Andoke

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ano
Location
-0.54°, -72.09°
Notes
Interaction with Boran and Witotoan peoples as part of the 'People of the Center'.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Landaburu, Jon 1979. La langue des Andoke. Paris: SELAF (Thèse d'Etat, Université de Paris IV, 1976). Rivet, Paul and de Wavrin, Robert. 1952. La Langue Andoke. Journal de la Société des Américanistes XLI. 221-233.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location -dai, '-sí -dai, '-sí unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pãtakh(k)ohẽ(h) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
at en, a em, a location #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
back espalda costas body -fʌdi -ɸʌdi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bad mal mal quality pihikhkoowa (RW52) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
belly barriga barriga body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
big grande grande quality hʌ́- hʌ́- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
black negro preto colour ñe-; uʷɒi ɲe-; uʷɒi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
blood sangre sangue body -dusé -duçé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bone hueso osso body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body -ñeé -ɲeé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
child niño, niña criança human todi todi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment boatsiakǝ(ũw) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cold frío frio quality -nosi'ko (to be cold) -nosiʔko (to be cold) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ʌhʌta (truthfully) ʌhʌta (truthfully) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
day día dia time nə́kə̃ nə́kə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality so so unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dry seco seco quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ear oreja orelha body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ñoĩ ɲoĩ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna -hádə, -hẽ́də -hádə, -hẽ́də unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
eye ojo olho body -'ákʌ -ʔákʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
far lejos longe quality yu- ʝu- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body kehehie(w) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship -pʌ -pʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna -ñefʌ -ɲeɸʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment ʌpa ʌpa unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flower flor flor environment #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
good bueno bom quality fə'ñé ɸəʔñé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -kabe (on head), - ñehẽ -kabe (on head), - ɲehẽ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hand mano mão body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar žakská unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality #NAME? -ʝo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar o'ə oʔə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
if si se grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
lake lago lago environment o(kh)kǝ(ü)itsi (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment -pu (round leaf), -senə (allongated leaf) -pu (round leaf), -çenə (allongated leaf) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
liver hígado figado body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna póhãh (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
man/male hombre homem human yo'hʌ ʝoʔhʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna itsü(h) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
moon luna lua environment pódəə̃ pódəə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mouth boca boca body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
name nombre nome human #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
new nuevo novo quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
night noche noite time hʌ'-pʌʌ́ (lit. "big time") hʌʔ-pʌʌ́ (lit. "big time") unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
no/not no não grammar hʌ́má hʌ́má unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
nose nariz nariz body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
old viejo velho quality džo(h)dü̃(h) 'old man' (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
one uno um number ʌisidé ʌiçidé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
other otro outro grammar ku'síka kuʔsíka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body yi- (sick) ʝi- (sick) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human hʌ́ihʌ́ (human) hʌ́ihʌ́ (human) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment də (to rain) də (to rain) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour pe- pe- unique cf. Paez See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture deibǝ̃́(üh) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
root raíz raiz flora #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sand arena areia environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
short corto curto quality to(h)fĩ(h)tü̃h (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body -sa'fʌ'di -saʔɸʌʔdi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
skin piel pele body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sky cielo céu environment põkǝ(ü)he (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality u' unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
star estrella estrela environment füǝ(ü)khü (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora -kẽ́ -kẽ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment fisi ɸiçi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body -nǝta (nom. classifier) -nǝta (nom. classifier) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar Nom. Class -dí, -i (Nom. Class) -dí, -i unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar hǝü(k)khah (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality -bə'ɒ́ (to be thick) -bəʔɒ́ (to be thick) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
thin delgado fino quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
this este/esta este grammar Nom. Class. -ñé (Nom. Class.) -ɲé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ha'ə haʔə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
throat garganta garganta body θa-pǝ(ühah), kha-pǝ(ü)hah (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
three tres tres number ʌisidé ʌʌ́hʌmá (lit. "one two") ʌiçidé ʌʌ́hʌmá calque one two See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment dǝ(ü)doh (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bite morder morder body #NAME? -ʝuú unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
blow soplar soprar body u u unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body yafi'sél jaɸiʔsél unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -ba'i -baʔi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
climb subir subir motion '-kẽ́'kʌda -kẽ́ʔkʌda unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
come venir vir motion ə̃ ə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact fá' (to grill) ɸáʔ (to grill) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
count contar contar mental '-ʌti '-ʌti unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental mə̃i mə̃i unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ʌafo (to saw) ʌaɸo (to saw) loan, direction unknown Ocaina aaßo See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state #NAME? -ʝi- (to be sick, dying: closest match) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact -hʌ' -hʌʔ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental -kə̃́é (to dream) -kə̃́é (to dream) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body -kó' -kóʔ unknown cf. Tukanoan, but more likely onomatopoeic/chance similarity See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
eat comer comer body -ba'i-, '-ma- (eat fruits) -baʔi-, '-ma- (eat fruits) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fall caer cair motion yidɨ́ʌtá ʝidɨ́ʌtá unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fear miedo medo mental yituíkó ('make afraid') jituíkó ('make afraid') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion -hʌai -hʌai unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fly volar voar motion -bu- -bu- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
grow crecer crescer state unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental -ʌmonotoáñe (mono=conscious, soul) -ʌmonotoáɲe (mono=conscious, soul) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact buʌ buʌ doubtful loan Witotoan See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ti (keep/hold) ti (keep/hold) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
kill matar matar impact #NAME? -ʝií- (to kill, make ill) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental -do- -do- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
laugh reír rir mental hẽhẽ hẽhẽ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion tiãčéh ('he lies down/goes to bed') (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body '-pĩ́ '-pĩ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other dʌ'á dʌʔá unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact -bəʌ (to beat/smash) -bəʌ (to beat/smash) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
say decir dizer mental kǝ̃ kǝ̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact fə́ʌ́ ɸə́ʌ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
see ver ver mental pó'kə̃́ póʔkə̃́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact '-tɨ '-tɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state '-pʌañe '-pʌañe unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body -pʌ- (morpheme) -pʌ- (morpheme) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body -fã -ɸã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body túse túse doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pa' paʔ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact '-hɒ́ʌá '-hɒ́ʌá unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state na' naʔ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
steal robar roubar other '-fə #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
suck chupar chupar body -ma' -maʔ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
think pensar pensar mental '-ĩ'túañé -ĩʔtúañé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bu' buʔ See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact yi-fii ji-ɸii unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion de(ü)dũ(h) 'he walks' (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other -baʌ -baʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tooth diente dente body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
two dos dois number ʌʌ́hʌmá ʌʌ́hʌmá unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
water agua agua environment dú'u dúʔu unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar keə̃ keə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality -ka'e (to be wet) -kaʔe (to be wet) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar híʌ híʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar híbo-pʌʌ́ híbo-pʌʌ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
where? donde onde grammar híb híb unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
white blanco branco colour po'te, pó- poʔte, pó- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar kói kói unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wind viento vento environment hüñehe (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wing ala asa body ipučekeh (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human tíi tíi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour do- do- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kə̃ə kə̃ə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
foot pie body -dʌka -dʌka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar '-həə '-həə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
all todo todos other sí-ṍkə̃ sí-ṍkə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body -sofádʌka -soɸádʌka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body -ñé -ñé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body -búdʌ́ (to sweat) -búdʌ́ (to sweat) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body fə́ʌ́ ɸə́ʌ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bark corteza casca environment kǝ(ü)ktanekǝ(üh) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fingernail uña unha body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
heart corazón coração body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sun sol sol time ĩɒ̃ ĩɒ̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment fisi ɸiçi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
green verde verde quality pa- pa- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hot caliente quente quality -pã'ãʌíkó (to be hot weather) -pã'ãʌíkó (to be hot weather) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. noe noe loan, direction unknown Ocaina nõõɯ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna fo ɸo doubtful loan Witoto/Ocaina aɸójtsoji See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. bɨ́'sá bɨ́ʔçá unique See Language page Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. se'hʌ, piyʌ (green) çeʔhʌ, piʝʌ (green) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Kelsey Neely, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Kelsey Neely, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pã́didu pã́didu loan Witoto (possibly into Proto-Witoto; e.g. Minica ɸiθido) See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ádu, pa'do, e'ma (green) ádu, paʔdo, eʔma (green) doubtful loan -WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica tu'be (small), dófí (small green and black) tuʔbe (small), dóɸí (small green and black) unique See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kadaǝ(ü)hí (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae tsíhidǘ unique See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family õpʌipúkə̃, komãda (black) õpʌipúkə̃, komãda (black) unique, loan See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba yo'fí ʝoʔɸí unique See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sinə̃de çinə̃de unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ĩño (also 'jaguar') ĩɲo (also 'jaguar') semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) čehiekǝ(üh) (RW52) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Kelsey Neely, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri féikʌ ɸéikʌ unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. tumi (small babilla caiman) tumi unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna be-i (cf. be 'eat') be-i (cf. be 'eat') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kodidi kodidi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura hi'bo (frog sp.), kɒ'kɒ (toad), yɨ́'yɨ (frog) hiʔbo (frog sp.), kɒʔkɒ (toad), ʝɨ́bʔʝɨ (frog) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. padóse padóçe unique See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes hʌ'pʌ hʌʔpʌ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae akspǝ(üh) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna poʌtaʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox džíkoiteh(i) (RW52) See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria pádə pádə doubtful loan, direction unknown Tanimuca pare (see also Carib forms) See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis amana amana loan - WW See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Kelsey Neely, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Kelsey Neely, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kɒ̃ǝ̃ta kɒ̃ǝ̃ta doubtful loan, direction unknown Guahiban, e.g. Sikuani kuáto; see also Carib kuwai; Candoshi See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Kelsey Neely, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Kelsey Neely, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes nõepa nõepa See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hí'píe híʔpíe loan, direction unknown - WW %hibie See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) páhé (RW52) páhé (RW52) unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens nõeta nõeta unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus tomi tomi unique See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. džakhaané (RW52) unknown See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) sita sita See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays soboi soboi unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum táu táu unique See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna kə̃́i (nominal classifier) kə̃́i (nominal classifier) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana akosi akoçi unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Kelsey Neely, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. si'dʌ siʔdʌ unique See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Kelsey Neely, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana fʌ́ʌta ɸʌ́ʌta unique See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Kelsey Neely, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mã́'ã́dʌi mã́ʔã́dʌi doubtful loan TG mani- forms See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta pãẽ́pa pãẽ́pa unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ñedžepi(h) (RW52) ñedžepi(h) (RW52) unique See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. tɒ́'dɒ (color not specified) tɒ́ʔdɒ (color not specified) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) pó'di póʔdi See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. foéi 'vine sp.' ɸoéi 'vine sp.' See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Kelsey Neely, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. yikǝ̃kǝ̃ 'poison' yikǝ̃kǝ̃ 'poison' unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Kelsey Neely, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Kelsey Neely, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae hodíh (RW52) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. yudi (ant sp.) ʝudi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis adubusə̃kə̃, tomiñṍda, menɒ̃dəʌkə̃ adubuçə̃kə̃, tomiñṍda, menɒ̃dəʌkə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera baba baba unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora padetá (worm) padetá (worm) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tãhtsíh (RW52) doubtful loan, direction unknown Urarina See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tsihé(h) (RW52); du'nẽ 'blue fly' tsihé(h) (RW52); duʔnẽ 'blue fly' loan, direction unknown Bora See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae bo'də́tapu boʔdə́tapu loan, direction unknown Andoke See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. pañedekske (R&W52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera tǝ̃(ü̃)ih (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yɒ'kɒnə̃ ʝɒʔkɒnə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ĩño (also 'dog') ĩɲo (also 'dog') unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons takke (R95) takke (R95) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae siéñe çiéɲe unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu sʌ'mé sʌʔmé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. taã(w) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris sẽ'yo çẽʔʝo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ʌ'ʌ ʌ'ʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ñẽẽ́'ĩ (sp. Of rat), pṍ'sí (generic rat), pa'dekə̃ (house mouse) ɲẽẽ́'ĩ (sp. Of rat), pṍʔçí (generic rat), paʔdekə̃ (house mouse) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris ĩtʌ ĩtʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus pahtãwa (RW52) pahtãwa (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material (Nom class.) -fʌta (Nom class.) -ɸʌta unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material komẽ (ko- is from kono=liana, mẽ means solid and supple); Nom. class -pǝ́ komẽ (ko- is from kono=liana, mẽ means solid and supple); Nom. class -pǝ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material (Nom. class) -kupa (Nom. class) -kupa unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport púkə̃ púkə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture kú'de ('forest drum') kúʔde ('forest drum') unique Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tə̃́'etúʌ (from tə̃́'etú 'teach') tə̃́ʔetúʌ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology (Nom. class) -sea (Nom. class) -sea unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
firewood leña lenha other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology koé (spirit, not necessarily evil) koé (spirit, not necessarily evil) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology yó'sei (ritual cries) ʝóʔçei (ritual cries) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material fǝ́ʌ́-sé (scrape-NMZ) ɸǝ́ʌ́-sé (scrape-NMZ) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool pʌʌ pʌʌ unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pãče (RW52) unique hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool pã́hã́sé pã́hã́sé unique arco See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool (Nom. class) -tidé (Nom. class) -tidé unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology pol pol unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ta(o)kah (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
honey miel mel food pofhkindiheh (RW52) unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kõno (cord) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology do'ʌ́kə̃́ doʔʌ́kə̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ta'táfa taʔtáɸa loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nihǝ(üw) (RW52) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ta'o 'sweet' taʔo 'sweet' See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation dúidi dúidi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology po'so-ʌ (from po'so 'beat drum') poʔso-ʌ (from poʔso 'beat drum') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool buʌ-sé (from buʌ 'hit') buʌ-sé (from buʌ 'hit') See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
salt sal sal food ñɒ'kɒ ñɒʔkɒ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool uipúkə̃ uipúkə̃ doubtful loan cf. Quechua pukuna; Wanano puka currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food sikóí- sikóí- See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food toe- toe- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food -ĩsía- 'hunt, fish' -ĩsía- 'hunt, fish' See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool pó'di póʔdi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool fʌ- 'grate [vb]' ɸʌ- 'grate [vb]' unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pʌ'te; döa (RW52) pʌʔte unique usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ñeemi ɲeemi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food kho(h)kho(h) (RW52) unique agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
house other ĩpəko ĩpəko unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Landaburu 1979, p.27 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Landaburu 1979, p.27 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Landaburu 1979, p.27 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Landaburu 1979, p.38 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no uncertain Landaburu 1979, p.35-36 Kelsey Neely very confusing. Check.
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Landaburu 1979, p.53 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Landaburu 1979, p.53 Kelsey Neely no codas except occasional glottal stop
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Landaburu 1979, p.53 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones 3 Landaburu 1979, p.48 Kelsey Neely high, low, mid
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Landaburu 1979, p.28-61 Kelsey Neely no indication that they have them in description
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Landaburu 1979, p.28-61 Kelsey Neely no indication that they have them in description
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Landaburu 1979, p.62 Kelsey Neely spreads across some boundaries, including person-marking prefixes
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Landaburu 1979 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes only found with reality marking modals and directionals. Irrealis fuses with directionals to make 3 distinct forms Landaburu 1979: 194-195 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Landaburu 1979: 179 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Landaburu 1979 Kelsey Neely based on examples in text
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Landaburu 1979 Kelsey Neely based on examples in text
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Landaburu 1979 Kelsey Neely based on examples in text
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no Free NN compounds are somewhat idiomatic and unpredictable in meaning. Landaburu calls some similar constructions involving one free N and one bound N (a classifier, essentially?), but not free N + free N compounds Landaburu 1979: 143-147; 176-177 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Landaburu 1979: 183 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes verb suffixed to N: -i uncertain; verb -i is suffixed to noun, means 'get/make' N Landaburu 1979: 182 Kelsey Neely classified by landaburu as a derivational verbalizing a noun
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 7 1st class: almost entirely inanimates (places, fabricated things, generic class), 2nd class: almost entirely inanimates (long, stick-like objects are prevalent), 3rd class: divided into 4 subclasses, 0: all inanimates (round, hollow, or wet), 1: masculine Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes various forms, see appendix in Landaburu 1994 Landaburu 1979: 133-134 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes class 3-1: masculine animal, class 3-2: feminine animal Landaburu 1979: p.131 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Landaburu 1979: p.130-131 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes only in 3-1 and 3-2 Landaburu 1979: 131 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes stick-like shape relevant in Class 2, round or hollow shape relevant in class 3-0 Landaburu 1979: p.131 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Landaburu 1979: p.135 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes same as 3rd person pronouns same as 3rd person pronouns, repeated before noun as determiners, presumably definite? Landaburu 1979: 155 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes if you count 3rd person pn repeated use as a marker of definiteness. Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 here: ˄ñé, there: ˄dí also a demonstrative for 'thing being talked about' ˄i Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes 'thing being talked about' ˄i Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Landaburu 1979: 131 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Landaburu 1979: 150-152 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns yes kə̃ - 2pl/female of child-bearing age kə̃ (2pl) can also be used with females of child-bearing age, not older, not younger - possibly encodes the possibility that the woman in question is pregnant (mother + fetus = plural in some respect?) Landaburu 1979: 150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Landaburu 1979: 158-165 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 15 about 15? Landaburu 1979: 169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no subject, others marked Landaburu 1979: 158-165 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely assumed from lack of information otherwise
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely assumed from lack of information otherwise
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes instrumental and sociative case = suffix -má Landaburu 1979: 166 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes up to 4 Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes up to 20 Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes 20, 40, 60 expressed as one person, two people, three people Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Landaburu 1979: 137 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes inalienable only Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes takes person pns Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes suffix: -koá suffix on possessed nouns. The same for all person/number Landaburu 1979: 160 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Landaburu 1979: 133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Landaburu 1979: 133 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes suffix: -i event or state: to dream --> dream(ing), be white ---> the color white, whiteness; creates class 1 nouns Landaburu 1979: 140-141 Kelsey Neely possibly comes from verb 'to be'
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes suffix: -˄, -a usually derives agent; morpheme is homophonous with 1st noun class pronominal morpheme, creates class 3 nouns; -a derives agents and patients Landaburu 1979: 141, 153 Kelsey Neely possibly comes from verb 'to be'
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes suffixes: -kə̃́, -sé, -a suffix - kə̃́ derives various types and classes of nouns, -sé derives instruments; -a derives agents and objs. Landaburu 1979: 141-143, 153 Kelsey Neely possibly comes from verb 'to be'
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes 2: prefix: í-, suffix -i 2: prefix: í- attaches to 'relative nouns' (generally classifiers or inalienably possessed nouns) , suffix -i attaches to nouns, means 'get/make N' Landaburu 1979: 182 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes suffixes: -ñé, -pé suffixes on pronoun; recent past: -ñé, more distant past: -pé, (present/general past (non-situated realis) or virtual/possible/permanent is null.) Landaburu 1979: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes aspect marked as verbal suffix, but tense is marked as pronominal suffix on subj Landaburu 1979: p.123-124, 208-209 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Landaburu 1979: p.123-124, 208-209 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Landaburu 1979: p.123-124, 208-209 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Landaburu 1979: 225 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes declarative negation: hʌ́má ; particle prohibitive verbal suffix -də Landaburu 1979: 100; 227 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes suffix -ma'ã for 1pl only, no simple morphemic form for 3rd person Landaburu 1979: 226 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes realis: unmarked, irrealis (virtuel) verbal prefixes fused with directionals: ná- (no directionality), ĩna- centripetal, ní, centrifugal realis: unmarked, irrealis (virtuel) verbal prefixes fused with directionals: ná- (no directionality), ĩna- centripetal, ní, centrifugal Landaburu 1979: 194-195 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes prefixes: na-, ni- and a second set of prefixes si- and yi- na- is centripetal, ni- is centrifugal; si- is 'low/behind/downstream/immersion/leaving the house', yi- is 'high/in front/uphill/emergence/entering the house' Landaburu 1979: 188; 197-198 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes suffix: há suffixed to pronoun Landaburu 1979, p. 119-122 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes kẽ-, b-, ma-, k-/d- all are prefixes on pronouns; certain for speaker: kẽ-, certain for speaker and adressee: b-, uncertain for speaker: ma-, uncertain for speaker, questioning other about certainty: k-/d- Landaburu 1979: p.114 Kelsey Neely Evidential? These are required on all "assertive" (= demonstrative?) utterances, which seems to be evidence that they are some type of evidential as opposed to a more general modal. Landaburu 1994: 111
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Landaburu 1979: 114-119, 194-195 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Landaburu 1979: 96 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Landaburu 1979: 158-165 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Landaburu 1979: 158-165 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no for alienable possession; I've only seen this with a free N and pronominal possessor Landaburu 1979: 160 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes for alienable possession; I've only seen this with a free N and pronominal possessor Landaburu 1979: 160 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Dem no Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Num-Noun no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Num no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no info nominative not marked, no info about accusative. Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes suffix: --ʔə suffix: -'ə Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Landaburu 1979; p.62; 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Landaburu 1979; p.62; 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Landaburu 1979; p.62; 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Landaburu 1979: 218-220 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Landaburu 1979: 218-220 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes for inalienable possession, anyway Landaburu 1979: p.132-134 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes different person marking forms for 3rd person subjects (and objects?) of different classes Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes suffix: -hə́ uncertain reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes suffix: -hə́ uncertain reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes suffix: -hə́ uncertain reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info pronominal suffix -təə pronominal suffix might actually be verbal prefix if pronoun turns out to be a proclitic Landaburu 1979: 196 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes suffix: -í Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Landaburu 1979: 100 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes hʌ́má occurs at beginning of declarative Landaburu 1979: 100 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Landaburu 1979: 100 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Landaburu 1979: 100 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes uncertain; modal/evidential type prefix on pronouns Landaburu 1979: 119-122 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no uncertain; yes if pn discussed above is actually verbal morph? Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes verbal suffix -ʌ́to; also, pronominal suffix: kə̃́ verbal suffix -ʌ́to, also suffix on pronoun; glossed "want" Landaburu 1979, p.122-123; 208 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes sequential particle noko uncertain; sequential particle noko comes after Pn+suffixes and before V Landaburu 1979: 173 Kelsey Neely