Case: comitative = instrumental

Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions
Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 75 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 250 , 252 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes One postposition for comitative, another that is used for both comitative and instrumental Aikhenvald, 1995: 15 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena no Aikhenvald, 1998: 287 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galndo, 2002: 217-218 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no "Instrumental" and "Accompaniment" case markers. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Comitative marked with unattached/free word, whereas instrumental is a case suffix. Santos 2006:216 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 140 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes uses the term "associative" rather than "comitative" Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no These are both verbal markings. Payne 1981 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes However, there are additional markings for comitative alone. Zamponi 2003:34 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:47, 66-7 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info no formal INSTR marking (applicative is closest); however, the word -ina- 'use[/with]' is the closest example Danielsen 2007 p429 Mitz Perez
Nanti n/a No comitative or instrumental case. The verbal applicative marker for instrumental does not have a comitative reading. Michael, 2008. p. 285, 354-355 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:31 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and green 1972:18 Daniel Valle
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no instrument, sociative Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 78-86 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Tosantos 1977:25-26 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1985:50 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 19865:85 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:81 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:214-30 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:47-57 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:7 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:281 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Instrumental is not marked with a postposition Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Waunana no The ergative and the instrumental cases are marked with the same suffix {-au, -iu, --eu, -u} Mejía 2000:89 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes instrumental and sociative case = suffix -má Landaburu 1979: 166 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes -jet Giron 2008: p203 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 262,263 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no two different pospositions Goncalves 2011:292 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no -do instrumental, -ri commitative Minor and Minor 1982. p.37 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The marker -bẽrã 'with' indicates instrument and accompaniment or coparticipation. Miller 1999, p.62 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 119 Amanda Novak The case marker for instrument and accompaniment is -ke 'with, by'
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2007:10 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The postposition rãka 'with' indicates coparticipation and instrument. Jones & Jones 1991, p.68-69 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no The case marker -pi indicates instrument and -ka is used to indicate both coparticipant and conjunction. Strom 1992, p.63-64 Chris Clack
Siona no Instrument is specifically inanimate. Wheeler - 1970:50 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes classifier/dependent noun -me'ra Ramirez 1997: 249 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 156-157 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p. 78 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably a no since the ergative and instrumental are the same
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:214 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no two instrumentals, one commitative Vallejos 2010:280-285 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no? 45-6 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes h39-40 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 59 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 58, 60 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes? 78-9 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a 14-17 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 67 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 54 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 29-30 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info 18, 24 done-Amalia x
Wangkumara no 22-7 done 0
Uradhi No 346 Y 0
Paakantyi no 54; 72 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 50; 62 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 82-84, 107 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 6 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 56, 72 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 35 done 0
Martuthunira no 84, 75 done 0
Marrgany No 302 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 200 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 192 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 390 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 42 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 55, 226-7 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 58 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 272 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 111-2 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 41 0
Dyirbal No 97 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 25, 37 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 118-123; 128; 142-145 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 47 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 16 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 14 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 63 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 69 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 69-70 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 26 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info 71 done x
Mathi-Mathi no 76 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 35, 40 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 12, 16 done 0
Katthang no 44-45 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 139, 150-151 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 14-15 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 24, 25 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 302 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 68 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 136 done 0
Wakaya no 169 done 0
Yindjilindji no 505 done 0
Bandjalang yes 60 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 43 done 1
Arrernte Yes 156 1
Kokatha No 56 0
Karajarri No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 13 0
Ritharrngu No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 32 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 895 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no 4.0999999999999996447 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 60 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 19 0
Wajarri No 54 0
Warungu no 187, 210 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:403 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps