Kakua

Family
Kakua-Nukakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbv
Location
0.89°, -67.57°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Bolaños, Katherine. Fieldnotes. Bolaños, Katherine. 2010. Kakua phonology: first approach. University of Texas at Austin. (MA thesis).


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ʧāʔ [be.above] doubtful loan Yucuna tʃa, Yagua ntʃa See Language page Katherine Bolaños
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar panʔmɨnt [and.so.like.this/ discourse marker; fᵂɨ̂bm [return] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
all todo todos other niʔat unknown may be a calque of Tukanoan/Hup 'be-end/finish' See Language page Katherine Bolaños
and y e grammar hĩʔ [noun suffix] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
ankle tobillo tornozelo body híʧa-kurúʔ [foot-cl:nucle] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tɨ̂̃-hǔ̃ʔ [wood-ash] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
at en, a em, a location =bǔ [locative case] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
back espalda costas body tã̂ʔ doubtful loan Baniwa t̪áma See Language page Katherine Bolaños
belly barriga barriga body wṹrã- unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
below abajo, debajo abaixo location nɨmɁ=bǔ [be.below=LOC], dêj [go.down] unknown compare Puinave nom See Language page Katherine Bolaños
big grande grande quality bɨdǐ- [be.big] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bite morder morder body ʧǎ̃k inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
black negro preto colour ʔêj- [be.black-] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
blood sangre sangue body mêp inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
blow soplar soprar body pôh unique compare Hup pohow' See Language page Katherine Bolaños
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bone hueso osso body id/ idǐp unique compare Puinave -ut See Language page Katherine Bolaños
breast pecho, seno peito body hũʔ-daʔ [breast-cl.round] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
breathe respirar respirar body kâwdiʔ-waj [heart-pull] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
burn quemar queimar environment ʔǐgŋ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
child niño, niña criança human wébit inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
climb subir subir motion ʔǎbm-beh [go.up-go] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cloud nube nuvem environment bab-at toliʔ-dãʔ [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cold frío frio quality kɨ̂bɨʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
come venir vir motion hʉ̌j [arrive.here], hãwʔ3 inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cook cocinar cozinhar impact pɨ̌b unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality job3op3-diʔ4 [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
count contar contar mental hênaʔ [count/measure] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cry llorar chorar mental hɨ̃̌j unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cut/hack cortar cortar impact bûd, ʔib2 (H&R) unknown; inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
day día dia time yěw-fwáp inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
die/be dead morir morrer state wɨn inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dig cavar cavar impact bǎd inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dirty sucio sujo quality kej3hɨ̃b-dĩ4 [H&R] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dream soñar sonhar mental ʔǔʔ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
drink beber, tomar beber body bâb unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dry seco seco quality maɁ-wǐʔ-kɨn-ni [water-not.exist-neg-adjvz] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ʔeʔ-kan-ni [be.sharp-neg-adjvz] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dust polvo poeira environment uh inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
ear oreja orelha body mũrĩ-ʧû [ear-cl.cover] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
earth/soil tierra terra environment bak loan Nadahup: Hup b'ɔk; see below 'flower' Hup ɔ > Kakua a; Nukak term distinct See Language page Katherine Bolaños
eat comer comer body hěmɁ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
egg huevo ovo fauna típ-daʔ [egg-cl.roud] loan (into protolg?) Nadahup See Language page Katherine Bolaños
eye ojo olho body kibm-daʔ [eye/seed-cl.round] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body hunɁ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fall caer cair motion bɨ̌gŋ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
far lejos longe quality jɨp3 [H&R] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fat/grease grasa gordura body jî doubtful loan into proto-language E Tukanoan, e.g. Desano ɨji; compare also Puinave ye See Language page Katherine Bolaños
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔíp loan (into proto-language?) Nadahup: Hup ʔíp See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fear miedo medo mental ʔɨm doubtful loan into proto-language Nadahup: Hup ʔɔm See Language page Katherine Bolaños
feather pluma pena fauna júk-dup [hair-cl.long.thin.pointed] semantic shift hair See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fire fuego fogo environment tɨ̂-kɨt [wood/fire-cl:log] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fish xx xx fauna keh inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion dõh3 [H&R] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
flower flor flor environment ʧâ loan Nadahup: Hup c'ɔ; Hup ɔ > Kakua a; Nukak term distinct See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fly volar voar motion hǐh unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ʧǎwʔ, hej3 [H&R] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
foot pie body híʧa unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fruit fruta fruta flora keʔe4 daʔ4 [H&R] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
good bueno bom quality tɨ̂j unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
grow crecer crescer state beɁ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body júk unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hand mano mão body tejʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
head cabeza cabeça body wâw-daʔ [head-cl.round] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hear oír ouvir mental hǔj inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
heavy pesado pesado quality ʧǔd [be.heavy] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hide esconder esconder motion fwějʔ missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hit golpear, pegar bater impact maw, pêwʔ [hit.against something] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ʔɨ̌bm unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
how? como como grammar dêdn-paʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
if si se grammar na (verbal suffix) [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location dit [be.inside] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
intestines intestinos intestinos body hodop3 tõp4 [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body tak unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
kill matar matar impact mâw inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
lake lago lago environment ʔîm inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
laugh reír rir mental dêwʔ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
leaf hoja folha environment nɨ̂w̃ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wâj-mant [pull/put.together-side] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion lah- inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wedǔna doubtful loan unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
liver hígado figado body mam-daʔ [liver/pit-cl.round] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
long largo comprido, longo quality dup [cl] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna bɨƅʔ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
lung pulmón pulmão body ʧǎâ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dep loan Nadahup: Hup d'áp See Language page Katherine Bolaños
moon luna lua environment widʔ doubtful loan into proto-language, direction unknown Nadahup wædhɔ, widhɔ See Language page Katherine Bolaños
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔín loan into proto-language Puinave, Nadahup See Language page Katherine Bolaños
mouth boca boca body haʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
name nombre nome human wɨ̃t unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
near/close cerca de perto quality pèbʔ [be.near] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
neck cuello pescoço body bɨ̀t- unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
new nuevo novo quality hâp unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
night noche noite time ʧēj inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
no/not no não grammar wîʔi-kan [not.exist/not.have-NEG], dĩʔ4kãd4 [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
nose nariz nariz body wʉ̄:k inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
old viejo velho quality mâ [inanimate], beʔ-tǔaʔ [grow-approach] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
one uno um number bik inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
open/uncover abrir abrir other wãt unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
other otro outro grammar biʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tɨbɨ̌p [sickness], tɨ̌b [be.painful] missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
person/human being persona pessoa human kãk inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact mâw missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
rain lluvia chuva environment maʔ-bɨ̌gŋ- [water-fall-] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
red rojo vermelho colour dɨ̂-ni [be.red-adjvz] doubtful loan Nadahup: Hup dó; also Desano diari See Language page Katherine Bolaños
right/right hand derecha direita location/body hê-yet-man unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
road/path camino caminho manufacture namǎ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
root raíz raiz flora mâ-nat inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
rotten podrido podre quality mǔp/mǒp unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sand arena areia environment ʔùn inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
say decir dizer mental nih doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano nii 'say'; see also Quechua See Language page Katherine Bolaños
scratch rascar rasgar impact tãk unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
see ver ver mental ʔên inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ʔěp inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tîw [shoot blowgun] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
short corto curto quality baʔ4-dĩ4 unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
shoulder hombro ombro body mɨh-pɨh, dad3 [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sit sentar(se) sentar state ʧɨ̂d- unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
skin piel pele body ʧûw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sky cielo céu environment hêʔá inheritance compare Yucuna heʔetʃú See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sleep dormir dormir body ʔɨ̃̀w̃ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
small pequeño pequeno quality bai-ni [small-adjvz?] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
smoke humo fumaça environment ʧàw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hũj unknown Nadahup See Language page Katherine Bolaños
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact paʔ4, pãk2 [H&R] missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact hẽʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tah inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ɲɨ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
star estrella estrela environment kɨ̂j inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
steal robar roubar other nɨm unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora mâ [tree], --naɁ [cl.tree.like/stick], tõp [vein] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
stone piedra pedra environment hê-daʔ [stone-cl.round] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
suck chupar chupar body húbʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
swell hincharse inchar body tʃala inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
swim nadar nadar motion jǎʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩh unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
that ese/esa esse grammar kun inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality wɨp- [be.thick]; min [H&R] unknown; inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
thin delgado fino quality fᵂîpi [be.thin] only for innanimates unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
think pensar pensar mental hênaʔ hǔj [count-listen] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
this este/esta este grammar nin inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
2sg xx xx grammar měm inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
three tres tres number bík-pêjʔ-kan-nit [other-?-neg-sg.inan] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
throat garganta garganta body wãnaʔ- unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact juʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
thunder truenos trovão environment ʔeno loan Arawak See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ʧêw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tongue lengua lingua body nɨ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tooth diente dente body mǎw inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other hɨ̂dn [surround] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
two dos dois number ʧenê-wa [two-pl] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
vomit vomitar vomitar body ʔigŋ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
walk caminar, andar andar motion ják-ʧɨ̂j [chop-step.on] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
water agua agua environment maʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
wet mojado molhado quality hũ̌k-beh- [be.wet-go-] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
what? que, qué que grammar dedê inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
when? cuando quando grammar dédn=bǔ inheritance same as 'where' See Language page Katherine Bolaños
where? donde onde grammar dédn=bǔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
white blanco branco colour bǎb-[be.white-] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
who? quien, quién quem grammar déʔè inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
wife esposa esposa kinship hěʔbu [spouse]; hěʔbu-wili [spouse-cl.fem] ʔâ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
wind viento vento environment hùʔat inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
wing ala asa body mɨh-fwapa inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
woman/female mujer mulher human jadn unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
work trabajar trabalhar other tèw unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bɨ̂d-hɨm-ni [be.yellow-exist-adjvz]; měh-ni [be.yellowish-adjvz] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bad mal mal quality jehěp inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kǎn/kǎnʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
1sg yo eu grammar wěm inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
leg/foot pierna perna body wɨ̂-naʔ [leg-cl.tree.like] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
man/male hombre homem human newěʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kět inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hêjʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar fǐt inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
2pl ustedes vocês grammar jěbm inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bark corteza casca environment ʧûw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fingernail uña unha body têjʔ-ʧôa [hand-nail?] 'ʧôa' seems like a borrowing, no /o/ in native words unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
heart corazón coração body kawriʔ-daʔ/kawliʔ-daʔ [heart-cl.round] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sun sol sol time yêw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment bak-hě [soil-mountain] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
green verde verde quality hêʔa-hajʔ-ni unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hot caliente quente quality ʧẫʔ [to warm up in the sun or with fire] unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ~běʔ ~běʔ inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Katherine Bolaños
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. pâh pâh unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Katherine Bolaños
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mɨ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. wʉ̃w4 ~wɨ̀w inheritance compare Puinave wou underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Katherine Bolaños
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Katherine Bolaños
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ~dʉ̌j' ʧâwʔ unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ~bǎj' ~bǎjʔ unique derived from 'snake'? derived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Katherine Bolaños
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora tǎngap ~tûj unique no info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae no generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ~ûb ~Ɂûb unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Katherine Bolaños
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri jǔ jǔ doubtful loan Hup; see also Puinave yěw underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum dīī dìi inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Katherine Bolaños
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana jahǎʔ jahǎʔ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Katherine Bolaños
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. horaʔ horaʔ loan East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo or Tuyuka) ɔ̃lɛ underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Katherine Bolaños
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ~dʉwˀ nɨwʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Ocaina nõõɯ̃ nõõï̃, nõã́ã́ʔɸiʔtʸa underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. ~jèje-páh-tib-~da (seed-cl:round) unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Katherine Bolaños
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis belǔ bèlu unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna febeʔ febeʔ unique compare Puinave wip underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala ʔûj-daʔ fruit/ ʔûj-naʔ tree (Duguetia spixiana) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Katherine Bolaños
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba ~wɨ̌p missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Katherine Bolaños
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jolě (Boinae) loan Arawak missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) pejěp-piɁ unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Katherine Bolaños
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] bɨ̀kɨ̀-daɁ missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Katherine Bolaños
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha weʔěp wèʔép unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata kʉ̌j' ~hùab inheritance underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Katherine Bolaños
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera dǎdaʔ dâdaʔ doubtful loan Cubeo tata(-roco) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ~bʉh-hiwi mɨ-hiwi [river-tapir], calque; loan (into protolg?) East Tukanoan; Arawak East Tukanoan and/or Hup; river-tapir; alternative word ketʃo is inheritance compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Katherine Bolaños
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kǎd kǎdɁ unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kiʔ ~kǐk unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. dét-wawǎ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Katherine Bolaños
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca fít-tâ fít-tâ, tudãʔci unknown; inheritance no info See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Katherine Bolaños
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria talap tàlap loan Hup? Jivaroan? cf. Arawak *taparutu darap; see also Jivaroan underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tiʔ tiʔ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua hǐʔ hǐʔ unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) pâb jɨ̂j unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Katherine Bolaños
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ~jákoʔ ~jákoɁ unknown seems like a semantic shift. Nukak has the same word meaning tortoise underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae dîgip dîgip unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wʉbʉt mɨh ʔɨ̃̂j (crax blumenbachii), wɨbɨɁ bákaɁ (Nothocrax urumutum); ʔɨ̃̂j dɨjʧã babni (crax fasciolata) doubtful loan; unknown Yucuna wepana see 'guan' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ~wǎ ~wǎ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ~bʉ-~hiw [house-jaguar] ~bɨ-hiw [house-jaguar] semantic shift/calque from jaguar + ? house-jaguar compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Katherine Bolaños
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis hja-~bʉ:-~hiw hja-~bɨ-hiw [forest-house-jaguar] unique forest-house-jaguar compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae hǔp hùp unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family ~baɁ-búbɁ loan Hup missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ~bǔd-daɁ unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus wʉ̂d' ~jêw-~dí (electric eal); wɨ̂dʔ (eal, not electric) unknown also ɲêwní (~jêw-~dí) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Katherine Bolaños
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna keh keh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ~dud' ~dûdɁ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Katherine Bolaños
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kǔluʔkǔruʔ kǔluʔ/kǔruʔ unique reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ~dâlapdârap ~dâlap unique reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana ~bɨh-wáʔ unknown missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Katherine Bolaños
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis hiw-pâ hiw-pâ unknown jaguar-? compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) jilip jìlip inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans míp unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Katherine Bolaños
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba ~bâliʔ ~bâliʔ loan North Arawak e.g. Baniwa máaɺi underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Katherine Bolaños
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti ~dêjɁ missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. wɨbɨʔ (penelope obscura bridgesi) unknown see 'currassow' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Katherine Bolaños
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kâpi loan - WW %kaapi Wanderwort, Tukanoan, Arawak, Hup, etc. underived See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Katherine Bolaños
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae haw haw unknown cf. Puinave hu underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ~kâk-dɨ̌w=ni (person-carry-nmlz) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kãw ~kâw; tub-~di (hurt-adjvz) doubtful loan; inheritance Hup kɔw; also tubm-ni to.feel.pain-ADJV? 'to be spicy' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Katherine Bolaños
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] jugǔ jugǔ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bûʔ-jup bûʔjup inheritance arara-? phrase See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Katherine Bolaños
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ~bâjaʔ ~bâja loan - WW %maɲaʔo Witoto or Bora (Murui mááɲaʔo, Ocaina máánjaʔo) WW %mañaʔo underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Katherine Bolaños
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic tɨ́p-~dit missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ~hiw hǐw inheritance underived See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Katherine Bolaños
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura bɨ̌d missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Katherine Bolaños
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra jɨ̂j-piɁ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Katherine Bolaños
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. ~jɨdɨ̌p unique missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. jáj unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Katherine Bolaños
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae jâli loan Arawak, e.g. Tariana? missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ~hâw ~hâw unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae dʉ-wa dɨ̀p-~wa unknown no info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. jaw jâwʔ inheritance underived See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ho hû loan East Tukanoan East Tukanoan, e.g. Macuna, Siriano, Barasano oho-rika underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Katherine Bolaños
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. keh-beʔ keh-beʔ [fish-grow/augm] unique fish-other compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ~tûj-daʔ ~tûj-daʔ [manioc-cl.round] unique manioc-cl.round Broader (manioc generic) underived daʔ = round See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Katherine Bolaños
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ~tûj-daʔ ~tûj-daʔ [manioc-cl.round] unique generic term manioc-cl.round Broader (manioc generic) underived daʔ = round See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Katherine Bolaños
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ~Ɂɨ́h unknown missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Katherine Bolaños
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ~jejěh jɨbɨ inheritance reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera ʧèj-dâdaʔ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ~bubu múmuɁ unknown reduplicated See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Katherine Bolaños
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ~wed inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ~jâ-~dep ~jâ-~dep unknown opossum-? compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pɨbɨp loan - WW %pupu, via Hup? Hup/Yuhup pǝpǝp or Tukanoan, e.g. Bara bɨ'pɨpa; but note probably also onomatopoeic WW %pupu underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Katherine Bolaños
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) keb kěbm inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ~dêliɁ unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ~dʉw ~ʧêj-~dɨ́w unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Katherine Bolaños
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ~jah ~jǎh unique underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Katherine Bolaños
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea ~bad-ji-~da-~daɁ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Katherine Bolaños
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ~bʉ̄:-~daʔ ~bɨ́-~daʔ [chontaduro-cl.treelike] unique chontaduro-cl.treelike underived naʔ = tree.like See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Katherine Bolaños
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus j'ʉ̂ ʧɨ̂ doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %tʃihõ see Huambisa tʃiu underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Katherine Bolaños
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ~dǎt inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Katherine Bolaños
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae [coendou bicolor- bicolor-spined porcupine] ʔî [coendou bicolor- bicolor-spined porcupine] unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum kɨ̌d-daʔ missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Katherine Bolaños
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae ʧawɨ́Ɂ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. dawâ dâwɁaɁ unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Katherine Bolaños
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones dʉw dɨ̂w unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Katherine Bolaños
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ~wɨ̌p missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Katherine Bolaños
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wud wǔd unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ~bāp ~bàp unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda ~j'ʉ̂j' ~ʧɨ̂j̃ʔ doubtful loan East Tukanoan e.g. Siriano sɨ̃ɨ̃ĩ́ ['snail' is widely borrowed] underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ~bâj ~bâj inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox bûp-~pi (Bothrops atrox); Ɂít-~hɨ̂ (Bothrops jaraca ferdelance viperidae); jɨ̂jɁ (Bothrops asper) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Katherine Bolaños
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. keh-beɁ-~wɨ́d-at ('fish-grow-die-nmlz' Pseudoplatystoona fasciatum) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae hâgap hâgap unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. jujǔ-daɁ unknown missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Katherine Bolaños
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae bâlaʔ, bâraʔ bàlaʔ unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ~pêjep ~pêjep-tɨb-~di (stingray-hurt-adjvz) unknown also means 'clay pan'? underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kɨ̌d-daʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage Bora kʰɯni underived daʔ = round See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Katherine Bolaños
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris hiwi hiwi unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera idǐp-~hěb' pûduɁ/ idǐp-hěmɁ (bone-eat) unique bone-eat compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea dʉw-jí dɨ̀wjí unique tick-blood compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. dɨ̌ʔ (Hoplias sp.) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ~bʉh-baj mɨw-hûni (tinamidae tinamous tinamiformes); mɨw-bòwrɨ (red winged tinamou); mɨw-wàw- ʧám-ni (tinmus major) doubtful loan Hup mɔ̃h; may mean 'river-small' compound See Language page 0 1 0 not collected N/A 0 0 traded for goods with westerners Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kâká kâká unique onomatopoeic See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum ~hʉ̌p ~hɨ̌p doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Puinave hǝp underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Katherine Bolaños
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria tʉh tɨh unique underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Katherine Bolaños
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ~dih nih inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ~bâ-~daʔ ~bâ-~daʔ unique underived naʔ = tree.like See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella wap wǎp-Ɂêj-ni inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui ~bǐ missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Katherine Bolaños
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae hiwǎʔ-wʉbʉʔ hǔp unique forest-guan compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Katherine Bolaños
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita wiw wǐw doubtful loan Hup/Nadahup 'bullet ant' underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons wap-babǎʔ wap-babǎ [machin-whitish] unique babaʔ 'whitish' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus koatá koatá loan - WW %kowata Wanderwort; see Cubeo kuata and Yagua kawota, Waimiri-Atroari kwata, Yucuna kuwata WW %kuata underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ~bʉ̂ mɨ̀ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ~bêw ɁigǐɁ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Katherine Bolaños
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae pʉ:lʉt, pʉ:rʉt pɨlɨt unknown onomatopoeic See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Katherine Bolaños
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. esp. 'wild yam' ~juwá-daʔ; ~bábu [esp. wild yam] inheritance underived daʔ = round See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna mʉ̃:-hĩw [house-jaguar] unique See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wã̌: inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ɲɨ̌p-at-dobʔ ɲɨ̌p-at-dobʔ unique hunting, warfare See Language page Katherine Bolaños
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ʧak-daʔ ʧak-daʔ [axe-cl.round] axe-cl.round inheritance Simplex axe-cl.round especially for clearing fields See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool tib-bɨbʔ tib-bɨbʔ unknown Compound seed-lice? can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Katherine Bolaños
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material pamap-daʔ pamap-daʔ [plate/bowl-cl.round] plate/bowl unknown cf. %parapi Simplex plate/bowl-cl.round See Language page Katherine Bolaños
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wɨʔ Doubtful loan Unknown Compare Makiritari wɨ̄wa; Tuyuka pii; Yanomami wɨɨ Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material wɨʔ-baj-ni wɨʔ-baj-ni small basket unique Phrase basket-be.small-adjvz See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bed cama cama culture-material ɲa-hâ-ʧû ɲa-hâ-ʧû [?-lay-cl.cover/skin] unique Other complex ?-lay-cl.cover/skin See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ʧɨ̂d-at-pâʔa ʧɨ̂d-at-pâʔa [sit-cl.round-cl.flat.on.top] unique Derived sit-cl.round-cl.flat.on.top See Language page Katherine Bolaños
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ʔɨ̌ʔ-naʔ ʔɨ̌ʔ-naʔ inheritance Simplex blowgun-cl.stick/tree.like currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bow arco arco subsistence tool ɲɨ̌p-at-tɨh ɲɨ̌p-at-tɨh unique Other complex throw.arrow-nmlz-hunt arco See Language page Katherine Bolaños
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tûdʔ-at-wawǎʔ tut-daʔ-wawǎʔ [?-cl.round-cl.broom.like] unknown Other complex ?-cl.round-cl.broom.like See Language page Katherine Bolaños
canoe canoa canoa transport hãʔ-ʧû hãʔ-ʧû [lie.flat.on.water/to.cover-cl.cover/skin] unique Compare Puinave haʔ Derived lie.flat.on.water-cl.cover/skin See Language page Katherine Bolaños
cat gato gato acculturation piʧina piʧina loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
chicken gallina galinha acculturation mɨh-baj mɨh-baj semantic shift from 'tinamou' Phrase river/arm-small See Language page Katherine Bolaños
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology mǎ mǎ unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool baw-at dã (H&R) missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
coca narcotics fít-tâ Doubtful loan Tukanoan Maybe Waimaja source No info See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Katherine Bolaños
dance (generic) culture-mythology ʔew sing, dance (?) Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool telǔ-dubʔ telǔ-dubʔ inheritance thorn from the patabá palm from which these darts are built Other complex Patoa.spine-clːthin.pointed.long hunting and warfare See Language page Katherine Bolaños
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology bè-ʔid bè-ʔid unknown Also: hũyu No info In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Katherine Bolaños
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology yǎk-at-daʔ yǎk-at-daʔ unknown Also pẽd daʔ(H&R) Derived to.pound/smash-nmlz-clːround See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pêb-pat pêb-pat doubtful loan see Bora, Carib, Yagua pepet- forms No info esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Katherine Bolaños
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology waw-kâg-at-hɨ̂dɨ waw-kagaʔ-hʉ̂dʉ [head-to.put.on.top-circle] unique Phrase head-to.put.on.top-circle See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology ʧā̃p ʧā̃p unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
firewood leña lenha other tɨ̀-kɨt tʉ̃̂; tɨ̀-kɨt inheritance Compound fire-clːtree.log See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food hɨ̃h hɨ̃h unique Simplex barbasquear See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food waj waj unknown Literally 'pull'; same semantic overlap found widely among Vaupes languages Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool nunt Inheritance Also hɨ̃h-at Derived fish.w.timbo-nmlz See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool tõp tõp unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool měj měj unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ʧɨ̌jʔ ʧɨ̌jʔ unknown Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Katherine Bolaños
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food bêgep bêgep doubtful loan East Tukanoan; see also Resigaro Also bektʃi (H&R). Compare Ocaina bióóhxa; Resigaro peégi Simplex agriculture See Language page Katherine Bolaños
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology ʧîw ʧîw unique Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Katherine Bolaños
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food neɲěp neɲěp 'animal' animal unknown Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Katherine Bolaños
genipap culture-mythology wẫʔ Unknown Also keni; Compare East Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano we'é Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool pẽje3 tʃo2, bõjʔ3 tʃo2 'gourd' (H&R) unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool dup-naʔ dup-naʔ [cl.long.pointed-cl.treelike] unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Katherine Bolaños
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kâjaʔ kâjaʔ loan East Tukanoan, prob. Cubeo Derived probably lexicalized from 'kâg-at' put.on.top.of-nmlz See Language page Katherine Bolaños
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool pêɲep pêɲep unknown Simplex agriculture? See Language page Katherine Bolaños
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tɨa-naʔ tɨa-naʔ calque from 'fire' tɨa comes from tɨ 'fire.wood' Simplex gun-cl.stick/tree.like See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material maʔ maʔ doubtful loan North Arawak Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna. Taylor 9157 argues that origin is in Arawak 'sleep-NMLZ' WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hat sombero chapéu dress ʃombero missing Spanish Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pɨ̂wt pʉ̂wt, ʧā̃p unknown Derived From pɨ̂w-at 'have coca in mouth; ball in cheek '+ nominalizer In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
honey miel mel food belú-mak belú-mak unknown Compare Ticuna beɾuɾe Compound bee-liquid only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Katherine Bolaños
hunt cazar caçar food tɨh tɨh unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ʔĩbat-dubʔ ʔĩbat-dup [metal-cl.long.thin.pointed] unknown calque Nukak? Derived metal-cl.long.thin.pointed See Language page Katherine Bolaños
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
machete machete facão culture-material ʔĩbat-naʔ ʔĩbat-naʔ [metal-cl.tree.like] unique Derived metal-cl.tree.like See Language page Katherine Bolaños
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool kâh-at-daʔ kâh-at-daʔ unique Derived smash-nmlz-clːround See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fence, palisade cerco cerca other wâyat-hɨdɨʔ wâyat-hʉdʉʔ [?-keep/hold] unknown Other complex ?-keep/hold may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Katherine Bolaños
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology pelât-maʔ-ã pelât-maʔ-ã [flute-cl.tree.like-dim] doubtful loan Cubeo See also Baniwa pʰeeɺóma Other complex flute-cl.tree.like-dim See Language page Katherine Bolaños
paper papel papel acculturation papelaʔ missing Nheengatu? Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kâh-at-naʔ kâh-at-naʔ unique Derived smash-nmlz-clːstick/tree.like See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other puh-at-dubʔ Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material pamap-daʔ pamap-daʔ [plate/bowl-cl.round] plate/bowl unknown cf. %parapi Simplex plate/bowl-cl.round See Language page Katherine Bolaños
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ʔitaʔ-wâm ʔĩtãʔ-wam [metal-pot] doubtful loan, direction unknown Puinave wãm Compound metal-clay See Language page Katherine Bolaños
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology yú-tat-daʔ yú-tat-daʔ unknown Also dotdaʔ(H&R) See Language page Katherine Bolaños
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool wɨ̌̃h wã̂; wɨ̃h doubtful loan, direction unknown Hup Also wã̂ 'brea' (black resin made from tree bark); Compare Hup wɔ̃h Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
salt sal sal food nɨm-ni nɨm-ni unique Also ʧûj-ʧǎʔ 'salt.plant-clːlong.leaves' Derived be.salty-adjvz See Language page Katherine Bolaños
school escuela escola acculturation escuela loan Spanish Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
soldier soldado soldado acculturation hja-diʔ-bǔ hja-diʔ-bǔ unique same term used to mean "guerrillero" Phrase forest-non.subj-loc; 'those from the forest' See Language page Katherine Bolaños
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hũag-at-naʔ hũag-at-naʔ unique Derived hurl-nmlz-clːtree.like/stick See Language page Katherine Bolaños
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food numu-kuʔ numu-kuʔ unknown Hup? Compare Andoke, ñeemi; Hup, nǔh ; Dâw, nǔh;Nadeb RN, nuːh No info See Language page Katherine Bolaños
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation dì dì unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food maʔ-patǎ maʔ-patǎ unknown Other complex water-? agriculture See Language page Katherine Bolaños
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material mɨ̌-nɨ̂w nɨw [leaf] unknown Compare Hup, Tukanoan Compound house-palm.leaf(type?) See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food maj-piʔ mãj-piʔ [anaconda-vine] unique Compound anaconda-liana word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tobacco (native) narcotics hɨ̌p Inheritance Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool kâjaʔ kâjaʔ unknown Derived probably lexicalized from 'kâg-at' put.on.top.of-nmlz agriculture See Language page Katherine Bolaños
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool manji manji unique Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Katherine Bolaños
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool dut dut unknown Doubtful inheritance Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Katherine Bolaños
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology hũʔ-wãʔ hũʔ-wãʔ unknown No info a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Katherine Bolaños
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wʉʔ unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Katherine Bolaños
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology pʉ̂wt unknown Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Katherine Bolaños
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology yegěʔ-ʧû [clothes-cl.cover/skin]; hãʔ-ʧû unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology henaʔ-huj-ka-ni [?-listen-neg-advjz?] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
paddle/oar remo remo transport menat-naʔ[paddle-cl.tree.like] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tɨt2 [H&R]; tõp [vine] loan Nadahup: Hup tɨt See Language page Katherine Bolaños
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology keniʔ See Language page Katherine Bolaños
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other puh-at-dubʔ unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture babʔ-ni loan Hup 'be companion' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Katherine Bolaños
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Katherine Bolaños
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Katherine Bolaños
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Katherine Bolaños
house other inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes /b/, /d/, /g/ Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños /g/ doesn't occur onset.
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes /b'/, /d'/ Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no this answer means "no, a syll. May or may not have a coda, no restrictions" Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes v̂, v̌, v̄ Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños tone is a prosodic feature
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños don't know the answer for this yet
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Is the answer here "no they are not different" or "no, they are different" Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños don't know this yet
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info I was thinking that maybe in serialization the verb 'go' is encoding more like a diectic emphasis. Also, when verbs become markers of an action like 'to do repeatedly' should we consider this here? Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 animate/inanimate Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 1 non subject Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no innanimates optionally marked when occuring with animate. Obligatorily marked when with innanimate Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes one=one, two=two+be.accompanied, three= two+three Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info they do go up to 20 but are just additions to the basic system. And I also wonder if this strategy is induced through contact (from ET for example?) Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes the boy's his dog' Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes consider proclitic as the indefined? Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes either with possesive marker, or with proclitic when indefined possesor Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no proclitics? Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes -~hi = distant/remote past; -be = rec. past; -Vp =past marker -~hi = distant/remote past; -be = rec. past; -Vp =past marker attached to the verb construction Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -bip -bip attached to the verb construction Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no there is one morpheme specifically for negative imperative, but not for imperatives. Imperatives are formed by marking 2sg. Proclitic on the verb and reduplication of the last vowel of the stem of the verb. Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes -ka (neg.marker) + -buhǔ (neg.imperative) negation in imperative must also have the regular negation marker Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes -taga -taga Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -~tiʔ (attached to proclitic) + -jʉʔ (verbal suffix) Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no in serial verb contructions, though, when movement there is always 'go' or 'come' to indicate the direction of the movement Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no visually acquired info is not marked. Plain form of sentence Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes same as reported Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no preference for OV: (S)O(S)V(S) Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Dem no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Num-Noun yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Num no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes -diʔ (suffix) Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes subject marked on verb by proclitics Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes proclitics Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no subjects must be marked on verb construction, even if 3rd person Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no /~-iʔ/ Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info I'm not sure about this yet, but this far I think that the 'verbalizer' marker on the noun, when appearing in the verbal construction it indecates causative. Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes NP exist(verb)-kan(negation marker)-apect/tense/mood.markers Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes -/~dǐt/ [nǐt] verbal suffix Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes -bu Marker attached to the subject marker Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
200 small HG low mobile Interfluvial