Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders)

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 62
Resígaro yes Noun classifiers trigger extensive agreement, but there can be multiple classifiers and not all nouns have them. Allin, 1976: 152-153
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 21
Piapoco yes One of the feminine markers is also called a classifier, but it appears to be functioning in the same way as the other class marker. However, there are also numeral classifiers. Galindo, 2002: 98-112
Yukuna yes Numeral classifiers, perhaps also possessive classifiers? Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520
Yavitero no No mention of classifiers in chapter on nouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48
Wapishana yes The same morphology used for distinguishing noun class can also be used for noun classification, with the difference being in how the morphology affects the meaning of the noun. For example, the suffix "-ɖap" meaning (roughly) habitat. When used as noun c Santos, 2006:115
Wayuu no Sometimes two or more nouns can link up, but the first noun is more generic and the nouns that follow specify the referent. There is only one example--there are three words for 'people,' (guajiro, non-guajiro indigenous, and indigenous), and the following Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798
Tariana yes established classifiers Aikhenvald 2003: 89
Apurinã yes There are two types of what are called "classificatory nouns," one set is less productive, the other set is more productive. Facundes notes that these have properties of both classifiers and noun class/genders, so they are somewhere between the two. Facundes, 2000: 167, 169, 176
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:13, 2234; Mihas 2010:107
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:26
Yanesha' yes There are more than 100 classifiers Duff-Tripp 1997:113
Kinikinau no info
Baure approx 21 "The majority of bound nouns can function as classifiers, in addition to the approximately 21 grammatical classifier roots." Danielsen 2007: p101
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 332
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:81-2
Yine no Matteson 1965
Añun no Patte 1989
Bora yes 66 classifiers. Mainly describe shape, but also include gender and animacy. Seifart - 2005:77
Makiritare no no noun classifiers Hall 1988: 291-292
Makushi yes nominalizers: '-toʔ' (gerundive), '-kói', plural '-kon' (perfermer of the verb), '-eŋ' (actor/one who), 'n-eŋ' (agentive), 'tɨ-…-s-eŋ' (patient, reflexive patient) Carson 1982: 61-4
Eñepa yes There are 21 classifiers, only occur in genitive constructions Gildea 1989; Aikhenvald 2000:127; Payne 2012:82
Pemon no de Armellada 1999
Guna no Smith texts
Naso yes Quesada 2000
Ika no Frank 1989:39-59
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:91
Damana no
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:3
Macaguan yes not clear what the first two classify, -ia animates, -ja animates Buenaventura - 1993:50
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:125-8 However, it is not clear the status of the "noun classifiers" as such from the examples which show them in compounding and incorporation processes
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b
Matses no Fleck:240
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9
Páez no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133
Urarina no info
Waunana yes The author does not talk about noun classifiers but it does look like that Loewen 1954:72-76
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 133-134
Puinave yes These are mainly related mass things, liquid state, recipient, ect.There are 8 nouns classifiers Giron 2008: p183
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 74 to 80
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.36
Hup yes Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes possessor classification only Weir 1984
Dâw no Martins identifies a set of noun classifiers but these are probably misanalyzed Martins 2004:129
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 35
Cubeo yes 150+ They are suffixed to inanimate nouns of class 1, to verb roots, and to certain animate nouns; Chacón describes 17 classifiers Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73; Chacón 2012:242-251 The classifiers of Cubeo form a continuum, with one-syllable bound morphemes at one extreme and multisyllable nonbound morphemes, which have independent stress, at the other extreme.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 122
Makuna yes 140 commonly used Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.37
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18 These serve three functions: 1. show the correlation between elements of the noun, 2. radical-nominal noun, and 3. replace the noun that follows the switch.
Barasano yes Barasano has an extensive system of noun classifiers, which provide concordance within the noun phrase, and are used to form referring expressions that head noun phrases. Jones & Jones 1991, p.49 11 Major categories of Barasano classifiers; Shape, masses, designs, botanical, disassociated parts, geographical, manner-formed, abstract, associative, general, residue. Shape is the major feature and comprises the largest category.
Tanimuca yes Whereas noun class and predicate adjective categorization have relevance outside the NP, classifiers categorize nouns within the NP according to gender, number, animacy, and shape function. Strom 1992, p.11. The six classes include: masculine and animate singular, feminine singular, masculine and animate dual, masculine and animate plural, feminine plural, and inanimate.
Siona yes noun classifier system for inanimates Wheeler 1987:106
Tukano yes various based on form, function, other; "dependent noun" classifiers are a large (350+) open class. West and Welch 2004: 85; Ramirez 1997: 234-6
Yanomami yes 100+ Ramirez 1994: p.123-124
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.119, 120 synchronically frozen, often unproductive
Sanumá yes about 15 Borgman 1990: p. 144-147
Surui no info
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul no 0
Warrwa no 0
Worrorra yes ms4.1 1
Garrwa no 0
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri no 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no 55 0
Yir Yoront yes 1
Yindjibarndi no 46-47 0
Yidiny yes 1
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no 0
Yalarnnga no 0
Woiwurrung no 0
Wirangu No 47 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a 0
Warumungu No 17-18 0
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 334 0
Paakantyi no 0
Pitta-Pitta No 192 0
Pintupi no 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no 0
Ngiyambaa no 0
Ngayawang No 7 0
Muruwari no info x
Mayi-Yapi No 34 0
Martuthunira yes 190-191 1
Marrgany No 301 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 279 1
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 446 1
Kaurna No 5 0
Kalkatungu no 0
Jaru no 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 0
Gugu-Badhun no 0
Yuwaalaraay No 30 0
Dyirbal yes 44 1
Duungidjawu no 25 0
Djinang No 27 0
Diyari yes 38; 95 1
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 16 0
Bularnu n/a 0
Biri no info x
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 75 1
Batyala no info x
Arabana no 102 0
Alyawarr no 0
Nyikina no 0
Yawuru no 0
Yulparija No 20 0
Wathawurrung no 71 0
Mathi-Mathi no 80 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a 0
Thanggati no 11 0
Katthang n/a 0
Panyjima no 0
Ngarinyeri No 18 0
Kurrama no 0
Yingkarta N/A 0
Githabul No 8 0
Gunya No 301 0
Kunjen yes 78 1
WesternTorres no 0
Wakaya no info x
Yindjilindji no 0
Bandjalang No 43 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 0
Arrernte Yes 86 1
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri No 71 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman No 14 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 0
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 0
Narungga No 54 0
Tharrkari No 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:446
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers