Minica Witoto

Family
Witotoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
hto
Location
-1.55°, -73.11°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan, SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington. Minor, Eugene E. and Minor, Dorothy A. and Levinsohn, Stephen H. 1982. Gramática pedagógica huitoto. In Minor, Eugene E. and Minor, Dorothy A. and Levinsohn, Stephen H. (eds.) Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
and y e grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment híθeɸo híθɛɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
at en, a em, a location -mo -mo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
back espalda costas body emódo, heráïkï (nape of neck), ɸekániko(lower) ɛmódo, hɛráɯkɯ(nape of neck), ɸɛkániko(lower) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bad mal mal quality ɸï.éni-de ɸɯ.έni-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
belly barriga barriga body hébe, hébe-kï, hébe-gï hέbɛ, hέbɛ-kɯ, hέbɛ-gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
big grande grande quality áiǰu.e áidʒu.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
black negro preto colour hítï-re-de hítɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blood sangre sangue body dḯ.e dɯ́.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bone hueso osso body íkuru íkuru See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
breast pecho, seno peito body hogóbe, woman's breast: mónoï hogóbɛ, woman's breast: mónoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
child niño, niña criança human úru.e úru.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cold frío frio quality roθí-re-de roθí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ñu.éra ɲu.έra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
day día dia time móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dirty sucio sujo quality ï.áï-re-de ɯ.áɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dry seco seco quality θaɸé-re-de θaɸέ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality hái-ni-de hái-ni-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dust polvo poeira environment enḯ-čoma ɛnɯ́-tʃoma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ear oreja orelha body héɸo hέɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
earth/soil tierra terra environment énï.e έnɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
egg huevo ovo fauna hḯgï hɯ́gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
eye ojo olho body u.í-hï u.í-hɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
far lejos longe quality are, hḯka arɛ, hɯ́ka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɸáre ɸárɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
father padre, papá pai kinship mó.o mó.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
feather pluma pena fauna iɸóro iɸóro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fire fuego fogo environment irai irai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flower flor flor environment θáɸi.a θáɸi.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment úidʒï.e, ródʒI, roθi úidʒɯ.ɛ, ródʒI, roθi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fruit fruta fruta flora rí.a rí.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
good bueno bom quality ñú.era ɲú.ɛra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ïɸó-tïrai ɯɸó-tɯrai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hand mano mão body ónoï ónoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: aɸé-mï.e; she: aɸéño; it: í.e he: aɸέ-mɯ.ɛ; she: aɸέŋo; it: í.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
head cabeza cabeça body ïɸó-kï ɯɸó-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
heavy pesado pesado quality mée-re-de mέɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
how? como como grammar nḯ.eθe, nedi nɯ́.ɛθɛ, nɛdi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1sg yo eu grammar kúe kúɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
if si se grammar í.adï, ní.adï í.adɯ, ní.adɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
intestines intestinos intestinos body hébe.o hέbɛ.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lake lago lago environment hórai hórai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leaf hoja folha environment rábe rábɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body harḯ-ɸene harɯ́-ɸɛnɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leg/foot pierna perna body ïdá-kairo, rḯ.aï-kairo ɯdá-kairo, rɯ́.aɯ-kairo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment amé.o, borí-de amέ.o, borí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
liver hígado figado body báno.i {my} báno.i {my} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
long largo comprido, longo quality See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ïbóma ɯbóma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
man/male hombre homem human ï.í-ma ɯ.í-ma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ǰḯkï-θi, ḯ.e-θï, rḯǰe dʒɯ́kɯ-θi, ɯ́.ɛ-θɯ, rɯ́dʒɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
moon luna lua environment ɸḯ.ui ɸɯ́.ui See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship éi, éi-ño έi, έi-ño See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mouth boca boca body ɸú.e ɸú.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
name nombre nome human mámekï mámɛkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
neck cuello pescoço body kïmó-hï kɯmó-hɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
new nuevo novo quality kómu.e kómu.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
night noche noite time náï.(ï)o náɯ.(ɯ)o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
no/not no não grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
nose nariz nariz body dóɸo dóɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
old viejo velho quality hái.ai.e, háka-ra hái.ai.ɛ, háka-ra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
one uno um number da, dá.a da, dá.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
other otro outro grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
person/human being persona pessoa human komḯnï {people} komɯ́nɯ {people} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rain lluvia chuva environment nókï nókɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
red rojo vermelho colour hí.aï-re-de hí.aɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
right/right hand derecha direita location/body nabé-ɸene nabέ-ɸɛnɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
road/path camino caminho manufacture í.o, dḯro-ɸe í.o, dɯ́ro-ɸɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
root raíz raiz flora háina.o háina.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rotten podrido podre quality θabi-de, rḯɸai-de θabi-dɛ, rɯ́ɸai-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sand arena areia environment gúama.e gúama.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ha.í-re-de ha.í-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
short corto curto quality íanori íanori See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoulder hombro ombro body ɸeká-dʒaido ɸɛká-dʒaido See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
skin piel pele body igóï-raï igóɯ-raɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sky cielo céu environment móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
small pequeño pequeno quality dú.e-re-de, hí.ï-re-de dú.ɛ-rɛ-dɛ, hí.ɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
smoke humo fumaça environment úiǰï.e úidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
star estrella estrela environment ukúdu ukúdu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ráda, radóθi, aména ráda, radóθi, amέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stone piedra pedra environment noɸḯ-kï noɸɯ́-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tail cola, rabo rabo body óda óda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
that ese/esa esse grammar bai.e bai.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar aɸé-makï {pl}, í.ai-ǰïnoï {m.d.}, í.aï-ŋu.aï {f.d.} aɸέ-makɯ {pl}, í.ai-dʒɯnoɯ {m.d.}, í.aɯ-ŋu.aɯ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality hédakï.e-de hέdakɯ.ɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thin delgado fino quality dʒḯ.aï-de dʒɯ́.aɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
this este/esta este grammar bí.e bí.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
2sg xx xx grammar o o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
three tres tres number da.áma-ni da.áma-ni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thunder truenos trovão environment gïrḯ-de gɯrɯ́-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bite morder morder body aïní-de aɯní-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blow soplar soprar body haiñó-de, ɸú.uno.de haiɲó-dɛ, ɸú.uno.dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
burn quemar queimar environment bó.o-de bó.o-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
climb subir subir motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
come venir vir motion bí-te bí-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
count contar contar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cut/hack cortar cortar impact haitá-de, kotá-de haitá-dɛ, kotá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
die/be dead morir morrer state tï.í-de tɯ.í-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dig cavar cavar impact ráï-te ráɯ-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drink beber, tomar beber body hiró-de hiró-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
eat comer comer body rḯ-te {meat}, rï.é-de, čičó-de, ǰibá-de {fruit}, guí-te rɯ́-tɛ {meat}, rɯ.έ-dɛ, tʃitʃó-dɛ, dʒibá-dɛ {fruit}, guí-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fall caer cair motion baï.í.de, u.ái-de baɯ.í.dɛ, u.ái-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fear miedo medo mental hakḯru.i-te hakɯ́ru.i-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flow fluir fluir motion tó-te tó-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fly volar voar motion ɸé.e-de ɸέ.ɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hear oír ouvir mental kaká-de kaká-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu-tá-de, ɸa-te bu-tá-dɛ, ɸa-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other moθíño-te moθíɲo-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kill matar matar impact méine-te mέinɛ-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental onó-de onó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
say decir dizer mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
see ver ver mental erói-de, kï.ó-de ɛrói-dɛ, kɯ.ó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sit sentar(se) sentar state ána ráï.i-de ána ráɯ.i-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sleep dormir dormir body ïnḯ-de ɯnɯ́-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hadʒé-de hadʒέ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact omḯ-de, ïdúi-de, na.ïtá-de omɯ́-dɛ, ɯdúi-dɛ, na.ɯtá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact dʒu-tá-de dʒu-tá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state náida.i-de náida.i-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
steal robar roubar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
suck chupar chupar body hanó-de, čičo-de, dʒibá-de hanó-dɛ, čičo-dɛ, dʒibá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
swell hincharse inchar body ɸái-de, ɸí.ipuku-de, θïrí-de ɸái-dɛ, ɸí.ipuku-dɛ, θɯrí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
swim nadar nadar motion ḯ.ï-de ɯ́.ɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
think pensar pensar mental komékï ɸaká-de komέkɯ ɸaká-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bï-tá-de, ba-tá-de, ñáï-te bɯ-tá-dɛ, ba-tá-dɛ, ɲáɯ-tɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kuiná-de kuiná-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tongue lengua lingua body i.ḯɸe i.ɯ́ɸɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tooth diente dente body íθi-do íθi-do See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
two dos dois number ména mέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
water agua agua environment háïnoi háɯnoi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kaï {pl}, kóko {m.d.}, káïñaï {f.d.} kaɯ {pl}, kóko {m.d.}, káɯŋaɯ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wet mojado molhado quality rï.ái-de rɯ.ái-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
what? que, qué que grammar mïnḯka mɯnɯ́ka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
when? cuando quando grammar nï-rúi-do nɯ-rúi-do See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
where? donde onde grammar nï-nó, nï-né nɯ-nó, nɯ-nέ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white blanco branco colour úθe-re-de úθɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
who? quien, quién quem grammar bu bu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wife esposa esposa kinship á.ï á.ɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wind viento vento environment hairíɸo hairíɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wing ala asa body i.áiko i.áiko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woman/female mujer mulher human rḯ-ŋo rɯ́-ŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yellow amarillo amarelo colour borá-re-de borá-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ómoï {pl}, ómï-koï {m.d.}, ómï-ŋo {f.d.} ómoɯ {pl}, ómɯ-koɯ {m.d.}, ómɯ-ŋo {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
foot pie body é.ï-ba έ.ɯ-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
all todo todos other nána nána See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lung pulmón pulmão body ɸéko-dʒï, háθai-dʒï ɸέko-dʒɯ, háθai-dʒɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bark corteza casca environment igóraï igóraɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fingernail uña unha body onó-be-ko onó-bɛ-ko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
heart corazón coração body komékï komέkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sun sol sol time hitóma hitóma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kaiɸó-ne-du, íɸerï kaiɸó-nɛ-du, íɸɛrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
green verde verde quality móko-re-de móko-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hot caliente quente quality uθí-re-de uθí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ǰḯni dʒɯ́ni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna óɸokuiño, jˇámaikuiño óɸokuiɲo, dʒámaikuiɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ǰó.oda, hó.oda, égui, múido dʒó.oda, hó.oda, έgui, múido See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nokáido nokáido See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. múido múido See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ɸiθído ɸiθído See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes turída, búru turída, búru See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. éɸa έɸa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ui.ḯkï ui.ɯ́kɯ See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae íno íno See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hḯko hɯ́ko See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) eréño ɛrέɲo See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ñenḯŋo ɲɛnɯ́ŋo See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. θé.ema, θɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) θé.ema, θɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ǰḯkï.aï, čámu dʒɯ́kɯ.aɯ, tʃámu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ïmḯŋo ɯmɯ́ŋo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura gúaïkï, noɸáïŋo, héro gúaɯkɯ, noɸáɯŋo, hέro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kúema kúɛma See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes nú.io nú.io See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hái.o hái.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: nonórai rattlesnake: nonórai See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ɸúrikï, meníño ɸúrikɯ, mɛníɲo See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes óɸego-ǰï óɸɛgo-dʒɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hí.ibi.e hí.ibi.ɛ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) há.ikï.e há.ikɯ.ɛ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens híɸi-hï {fruit}, híɸi-rai {plant} híɸi-hɯ {fruit}, híɸi-rai {plant} See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kaní-kaï kaní-kaɯ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ó.ogo-do (H&R92) ó.ogo-do (H&R92) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ráitï.aï ráitï.aï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays béǰa bέdʒa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum dï.ó-na, ǰéra dɯ.ó-na, dʒέra See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna aména amέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nonó-kï nonó-kɯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta húhï {tuber}, húθi {plant} húhɯ {tuber}, húθi {plant} See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta má.ika(hï) má.ika(hɯɯ) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas reɸí-hï rɛɸí-hɯ See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. reɸí-hɯ (H&R92) reɸí-hɯ (H&R92) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. hakái-θairai {plant}, hakái-hï {tuber} hakái-θairai {plant}, hakái-hɯ {tuber} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) emókï, huǰéko, ǰeθé-gï ɛmókɯ, hudʒέ-ko, dʒɛθέ-gɯ See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi úna.o úna.o See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae rakɯ́ŋ̥o (H&R92) rakɯ́ŋ̥o (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hiráŋo hiráŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ɸaïrádo ɸaɯrádo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ïníkï ïníkï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. uidódo uidódo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera karákïŋo, ígïdakïŋo karákɯŋo, ígɯdakɯŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae hébekïŋo hέbɛkɯŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca hánaǰari, hḯko {same as cat} hánadʒari, hɯ́ko {same as cat} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] í.u í.u See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella hóma (H&R92) hóma (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus néhoma nέhoma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ïɸú.e ɯɸú.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu méro mέro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari e.ímo ɛ.ímo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mḯgui, ɸḯ.ïdo, okáina mɯ́gui, ɸɯ́.ɯdo, okáina See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris meréhaiño, ɸeréhaiño mɛrέhaiɲo, ɸɛrέhaiɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ḯme ɯ́me See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus nonóči, nónoiči nonótʃi, nónoitʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris θurúma θurúma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kḯto kɯ́to See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bed cama cama culture-material bḯ.i-ra-ǰu bɯ́.i-ra-dʒu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kḯnai kɯ́nai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material rá.ï.i-ra-bï-kï rá.ɯ.i-ra-bɯ-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
canoe canoa canoa transport nokáe nokáɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture hú.aï {size not indicated} hú.aɯ {size not indicated} Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology áima, hḯ.ïdo-raïma áima, hɯ́.ɯdo-raɯma In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology áima, hḯ.ïdo-raïma áima, hɯ́.ɯdo-raɯma Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
firewood leña lenha other ré.ï.e, ré.ï-ïe rέ.ɯ.ɛ, rέ.ɯ-ɯɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ǰo.étïrï dʒo.έtɯrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool háta háta especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool dukḯ-ra-θï dukɯ́-ra-θɯ hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dukḯ-ra-θï, dukḯ-ra-da dukɯ́-ra-θɯ, dukɯ́-ra-da See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bow arco arco subsistence tool θïkui-raï θɯkui-raɯ arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paddle/oar remo remo transport hḯ.aï-be hɯ́.aɯ-bɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool nógo nógo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ɸiríθai ɸiríθai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wax cera cera other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture íga.ï, ra.o íga.ɯ, ra.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chicken gallina galinha acculturation atá-βa atá-βa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cat gato gato acculturation mítʃi mítʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool bɯ́gɯ bɯ́gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
salt sal sal food ɯ́.aiθaɯ ɯ́.aiθaɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool obí-ǰakaï obí-dʒakaɯ currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool emókï, huǰéko, ǰeθé-gï ɛmókɯ, hudʒέ-ko, dʒɛθέ-gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture haïgá-bï haɯgá-bɯ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool (a)igḯroï, áïkï (a)igɯ́roɯ, áɯkɯ can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
house other hóɸo hóɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Oral-nasal contour segments May be analyzed as oralized nasal consonants or as oral consonants with a nasal release. e.g. mb-, -bm no Minor and Minor. 1982. Gramatica Pedagogica Huitoto. Lomalinda, Meta, Columbia: Editorial Townsend. p.4 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Minor and Minor 1982. p. 3 Christopher Clack
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Minor and Minor 1982. p.1-4 Christopher Clack not indicated/expected
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes e.g. rɨngo 'woman' - rɨɨngo 'big frog' minimal pair Minor and Minor 1982. p. 2 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Minor and Minor 1982. p.1-6 Christopher Clack not indicated/expected
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no no consonantal clusters Minor and Minor 1982. p.3-4 Christopher Clack check 'ng'
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.1-6 Daniel Smith coda is not contrained but not required
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no all huitoto words end in vowels Minor and Minor 1982. p.8 Christopher Clack All words end in vowels. (borrowed spanish vocab is convertted to conform to this) Vowel use is very high (diphthongs are part of this)
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Minor and Minor 1982. Daniel Smith not indicated/expected
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no stress placement is determined by set of rules Minor and Minor 1982. p.6 Christopher Clack Words are accented as they are in Spanish. is predictable
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no The complex letter “ng” consists of sound “n” before sound “g”, but they are pronounced together as one letter. Minor and Minor 1982. p.4 Christopher Clack
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Minor and Minor 1982. p.3-4 Christopher Clack not indicated/expected
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.15, 33 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no third person markings are irregular (reduction to account for vocalic ending) Minor and Minor 1982. p.19 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes verb may be marked for person/number, negation, 'want' form, etc. Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-40 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-40 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-40 Christopher Clack
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes reduplication of verb root Minor and Minor 1982. p.52 Christopher Clack when the root is vocal, insert a glotal 'h' between the two vowels.
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.32,55 Christopher Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.27-28 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.29 Christopher Clack
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36, 42-44 Christopher Clack Features such as locative (-mo) are attached to the noun via suffix.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no only for human nouns Minor and Minor 1982. p.31 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 The ending indicating masculinity is '-ma' and for feminine is '-ngo' Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-32 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes humans Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack Most nouns do not indicate gender, however; some are inherently masculine or feminine. These are usually distinguished by the endings of -a (masculine) or -o (feminine).
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-32 Christopher Clack Many names of insects and animals appear to be masculine or feminine but this is only coincidence. Nouns that refer to animals or things generally do not take an ending that indicates gender.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes afémɨe (m), afengo (f) Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack gender distinction also found in the dual form (use of these pronouns is rare)
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Minor and Minor. 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Minor and Minor 1982. p.98-99 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack Generally, the singular is the simplest form of the noun.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -aɨ (more) Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no limited set of nouns can be pluralized by shortening the stem Minor and Minor 1982. p.34 Daniel Smith Some nouns have a special pural form that is usually shorter and the accent is shifted.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Minor and Minor 1982. p.33-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Minor and Minor 1982. p.34 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Minor and Minor 1982. p.15-16 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no -ri The suffix -ri indicates associative with something or someone, benefactive for someone, or to mark a specific location. (not unique to associative) Minor and Minor 1982. p.37 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no no existing articles Minor and Minor 1982. p.31 Christopher Clack Many speakers of Huitoto have difficulty using articles in Spanish because they do not exist in their language.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Minor and Minor 1982. p.10, 94 Christopher Clack There are six classes of pronouns in huitoto: the personal, the indefinite ones, the possessive ones, the demonstrativos, relative and the interrogatory ones.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Minor and Minor 1982. p.13 Daniel Smith There are two pronouns in Huitoto that are indefinite in gender but not in number.
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no dual form indicates two participants Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Daniel Smith distinction between male and female (rarely used)
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 3; close, distant, outside of view but audible Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes The third distance contrast indicates that the referent is out of view but remains audible. Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes afémɨe (m), afengo (f) Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no afémacɨ (m,f) Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no no distinction between familiar and formal Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no The passive impersonal, or passive reflexive, may be indicated by certain suffixes. (chapter 18) Minor and Minor 1982. p.10, 87 Christopher Clack There are six classes of pronouns in huitoto: the personal, the indefinite ones, the possessive ones, the demonstrativos, relative and the interrogatory ones.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes -na (direct comp), -mo (indirect comp) Minor and Minor 1982. p.37-39 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-41 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-41 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Minor and Minor 1982. p. 31 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Minor and Minor 1982. p. 31 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-40 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-40 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no -do instrumental, -ri commitative Minor and Minor 1982. p.37 Christopher Clack
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 (i.e. are limited to 5 or below) 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 (i.e. are limited to 10 or below) 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-78 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Minor and Minor 1982. p.12, 42 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Minor and Minor 1982. p.12, 42 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.90 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Minor and Minor 1982. p.90 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Minor and Minor 1982. p.41-44 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 90 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 90 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Minor and Minor 1982 Christopher Clack no specific section on this but several examples of kin terms uninflected throughout the source
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Minor and Minor 1982. p.9 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Minor and Minor 1982. Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.41-44 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Minor and Minor. 1982. p.31 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.98-100 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.98 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.98-100 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -nai, -ta, -re Minor and Minor 1982. p.49, 101 Christopher Clack
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes dɨga, mei (with) Minor and Minor 1982. p.55-56 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no The verbs for past and present are generally the same distinguished using a temporal word (adverb) Minor and Minor 1982. p.22 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Minor and Minor 1982. p.23 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes 3 classes; immediate, imminent, and distant future. Minor and Minor 1982. p.24 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.24 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Minor and Minor 1982. p.24-25 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.24-25 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Minor and Minor 1982. p.24 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Minor and Minor 1982. p.24-25 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Imperative form is indicated by either the use of the verb root (ie. Imperative form) or by the addition of an adverbial complement put in front of the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes -ñe, -ni Minor and Minor 1982. p.50, 64 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982.
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes -re The suffix -re is insertted before the end of the verb, which may also be marked for person. Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no add note Minor and Minor 1982. p.88 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-102 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -fɨre Minor and Minor 1982. p.103 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-102 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-102 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.73-75, 102-103 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.103 Christopher Clack -mona is used to mark direction but is affixed to the noun
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack This indication is not affixed to verb but covered using demonstrative pronouns.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Grammaticalized nonvisual (hear) is indicated using demonstrative pronouns that precede the verb. Aquíe Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no not indicated/expected Christopher Clack
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV preferred Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Christopher Clack
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Christopher Clack
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Christopher Clack
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Minor and Minor 1982. p.40 Christopher Clack
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes -mona Minor and Minor 1982. p.36 Christopher Clack
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42 Christopher Clack
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Minor and Minor 1982. p.42 Christopher Clack
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.94
Word Order Noun-Dem no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94
Word Order Num-Noun yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num no Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes Relative clause is marked using relative pronouns that precedes the relative clause but comes after the noun it modifies. (usually separate sentences) Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.58 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Minor and Minor 1982. p.76 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Pronominal suffix on verb is used to mark the subject. Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack A rule uniquie rule for huitoto is that a relative pronoun that is in the initial clause may not be used in the subordinate.
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no no evidence Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes subject marked on verb Minor and Minor 1982. p.15 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack there may be some exceptions for negatives, check p.73
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes objects are not marked on verb Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 90-93 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Minor and Minor 1982. p.15 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes -mo Minor and Minor 1982. p.39 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Minor and Minor 1982. p.39 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Minor and Minor 1982. p.39 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no The passive impersonal, or passive reflexive, may be indicated by certain suffixes. (chapter 18) Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -ca, -ga (present-past). -llɨ, -lli (fut) Minor and Minor 1982. p.29, 83 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Minor and Minor 1982. p.29 Christopher Clack no info/not expected
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.83-87 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.37 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.22-27, 49-53 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Minor and Minor 1982. p.55 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ta Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no This suffix may also be used when the subject commands another to do the action as indicated by the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-103 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.102-103 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Minor and Minor 1982. p.72 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Clausal negator is suffixed to the verb (-ñe) and followed by the impersonal suffix -na. Minor and Minor 1982. p.72 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -ñe Minor and Minor 1982. p.16 Christopher Clack occurs with verbs
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes -no The particle suffixed following the actual negator (-ñe) is usually -no but varies in some instances. Example; conditional accion. Minor and Minor 1982. p.72-75 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Minor and Minor 1982. p.72-75 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Minor and Minor 1982. p.72-75 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Minor and Minor 1982. p.16, 72-75 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Minor and Minor 1982. p.16, 72-75 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Sentence structure is the same for declarative as well as interrogative. Minor and Minor 1982. p.68 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 73, 99-100 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 73, 99-100 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes author does not describe non-verbal predicates, but examples show no copula Minor and Minor 1982. Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no afe, nɨɨ/nɨɨe Relative pronouns are used as the head of these clauses. Minor and Minor 1982. p.95 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Minor and Minor 1982. p.96 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes nominalizer Minor and Minor 1982. p.95 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -aca Minor and Minor 1982, p.18 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.78 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.76 Christopher Clack
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes -za The simultaneous subordinate sentence is often introduced with the adverb "mei" and always ends with the simultaneous suffix "-za" on the principal verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.80 Christopher Clack