Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no An antipassive derivation is not discussed in the formulation of the verb at any level. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no reflexive/reciprocal are the only intransitivizing morphology listed Aikhenvald, 1995: 38 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no No antipassive noted in the verbal template. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not discussed in Facundes (2000). Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:69-124 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 276-279 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Makushi no info Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:305 Daniel Valle More likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses yes Flack:930 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-94 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 295 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.29 Christopher Clack no info/not expected
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p.121 Chris Clack
Cubeo no agent is never made explicit in inamite passives Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 56 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43-46 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.71-72 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.28 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 46-47 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no There is no an antipassive morpheme. However, the author argues that there is antipassivization in the language since an object can be demoted. Everett 2006:438 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:372 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms16.2.2 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 49 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara yes? 50-1 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 207 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info 57 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany Maybe 321 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 513 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 151 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 405 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 3, 27-8 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr Maybe 128 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 371 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no 145 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 82 0
Dyirbal yes 65-6 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 85-88 done 0
Djinang No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 75-76 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 81-82 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 52-60 done 0
Katthang no 83-90 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres yes FO 125 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 92 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 332 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 232 0
Ritharrngu no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Warrgamay No 87 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no xxii 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 90 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu yes 427 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps