Grammaticalized reportive

Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes One of five second-position clitics. Allin, 1976: 336 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes No evidential system discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:41 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes This is done by an auxiliary verb Duff-Tripp 1997:122 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Not a verbal morpheme but a clitic that is inflected for person (but not aspect/reality status). It's historically derived from the root for 'hear,' kem. Michael, 2008. p. 324 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no list of affixes does not mention evidentials Matteson 1965:71-80 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Use of various verbs convey this. Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Mattei-Muller 2002:162 Daniel Valle
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:87 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:25 Daniel Valle
Matses yes It is expressed by lexical means Fleck:419 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.155, Zúñiga 2006 p. 155 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:83 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes suffixed to pronoun Landaburu 1979, p. 119-122 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes after lexical base (i.e. In Puinave after pronoun, verb, interrogative); used also as a "way of presenting the state of affairs not caused by any opinion of the speaker"; most frequently used in citation(see below) Giron 2008: p284 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 66 Amanda Novak; edited by Chris Clack There are no observed examples of the hearsay evidential occuring in first person, but occasionally it occurs with second person. Most commonly, this evidential is used in connection with a past action.
Cubeo yes Unlike the other evidentials, which are indicated by a suffix that combines tense and evidential status, the reportative evidential is indicated by a separate suffix, -jA (rep.) This suffix is attached to a verb in the witnessed evidential status, after a Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 36 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack
Kotiria yes heresay Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Formed using the deductive suffix -ji plus a suffix for person/number/gender. Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.51 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86 Chris Clack
Barasano yes This tense is indicated by -yu 'inferred' preceding the gender-number markers. Evidence based on what another has told them, indirect/reportative. Jones & Jones 1991, p.87 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes This evidential indicates that the source of the information is not first hand; he or she is just passing on what was reported to him or her. Strom 1992, p.91 Chris Clack
Siona no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes bontkes and Dooley 1984:4 Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:281-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes particle Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:83-120 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:494 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms15 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu no done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 215 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 276 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 done 0
Marrgany No Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 173 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 176-7 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul Maybe 23 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri Maybe 239 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 873 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes -pida Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps