Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders)

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Noun classifiers trigger extensive agreement, but there can be multiple classifiers and not all nouns have them. Allin, 1976: 152-153 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes One of the feminine markers is also called a classifier, but it appears to be functioning in the same way as the other class marker. However, there are also numeral classifiers. Galindo, 2002: 98-112 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Numeral classifiers, perhaps also possessive classifiers? Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No mention of classifiers in chapter on nouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes The same morphology used for distinguishing noun class can also be used for noun classification, with the difference being in how the morphology affects the meaning of the noun. For example, the suffix "-ɖap" meaning (roughly) habitat. When used as noun c Santos, 2006:115 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Sometimes two or more nouns can link up, but the first noun is more generic and the nouns that follow specify the referent. There is only one example--there are three words for 'people,' (guajiro, non-guajiro indigenous, and indigenous), and the following Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes established classifiers Aikhenvald 2003: 89 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes There are two types of what are called "classificatory nouns," one set is less productive, the other set is more productive. Facundes notes that these have properties of both classifiers and noun class/genders, so they are somewhere between the two. Facundes, 2000: 167, 169, 176 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:13, 2234; Mihas 2010:107 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:26 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' yes There are more than 100 classifiers Duff-Tripp 1997:113 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure approx 21 "The majority of bound nouns can function as classifiers, in addition to the approximately 21 grammatical classifier roots." Danielsen 2007: p101 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 332 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:81-2 Daniel Valle
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes 66 classifiers. Mainly describe shape, but also include gender and animacy. Seifart - 2005:77 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no no noun classifiers Hall 1988: 291-292 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes nominalizers: '-toʔ' (gerundive), '-kói', plural '-kon' (perfermer of the verb), '-eŋ' (actor/one who), 'n-eŋ' (agentive), 'tɨ-…-s-eŋ' (patient, reflexive patient) Carson 1982: 61-4 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes There are 21 classifiers, only occur in genitive constructions Gildea 1989; Aikhenvald 2000:127; Payne 2012:82 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:39-59 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:91 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:3 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes not clear what the first two classify, -ia animates, -ja animates Buenaventura - 1993:50 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:125-8 Daniel Valle However, it is not clear the status of the "noun classifiers" as such from the examples which show them in compounding and incorporation processes
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana yes The author does not talk about noun classifiers but it does look like that Loewen 1954:72-76 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 133-134 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes These are mainly related mass things, liquid state, recipient, ect.There are 8 nouns classifiers Giron 2008: p183 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 74 to 80 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Daniel Smith
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes possessor classification only Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins identifies a set of noun classifiers but these are probably misanalyzed Martins 2004:129 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 35 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes 150+ They are suffixed to inanimate nouns of class 1, to verb roots, and to certain animate nouns; Chacón describes 17 classifiers Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73; Chacón 2012:242-251 Amanda Novak/Daniel Smith The classifiers of Cubeo form a continuum, with one-syllable bound morphemes at one extreme and multisyllable nonbound morphemes, which have independent stress, at the other extreme.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes 140 commonly used Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.37 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18 Chris Clack These serve three functions: 1. show the correlation between elements of the noun, 2. radical-nominal noun, and 3. replace the noun that follows the switch.
Barasano yes Barasano has an extensive system of noun classifiers, which provide concordance within the noun phrase, and are used to form referring expressions that head noun phrases. Jones & Jones 1991, p.49 Chris Clack 11 Major categories of Barasano classifiers; Shape, masses, designs, botanical, disassociated parts, geographical, manner-formed, abstract, associative, general, residue. Shape is the major feature and comprises the largest category.
Tanimuca yes Whereas noun class and predicate adjective categorization have relevance outside the NP, classifiers categorize nouns within the NP according to gender, number, animacy, and shape function. Strom 1992, p.11. Chris Clack The six classes include: masculine and animate singular, feminine singular, masculine and animate dual, masculine and animate plural, feminine plural, and inanimate.
Siona yes noun classifier system for inanimates Wheeler 1987:106 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes various based on form, function, other; "dependent noun" classifiers are a large (350+) open class. West and Welch 2004: 85; Ramirez 1997: 234-6 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes 100+ Ramirez 1994: p.123-124 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.119, 120 Kelsey Neely synchronically frozen, often unproductive
Sanumá yes about 15 Borgman 1990: p. 144-147 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes ms4.1 done 1
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 55 done 0
Yir Yoront yes Done-Dan 1
Yindjibarndi no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 47 done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 17-18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 7 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 34 done 0
Martuthunira yes 190-191 done 1
Marrgany No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 279 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 446 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 30 0
Dyirbal yes 44 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 38; 95 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 16 done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 75 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 102 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 71 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 80 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11 done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 78 Done- 1
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte Yes 86 1
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga No 54 done 0
Tharrkari No 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps