Ditransitive constructions: double object

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice
In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 294 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 26 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Both the theme (gift) and recipient receive accusative case marking. However, Aikhenvald does note that only the theme can be the target of a passive operation. Aikhenvald, 2003: 236 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 287 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:3436 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:33-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no info Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info However, it seems that this is a "double object" language since it seems that no formal difference distinguishes the objects of a ditransitive verb Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Normally, only one object is marked on the verb. There's no discussion of whether it's normally the theme or recipient. However, in cases of “pragmatic obliques,” the theme/patient gets the marker '=ni,' while the pragmatic oblique gets that regular third Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:65 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988:81 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Carson 1982:166-169 Amanda Meeks Can't find any examples of or writing about ditransitive clauses
Eñepa no only the theme is treated as the object of transtives Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes in rare cases, an indirect object may be unmarked for case Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:20 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96, 155-66 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes both are prefixed to verb Queixalós 2000:576 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:456-7 Daniel Valle Both objects receive accusaitve case
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:17 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Both direct and indirect object receive /-ta/ if they are specific. Levinson 1974:16 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:866 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez yes the direct object can get dative case, too Jung:118 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:105 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:386 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 291 to 293 Shannon Dardis The indirect object always seems to have the directional suffix ru attached to it, which is possible for both direct and indirect objects.
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.39 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes the benefactive gets the 'affected' marker, however, the affected marker can be on either the direct object or the indirect object, depending on the degree of 'affectancy' of the argument. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes the IO is obligatorily marked, but DO is not all the time Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 226 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.45 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.69-72 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.67 Chris Clack Causative forms of transitive verbs have two objects, both marked with -re
Tanimuca yes Ditransitive verbs take two objects. Strom 1992, p.118 Chris Clack The roles of the object noun phrases are semantically interpreted, not grammatically marked.
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:49 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 32 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:304-8 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:421 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no recipient is marked by a dative enclitic Vallejos 2010:524 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 97 done 0
Garrwa no 97 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no s339 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta maybe 79 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes cf text 34, sentence 3 (215); cf 174, sentence 1 done-Dan 1
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no 17 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 195-6 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 19: cf ex3-7 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 76 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 50 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu No 20 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 42 done 0
Uradhi No 346 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 87 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 131-132 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 6 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 64 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi yes 44 done 1
Martuthunira yes 230-231 done 1
Marrgany yes 315 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 134 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 405 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 27, 41 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 144-5 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 51 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 259 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 300 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 29-30 done 0
Djinang Yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 68 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung maybe 25 done 1
Bularnu yes 94 Done-Austin 1
Biri no 49 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no 73, 80, 125-6 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 72 done 0
Mathi-Mathi yes 79 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 24 done 1
Katthang no 38, 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 137-138 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 11 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 190, 6.40 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul Maybe 13 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 324 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 32 Done- 0
WesternTorres no? FO 133, second example (also cf 134, last example and 7.5.1?) done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 60 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 42 done 0
Arrernte Yes 125 1
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 61 1
Ritharrngu No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info 867 Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 18 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 98 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 57 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 27 0
Wajarri Yes 45 1
Warungu no 328-9, 333 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps