Gooniyandi

Family
Bunuban
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
gni
Location
-18.26°, 126.29°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngidi Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yardi Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar nganyi Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar gidi Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nginyji Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar bidi Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar niyi Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location laandi Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
all todo todos other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
and y e grammar -ngaddaya Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body linggali Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body garri loan Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental ganybili Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gawoondoo Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location ya Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body wirla unique Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality yijgawoo Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wan.ga Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body jaman.ga unique Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location baabirri inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality nyamarni inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body wirt- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour gooroogooroo loan Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body kungulu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality damarda Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body gooji doubtful loan Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture garli Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body gamoo loan Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment ngab- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human joogoo, booga doubtful loan Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion bar- inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ngoomoorroo doubtful loan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality maadi unique Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion bij- Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact woob- inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ngarda- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact gaj- Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state nganyandi Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact wirrij- inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna maddanyi Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental gooni- loan Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body ngoorloog- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality booladi loan Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment joordoo loan Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body man.ga loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment banda Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body ngab- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna gambinyi loan Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body moorloo inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body roowoo unique Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion gard- unique Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality marnangoorroo unique Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body min.ga Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship ngaaboo loan Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental yoowa inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna bin.gidi loan Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment wayandi unique Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna gawi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment jiga inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion ngirrinyi Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
foot pie body thinga inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora manyi Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality joornanygarra loan Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body yambadda Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body marla loan NGY Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body mirra unique Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental thanymili- unique Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality tharidi inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion booroo- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact gard- unique Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact thiddi Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other goorrij- inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body jilywiri, loan Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact gard- inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental galgal- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment yimarraarra inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body birdi Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bagi- inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment jimirlooroo loan Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body mirli loan Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality girrabinngarri inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nyanggi inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body kawoo loan Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human ngoombarna Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna maa Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment jaalinyi loan Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngarranyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body thangarndi inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yingi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body jaabi loan Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality yalawa Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body wirli doubtful loan Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality yanoonggoo inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time maningga inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar marlami Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body marnili unique Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality ngamoonhingi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
one uno um number yoowarni inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar yaanya inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human yoowooloo Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body digi Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment yiwirndi loan Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour thiwa inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body joordoo loan Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture baali Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora yirrali unique Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality thoowoorndoo unique Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment walyarra loan Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental jag- unique Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirrij- loan Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental mila- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jalgoordoo loan Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality thigi unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body laawadi loan Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body gambi Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state warang unique Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body birlnga 'bark' inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment birrinyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body mooyoo doubtful loan Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality jiginya unique Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body wab- Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment wan.gi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body goonggoodoo Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jany- Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact nyag- Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wara- be st; doorloog s. up inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment warda loan Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment ngaarri inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time middi Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body joowardi loan Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion bayal- inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body nyawa doubtful loan Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ngoorroo inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality larrbi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar ngirndaji inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number ngaroodoo inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body garndagarndadi loan Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact waj- loan Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment naya doubtful loan Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact mird- Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body thalanyi loan Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body minyjoo inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other goornag- inheritance Claire Bowern
two dos dois number garndiwirri unique Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body yooroog doubtful loan Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion ward inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment gamba unique Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality giyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar jaji unique Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar ngoonyiya inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour labawoo doubtful loan Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngoorndoo inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship garingi Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment girngali loan Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human goornboo Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour garndaarra doubtful loan Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis wanyjirri loan Jaru missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae migi migi loan Jaru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus mayarda mayarda loan into protolanguage mayarta Bunuban Worrorran also in Nyikina WW %mayarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba dumbu dumbu loan into protolanguage tumpi Bunuban Worrorran WW %dumbi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer balga balga inheritance palka Bunuban underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp nyumbul̠‑ nyumpurl inheritance nyumpurl Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris baga baga inheritance paka Bunuban WW %paka underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jirigi jirigi loan into protolanguage tyiriki Bunuban Jarragan WW>tyurlak WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae yarliyarli unknown missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus yilimi unique little cuckoo-shrike missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis birla birla unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri mawurru , k loan Kija underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae biyin̠d̠i biyin̠d̠i inheritance piyin Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species loomoogoo loomoogoo loan Jarragan Jarr lumukU- WW %luma underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii jawawudu jawawudu loan into protolanguage tyawawurru Bunuban S.Jarragan WW %tyalkururru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda gooddalga gooddalga loan into protolanguage kurrantal Bunuban Jarragan underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus girrganyi loan into protolanguage brown falcon; same in Bunuba WW %karrkiny missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula jambiyindi jambiyindi loan tyampiyinti Bunuban Walmajarri changed from Unique, CB underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) goombirla loan Jaru WW %kumpurla missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius win̠d̠u wirntu loan into protolanguage wirntu Bunuban Jarragan WW WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis gilarla gilarla unknown also nguntyu; Bun missing underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis galamooda galamooda inheritance kalamuta Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata gunthurrngarri gunthurrngarri unique derived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera malimali malimali loan Jaru WW %malimali reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota binyoonggoo yilimi unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera noorangarri inheritance small green, also in Bun.; several kinds missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) goolamangaddi goolamangaddi inheritance kulumangarri Bunuban other complex same structure in Walmajarri 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ganbadi ganbadi inheritance kanparri Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae [bal̠ara copy of next] missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes barlara barlara doubtful loan into protolanguage parlarara Bunuban loan into Proto-Language from Nyikina? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species gaddanggaddang gaddanggaddang unknown WW %karrankarran reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus dambidi unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo maddanyi maddanyi loan Jaru WW %marrany underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris thadda thadda inheritance tharra Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae lawarla lawarla inheritance lawarla Bunuban Bunuba lawal 'black duck' underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae garnanganyja garnanganyja loan into protolanguage karnangaytya Bunuban Walmajarri WW %karnanganytya underived WW into Qld 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna gawi gawi loan into protolanguage kawi Bunuban Jarragan kapi 'water' in N. Jarragan , 'fish' in Walmajarri but cf. kawi 'fish' in Worrorran kaaguwi in E. Mirndi WW %kapi underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) jiga jiga unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ngirrinyi ngirrinyi loan into protolanguage ngirrinyi Bunuban Walmajarri WW %ngurriny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) ginyma ginyma unique kinyma Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni lalanggarra lalanggarra inheritance lalangkarra Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni ngawaya ngawaya unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii jarramba jarramba loan direction unknown WW %tyarramba underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii wawulu wawulu inheritance wawulu Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) woogoo woogoo loan Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kil̠inykil̠iny kil̠inykil̠iny loan direction unknown Children's python WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wilarrabi wilarrabi inheritance wilarrapi Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) warlarri loan into protolanguage WW %warlarri missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp waawanyi waawanyi unique WW %walarri underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) gilirni gilirni unknown borrowed from kili 'thorn'? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera jaadoo unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis jooddgina jooddgina inheritance tyurrkina Bunuban underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina lawinyjina lawinyjina unknown underived 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata warndawarnda unknown cf. Walm lying across missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus nyanggi nyanggi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus dimana dimana loan Jarragan WW origin? WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic biyirndi unknown WW %pirniny missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing missing Black-necked stork missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae thiddoo thiddoo loan Jarragan underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda yoomoo unknown freshwater snail missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata goorroolyoo loan Nyulnyulan also in Walm. missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing several lizards listed not this one missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gul̠inyi gul̠inyi loan into protolanguage kiwiliny Bunuban Ngumpin-Yapa kiwili in Jaru , kiwiny in others WW %kulinyi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) birrinyulu birrinyulu unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) wida wida inheritance wita Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius maraljaroo unknown red-flower kurrajong missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis waari unknown cf. Walm wakiri ngalthirri - pandanus nut cluster; Yawuru wangiri; Walm. Wakiri; source may be in Goon. With ng loss after loans out missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya gooddoomba gooddoomba unknown underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida maddawi maddawi inheritance marrwirli Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp binyjawinyja binyjawinyja loan direction unknown unknown reduplicated 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca diyadiya diyadiya inheritance tiyatiya Bunuban reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gooddanggool gooddanggool inheritance kurrirangkul Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea garlinda loan direction unknown missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing also in Walm. W. same polysemy with 'teenager' missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species bidbidgi unknown missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis bilirndi bilirndi loan Kija WW %pilirna underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi giddamala giddamala inheritance kirramala Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus girrwali girrwali inheritance kirrwali Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum gooroo unknown also in Walm. <?Goon. Bun. Mala loan<Jarragan missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda banggirndi unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta jiyidi inheritance azure k. and generic; Bun. Jiyirri missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata galwanyi unknown missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones milaloowa milaloowa inheritance milaluwa Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna jaddja jaddja unknown underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus minaji minaji unique underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna barlanyi barlanyi inheritance pirlanyi Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia thalngadi unique missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae baarndi baarndi loan direction unknown paarn Bunuban loan from Nyulnyulan 'scorpion' with meaning change or vice versa? WW %paarn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species nyiddi nyiddi inheritance nyiyirri Bunuban loan into Kija underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia jadiyadi jadiyadi unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae paya loan Nyikina from Marrngu WW %paya missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura boonyboony unknown mouse missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna goorla loan direction unknown cf, Gur. Kurla part of hive missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita balnganyja balnganyja loan Worrorran WW %palngarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale lanyi inheritance loan into Kija missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea joonoo inheritance Walm. Junuru? loan <Bunuban missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides thiligi thiligi inheritance thiyiilka Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera ngawagoo ngawagoo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) gooradooroodoo gooradooroodoo unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing various melaleucas listed not with this name missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina bilinyi bilinyi loan Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wanggiri wanggiri loan into protolanguage Jarragan WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) girili girili inheritance kirili Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma gaddingaddi gaddingaddi inheritance karrikarri Bunuban underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis warrgal̠i warrgal̠i loan into protolanguage warrkarli Bunuban areal underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax garnbidda garnbidda inheritance karnpirra Bunuban underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jindiwirrinyi jindiwirrinyi loan into protolanguage tyintiwirrinyi Bunuban WW WW %tyintipirri underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) lagarndi lagarndi inheritance lakarn Bunuban loan into Kija underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna girili Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna migi Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jirigi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna tharra inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna girlani unique Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna barawoo Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna barlanyi inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna baarndi doubtful loan Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
armband dress missing Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool tyantamangurru unknown needle needle Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tyamayina loan Jaru Jaru tyampayina 'big axe' Jaru tyampayina 'big axe' Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material karratyki unknown hairstring bag Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool paamparangi semantic shift <caterpillar Patrick McConvell
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology pinkiti loan Walmajarri feather feather Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli loan Western Desert WW %karli Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material yamati inheritance Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport kalwaya loan Nyikina Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology murtu loan Jaru or opposite direction or opposite direction Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology karnpak loan Gajirrabeng but ity/ak WW %karnpity Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool muwurru inheritance Patrick McConvell
cook food food wup- inheritance also wup(a) elswhere WW %wup Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food missing Patrick McConvell
damper food manyi inheritance veg food veg food Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology purity inheritance also Kija 'play' WW %purity Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool kananyi loan Gajirrabeng or very old pre-Pny or very old pre-Pny Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kuni loan direction unknown WW %kuning Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology ngarrangkarni loan direction unknown dreamtime WW %ngarrangkarni dreamtime Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology pampu loan English <bamboo <bamboo Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool kungkala missing firestick tree Premna acuminata firesaw used not drill? Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other kurru loan Walmajarri WW %kurrwa Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other pirri inheritance charcoal charcoal Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other wayanti unique fire Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kiri unknown Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food missing Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool loan Walmajarri WW %wilwili Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food manyi inheritance Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food mukurlu unknown grass seeds grass seeds Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food maa inheritance CF. Bun. Miyha, Kija miyal Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pirlirr unknown Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing kurrku hole in ground <Walm?; use for grave not indicated; karnana tree burial platform kurrku hole in ground <Walm?; use for grave not indicated; karnana tree burial platform Patrick McConvell
grog food kampa semantic shift < water, unique < water, unique Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress tyarlanti unknown Patrick McConvell
headband dress purntuwali loan Walmajarri WW %pentewale Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology tyalngangurru inheritance WW %tyalngangurru Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food ngalinya loan direction unknown from a Ngumpin language? Or cf, Bun ngarrwali ground honey from a Ngumpin language? Or cf, Bun ngarrwali ground honey Patrick McConvell
house (European) other mayaru loan Walmajarri WW %mayaru Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food tyurra- unique chase; cf Gaj. Yurra- hunt away chase; cf Gaj. Yurra- hunt away Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing yarrpanyi initiand yarrpanyi initiand Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nayu unknown Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology missing tyunpa song (not love song) tyunpa song (not love song) Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport missing Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool paltyati inheritance poss rel's to palawan? kurra muller (pestle) Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other missing Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology karntaarra loan Walmajarri yelow ochre yelow o Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kurtu unknown kurtu - grind in Jarragan and other lgs. axe Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology tyunpa loan direction unknown WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology pilytyi loan Walmajarri Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool piriwiri semantic shift <bendee tree (source of gum) Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food langa loan Walmajarri Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other wirrinyi loan Jaru hut; Jaru wirriny WW %wurruny hut Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyunpa loan direction unknown WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology tyunpa loan direction unknown WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tyinali loan Ngarinyin WW %jinal Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool ngawali loan Gajirrabeng WW %ngapale Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool tyimpirla loan direction unknown WW %tyimpila Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material tyarlanti unknown Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
tea food missing Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics kirlarla unknown Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics karla unknown Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other missing Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology kalarti loan Kija WW %kaltyi Patrick McConvell
windbreak other wirrinyi loan Jaru WW %wurruny Patrick McConvell
yandy (n) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool rampurra inheritance Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation milimili loan Tharrgari mirli paperbark>redup like paperbark Patrick McConvell
corpse food kityali unique Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology karnarna unknown Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics missing Patrick McConvell
earth oven food karanyi inheritance also gun <?exploding stones Bun karanya; karuru not found in dict Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation limpa loan Walmajarri WW %limpa Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation loan Kriol Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation karanyi loan cf. Bun karanya earth-oven? Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress makata loan Walmajarri WW %makarta Patrick McConvell
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture ?goorra 'grindstone' missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool gananyi loan Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ?goorra 'grindstone' loan Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ngawali loan Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jirnali inheritance Claire Bowern
house other mayaroo loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty j done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes done 1
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info done x
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no 0 done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info done x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 11 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info done x
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info done x
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info done x
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes done 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes done 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Num yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info done x
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info done x
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info done x
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info done x
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? done X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? done X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? done X
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? done X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) done X
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) done X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? done X
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? done X
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? done X
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes done 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile yes