikotia-nüjü (3) (Alouatta seniculus), nëjë (rk83) nɨhɨ inheritance also ikotia-nüjü (3) (Alouatta seniculus) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae iniji (3), si:-si:-bárɨ-to, sí:pi (H&R) siː-siː-bárɨ-to, síːpi inheritance also iniji (3) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. matiwi (2) matíwi inheritance loan INTO Piapoco uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca amarunewütjü (35), nevëthë (cat in general, rk83), avácana, vacuínali (felis onça, rk83) newɨtʰɨ unknown; inheritance also avácana, vacuínali (felis onça, rk83), amarunewütju (35) Broader (cat in general) uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra saiwanae (31) saíwanaé inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manakaiboto (32) manakaíbóto loan Arawak: Piapoco manakái missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. eméri (Rivet 1948) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tsaliri (2) tsalíri loan Achagua/Piapoco missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. amai (1) (generic), irabürü (42), iramawi, kaiwiali (2), kiuli (2), mapalipawa (1) amái unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kúde kúde loan - WW %kute, via Piapoco missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. maja (2) máːha loan into protolanguage Tukanoan? e.g. Tukano maha uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays jaratabüjetsa (246), jetsa (2) hétsa inheritance also jaratabüjetsa (246) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta fulisikai (31), irapanawatsi (36)(red manioc), iwitsulikai (41), jerasi (3), jomowabisi (13), kadenabawasi (35)(Spanish Borrowing), kai (1), kajuyalikaisi (25), kamalipalusi (2), kulipijikai (31), kululiakai (31), kuwaisi (12), limasi (13), makokosi (3), newáhɨ inheritance also fulisikai (31), irapanawatsi (36)(red manioc), iwitsulikai (41), jerasi (3), jomowabisi (13), kadenabawasi (35)(Spanish Borrowing), kai (1), kajuyalikaisi (25), kamalipalusi (2), kulipijikai (31), kululiakai (31), kuwaisi (12), limasi (13), makokosi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bawa (2), kokobawa (24), báːwa inheritance also kokobawa (24) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kuato (2) kuáto doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Guahiban, e.g. Candoshi katʃo; Andoke kɒ̃ǝ̃ta; see also Carib kuwai compare Bora iñe (+clas, e.g. íñehe (aguaje tree); mumubi (2) (the bulb of a moriche) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. kalamanü (42), kokopiwaeso (24), kopipi (2) wáeso-to, wáese-to inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) muxuyoro (24) (generic), dowatjimuxuyono (135), iramuxuyono (246) dowatjímuxúyonó unknown also dowatjimuxuyono (135), iramuxuyono (246) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis menetsamuito, matsírali (lutra sp., rk83) bohónawi inheritance; loan Piapoco also? menetsamuito, matsírali (lutra sp., rk83) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae tsica (rk83, Didelphus marsupialis) unknown subgroup: Sikuani-Cuiva Piapoco Piapoco isìri uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes hororóː-to, kuruduli (2) (Caprimulgidae) hororóː-to inheritance; loan - WW %murukutu / kurukutu also kuruduli (2) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ofáebë (rk83) oɸáebɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana malenae (31) malénaé missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kêke (1), kinikini (2) (the first two are Aratinga leucophtalmus), kamadui (2), jowai (1), kamatjui (1), kutsali (2)(Pionus menstruus), xú:ra, óno (H&R) xúːra, óno inheritance both inherited uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pipíri (Rivet 1948; Arawak loan); mísi-boto (H&R) pipíri (Rivet 1948); mísi-boto (H&R) loan - WW %pipiri, via North Arawak Piapoco pípiri, alternative word mísi-boto uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mawiru (3)(Ananas sativus), dunusi (1) (Ananas sativus) mawíru, dunusí loan - WW; inheritance %mawino (from Piapoco) alternative word dunusi (1) (Ananas sativus) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae kawara (2), kowara (2), kowora(2) kowára-bo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae tsala (rk83), maxëbë (rk83) (both coenda prehensilis) loan; inheritance Piapoco Piapoco tʃala; alternate word maxëbë (rk83) (inheritance) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum daütjü (2) dáɨthɨ inheritance Broader (potato in general) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ake unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua pewitsaboto (42) pewítsabóto missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata bocobë, docobë, docoli, yequeto, etc. [rk83]; mapuluweni (2), yowowa (2) [Uranosodon superciliosa, rk83] inheritance subgroup Cuiva-Sikuani (no other info) also docobë, docoli, yequeto, etc. [rk83]; mapuluweni (2), yowowa (2) [Uranosodon superciliosa, rk83] uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kiwa (2); kará (sp.; Melendez: Ar loan) kíwa; kará (sp.; Melendez: Ar loan) doubtful loan (into protolg?); loan Carib, cf. Pemon kuuiwa; Arawak, Achagua karakara (Melendez) e.g. Pemon kuuiwa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jomo (rk83); atsajomo (42), jomo (2), manu (2)(Arawak borrowing) hómo inheritance atsajomo (42), jomo (2), manu (2) (Arawak borrowing) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox kakutali (2), bula, térotero (rk83 jaː-síː-to inheritance also kakutali (2), bula, térotero (rk83) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kajuyalitopa (15) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae jomobü (2)(generic), itajaja (1), meneitajaja (25), itajojo (1), jojowa (1), menejara (24) hómo-bɨ-to inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. derebü (21) derébǘ, dére-bɨː semantic shift from Crescentia? from 'calabash'? uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae maderi (2), materi (2) loan (into protolg?) Achagua/Piapoco Piapoco matèri, Yavitero mateti uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. pone (2) póne inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas daütjü (2) dáɨthɨ ('sweet potato', CM72) inheritance Broader (potato in general) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris kalemani (3)(Tapirus pinchaque), matana (2)(Tapirus bairdii), metsaja (3)(Tapirus terrestris) méːtsaha loan; inheritance Arawak (Piapoco; see Melendez) kalemani (3) (Tapirus pinchaque) (Arawak borrowing), matana (2) (Tapirus bairdii) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera alikere (2), ana (2) alikére, ána unique also alikére, ána uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea laülaü (2), manüpenani (2), metsajatiapa (25) unique also manüpenani (2), metsajatiapa (25) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura anajibiwi (34), busu (2)(Bufo granulosus), edali (2), kumo (1), kutete (2) (Physalaemus neglectus dunni) busú-to inheritance also anajibiwi (34), edali (2), kumo (1), kutete (2) (Physalaemus neglectus dunni) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tséːma tséːma loan Arawak uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ículi/jayaca (Geochelone, rk83, iculi=Arawak); ikuli (3), jara (2) (generic) hajáka, íːkuli loan; inheritance Arawak: Piapoco ikùli also hajáka (inheritance) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. kalikuelekue (35)(Ramphastos ambiguus), talikuelekue (15) tikuéku, tikuékue inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nae, náe-hawa #NAME? inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella (kapalu) papabü (25) papábɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kanukali (3)/ kanukeri (3) (both are Sarcoramphus papa), kekere (3) (Coragyps atratus) kéːkere, wáːjuli inheritance, loan - WW Arawak also kanukali (3)/ kanukeri (3) (both are Sarcoramphus papa), wáːjuli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita manü (2) (generic), adere (black wasp), aina, ainimanü (chunchulita), alimuru (matajé), atsaxae, ene (1), enemanü (42), jetsokoro (2), jiwituna (124), jotsikawa (1), kanükerimanü (24), kata (2) (red wasp with large abdomen), kurali (1), mana (2), manare unknown also adere (black wasp), aina, ainimanü (chunchulita), alimuru (matajé), atsaxae, ene (1), enemanü (42), jetsokoro (2), jiwituna (124), jotsikawa (1), kanükerimanü (24), kata (2) (red wasp with large abdomen), kurali (1), mana (2), manare (2)(blue wasp), uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons vánali (rk83) papábɨ unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus kuwairi (2) (Ateles paniscus) kuwéːri, kuwáiri loan Piapoco Piapoco cuwáiri; direction prob into Sik, but unclear WW %kuata uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari jabëtsa (rk83) haːbɨːtsa loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak (Piapoco) Piapoco apìtʃa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae naedokodoko (24) naedókodóko unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. busunomaka (35) (just a variety of yam) noː, nóː-bɨː, búsunómaka doubtful loan into protolanguage Carib e.g. Akawaio naböi, Carijona nahake; alternative word busunomaka (35) (just a variety of yam) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola maranae (31)(Virola cuspidata), marabo (3) See Language page Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna awiri (2)(borrowing from Arawak), kotsito (2) (puppy), daiubi (2)(over all domisticated animal) awíri, daiúbi loan into protolanguage Arawak See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna awali (2), eduma (2), inojopajuli (25), juju (2), kenenali (3), kinanali awáli, edúma inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool xuátabo; baleni(2) (type of large arrow), kuyene (2), puyene (2) xuátabo; baleni(2) (type of large arrow), kujene (2), pujene (2) unknown; inheritance cf. Warao Classified Related to word for arrow cane xuáta-boto hunting, warfare See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool sipari (Rivet 48) loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara especially for clearing fields See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool liwai (1) unknown can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kote carrying basket Inheritance Proto-MSC (Macaguan, Sikuani) See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material aba (flat basket); also yoxobo, mumubi, mapire, lísibo (see Kondo 1973 for descriptions) flat basket unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tulíquisi tulíkisi (bead string) string of beads loan - WW %tulikiʃi, via Piapoco See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tape (Rivet 1948) loan North Arawak, e.g. Kabiyari nápe See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool zirípi-bo (Rivet 1948) zirípi-bo (Rivet 1948) loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC (Macaguan, Sikuani) Piapoco Shared with Macaguan; could be loan Guahibo > Arawak, but Rivet lists dozens of Arawak lgs with similar words for blowpipe, arrow, and dart. Classified currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation boteyabü (31) botéjabɨ́ missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bow arco arco subsistence tool bi-sabi (Rivet 1948) bisabi (Rivet 1948) inheritance North Arawak Also occurs in Cuiva; may be loan into proto-language arco See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material kajuetsijawa (4) kahuétsihawa unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
canoe canoa canoa transport jera (2) héra doubtful loan (into protolg?) Arawak: Achagua húnaa compare Cuiva héra See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
cat gato gato acculturation mitsi mitsi loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation wakara wakará loan from 'egret', via Carib? Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pematakanukaenü (sedentary group); pematakaponaenü (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' pematakanukaenɨ (sedentary group); pematakaponaenɨ (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wakapa wakapa unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food hawa Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
dance (generic) culture-mythology natonahia to dance Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology pumeníruwa, kajúyali (Melendez 2014: both Arawak loans) pumeníruwa, kajúyali (Melendez 2014: both Arawak loans) loan, loan Achagua In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology itamajitsipana itamajitsipana inheritance Proto-MSC See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology latabo latabo unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool huata huata to fan doubtful loan (into protolg?) Proto-Guahiban cf. Yavitero mahu'ita, Sikuani huata, Kokama wauta But compare Yavitero mahu'ita esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology wanali (talisman) wanali (talisman) talisman unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
firewood leña lenha other íso (CM72) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food jona jona inheritance Proto-Guahiban Shared Guayabero See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kulupamaü (line to fish with) kulupamaü unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool araita Unknown Compare Makiritare a:da:di See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool kulupamaü kulupamaɨ unknown mau 'string' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool botsa; kakuli (2) loan direction unknown North Arawak Also: botsa, duliakai See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food peri peri loan (into protolanguage?) North Arawak Could be loan into protolanguage. Shared Guayabero, Macaguan usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food bawa; matsúka (CM72) bawa; matsúka (CM72) loan - WW; loan - WW %porowa; %matsuka Also: matsuka (Arawak loan; Rivet 1948) WW %porowa agriculture See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology kalawani (3)(type of flute); kalawapio (2) (a type of flute); jivabẽrẽ (Kondo 1973) doubtful loan North Arawak Also: kalawapio; jivabẽrẽ (set of 2 flutes played by 2 people; Kondo 1973); iba (shared Achagua, Rivet 1948) multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also generic term for fish) duhúai, duhái unknown same as 'fish' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
genipap culture-mythology mapaütonae Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tumatsinae (31) (calabash tree), dére-bɨ ('gourd', H&R) tumátsinaé (calabash tree), dére-bɨ ('gourd', H&R) loan; inheritance Piapoco kumàtʃi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool abalakua abalakua doubtful loan Proto-MSC Arawak, cf. Warekena ába; Embera ibhárra Compare Macaguan arpa; could also be internal loan or loan from Arawak, e.g. Baniwa áada. esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation yamaxüto jamaxɨto semantic shift from 'lightning/thunder' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material bu (2) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
hat sombero chapéu dress yorai jorai unknown Carib? Also: sapebúa (loan chapeu) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology banakatsu (2), dopatubinü (3), kuwaiba (2)(to become a shaman by relevation of the god Kuwai), kuwainü (2)(a shaman iniciated by Kuwai) banakátsu, dopatúbinü shaman initiated by deity Kuwai unknown North Arawak May be a loan + semantic shift; not clear if this is a native innovation based on loan for 'deity', or itself a loan. kuwai 'deity' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
honey miel mel food banara (31), jabüra (31) bánará inheritance Proto-Guahiban But compare Carib wan, wanɛ only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
hunt cazar caçar food jina (2) (also means to fish), kajaita (2)(to go out hunting) jina (2) (also means to fish), kajaita (2)(to go out hunting) unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kusiupa (21), kusiupae (1), kusuipa (21) (all three are Spanish borrowings) kusiupa loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) Spanish source; Arawak, e.g. Warekena kotsiyo WW See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tabumapa tabumapa unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
machete machete facão culture-material maseta (2) maseta loan Spanish Also Aymara, machiti; Cofan, machiti; Candoshi, mchita; Huambisa, matʃit; Aguaruna, máchit; Quechua ayacuchano, machiti Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool wahubo wajubo inheritance Proto-MSC Compare Macaguan wɨp Probably has -bo classifier See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other [maneritanae (31)(wood to make fences)] missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology yaleru (Kondo 1973); jiwabürü (42) jaleru; híwabɨ́rɨ unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
paper papel papel acculturation kuyalata kujalata loan Span/Port 'carta' possibly Carib? See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material ferebo ferebo loan - WW %parapi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool büxü (2) bǘxü inheritance Also: oaxi (shared Achagua; Rivet 1948) Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology tsitsi doubtful loan (into protolg?) onomatopoeia, but cf. Arawak, Cayapa, Bora, Jivaroan Onomatopoeic; Also shared Macaguan Reduplicated See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool mawi mawi doubtful loan Arawak Compare Wai Wai, maaɲi Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
salt sal sal food jaho jaho loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC Saliba ʤeho Also: yáyo (Rivet 1948) Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation isimali isimali unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology wahi wahi unknown Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kuérere-bo kuérere-bo unknown North Arawak? means 'club' in Nadeb, Yucuna, and Macaguan. bo classifier See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food katsahane katsahane unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material inae inae unknown Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation basueboto basueboto sugar cane unknown Compound boto 'cane' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food awimali awimali unknown agriculture See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material malenae (31) malénaé unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food yoboto (Kondo 1973) unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
tobacco (native) narcotics sema Loan Achagua Also: tʃema, zema WW %tsema Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool iwa (2) (table to wash), meniapaeto (2)(un lavadero) missing agriculture See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool araita (2) araíta unknown Compare Carib, e.g. Akawaio urari hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
wax cera cera other manixuxu, banaxuxu (beeswax) manixuxu, banaxuxu (beeswax) loan; unique Arawak mani 'resin' See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool yacali (sifter, Kondo 1973) sifter loan Achagua agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material lisibo (31), mapiri (2) (basket for manioc flour), kote (K73) lisibo (31), mapiri (2) (basket for manioc flour), kote (K73) unique, loan; inheritance Arawak: Achagua See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology loan North Arawak Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ainawi (3), dowatji (2)(not necessarly bad, but it can be), jumape (3)(soul or image); dubate (R18) aínawi, dowátji unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
paddle/oar remo remo transport téna-pa (CM72) téna-pa (CM72) loan (into protolg?) Achagua/Piapoco See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture pe-máka, pe-máɨ-to inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture périra; kúlia périra; kúlia sem shift; loan from 'flatbread' (Arawak); Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
house other bo (1) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no de Kondo 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes ɑ, e, i, o, u, ɰ a, e, i, o, u, ë not apparent when using diphthongs or triphthongs de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985: 9-10 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes t͡s ts de Kondo (Vol.1)- 1985: 9 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes tense, aspect, person (object) prefixes; mood and person (subject) suffixes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes seems like prefixing weakly preferred Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Queixalós 1998:114-115 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Queixalós 1998:125-129 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Second verb usually takes tense/mood marking, while first verb takes person/number. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:93-94; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Queixalós 1998:189-190 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Quexalós 1998:268-286 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Can even be used in transitive clauses. Queixalós 1998:191 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 3 -nw, -wa, -hawa -nw, -wa, -hawa Classes: masc, fem, inanimate (respectively) Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Queixalós 1998:3 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes masculine and feminine Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes masc./fem. for animate; rest are inanimate Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Applies to both singular and plural. Queixalós 1998:21 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Classification system. Including cylinder, sphere, flat plane, etc. Queixalós 1998:33 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Queixalós 2000:175 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes ,-në (de Kondo); -nü (Queixalos) Occur with all types of nouns. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:161-167 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes pɑ- pa- Occur with all types of nouns. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:126; Queixalós - 2000:167-171 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:167-171 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:167-172 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:167-173 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:167-174 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes pɑ- pa- for first and second person Queixalós 2000:13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no apparent that no articles are used Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no demonstrative marks definiteness Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Inclusive: waxáitsibeje; Exclusive: paxánëbeje de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:72 Amanda Meeks Queixalós shows that the suffix "-behe" can be used to show duality for all nouns.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 proximal, distal Queixalós 1998:74-75 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Masculine and feminine, as well as neuter. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:15; Queixalós - 2000:8-9 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Masculine and feminine, as well as neuter. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:15; Queixalós - 2000:8-9 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:8-9 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no only an affix is used de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:206 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Queixalós 1998 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6 oblique cases marked as suffixes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes -nexa, -xae e.g. benefactive, causal, associative, locative Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no No evidence of cases. Instead, Sikuani utilizes a very intricate verbal agreement system. Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes oblique cases marked as suffixes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes -tʰa -tʰa Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes five 'hand', four comes from 'accompany' Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Above 5, however, exact quantities are not typically referred to. Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith There exist numerals up to 10, but they are very rarely used, and often muddle the meanings of the sentences. In fact, only numerals up to 3 are commonly used.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no rarely used Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes on nominal Queixalós 1998:82-83 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes tɑjɑ- (1s), nijɑ- (2s), wɑjɑ- (2p), pijɑ- (3s&3p) taja- (1s), nija- (2s), waja- (2p), pija- (3s&3p) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:20; Queixalós - 2000:35, 131-132, 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:20; Queixalós - 2000:35, 131-132, 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no possesive marking on VPs or stands alone de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000: 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Queixalós 1998:41 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes Queixalós 1998:42 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no No apparent distinction. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no No apparent distinction. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000: 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000: 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes small class Queixalós 1998:84 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:5 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Queixalós 2000:162 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Queixalós 2000:162 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes ex: xáne (to eat), pexáejawa (food, "n" dropped) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:93 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no -behe -behe Queixalós 2000:69 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no same affix for past and present;usually inferred from the context of the sentence de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -ena -ena Queixalós 1998:287 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no -re, -ma -re, -ma two injunctive suffixes Quixalós 2000:295 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes cɑ- ca- Verbal prefix (3s), functions as object marker of transitive verbs. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:46; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes ,-jítsipɑ (de Kondo), -hitsiɑ (Queixalós) ,-jítsipa (de Kondo), -hitsia (Queixalós) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes ,-jítsipɑ (de Kondo), -hitsiɑ (Queixalós) ,-jítsipa (de Kondo), -hitsia (Queixalós) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes pikɑni pikani Not an affix. Queixalós - 2000:20 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes bɑ- ba- de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes author calls them factual/virtual Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes ,-belia (to or from the north, south, or away) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:83 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV preferred Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:49-206 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:49-206 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Adjectives have their own class, but function most often as prenominal affixes (especially with animate/intimate nouns). de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Dem-Noun yes de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Dem no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Num-Noun no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Num yes de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Queixalós 2000:232 Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes Nominal prefixes on subject create the entire clause (show as one word). de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:44; Queixalós - 2000:387-400 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Always occur, even when free NPs are present. Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes ,-je (1s), -tsi (1p) ,-je (1s), -tsi (1p) Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes ,-je (1s), -tsi (1p) ,-je (1s), -tsi (1p) subjects are suffixed Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes ne- (1s), pane- (1p exc.), naca- (1p inc.), ca- (3s respectful), paca- (3p respectful) objects are prefixed Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Queixalós 2000: 575-576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Queixalós 2000: 575-576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes ba- ba- Queixalós 2000: 575-576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no tɑjɑ- (1s), nijɑ- (2s), wɑjɑ- (2p), pijɑ- (3s&3p) taja- (1s), nija- (2s), waja- (2p), pija- (3s&3p) different prefixes for possession de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:20; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no either the agent or recipient are assumed to be 3s, so only two verbal markings end up being used de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:50; Queixalós - 2000:136-137 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes both are prefixed to verb Queixalós 2000:576 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:136-137 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no No apparent reciprocal is used. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes nɑ- na- Verbal prefix. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:48; Queixalós - 2000:206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Queixalós 2000:128 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes be- be- de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:122 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:122 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes ,-yaba, -ø "-yaba" used significantly less often (de Kondo) de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Causer gets first reference; verb "exana" (meaning "to make") is serialized with initial verb(s), and verb serialization then takes -ø marking for causer de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes ɑpo- apo- de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes ɑpo- apo- de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no there is a content question word ("détsa" (de Kondo); "de" (Queixalós)) which occurs before the question, but the order of the sentence itself is unchanged de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:22 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:2-25 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks


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