Nyulnyul

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
nyv
Location
-16.88°, 122.82°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar yarrad yarrad inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yadiV yadiV inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngay ngay inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kore korre inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar djoe joe inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar iere yirra inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location galb kalb inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar belai belayi inheritance Claire Bowern
alive gardi kardi inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other djaman jaman inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar a a inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body melg melk inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -mbarrm -mbarrm inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental kar'djen ma'djan karr'jen ma'jan semantic shift Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gadjod kajod inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -an_ -ang inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body -i(g) -i(k) inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality reb rreb inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body -(i)ng -(i)ng inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jumbin jumbin inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality birndany, wurrunbardangk birndany, wurrunbardangk inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body magetan makedan inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour maarng maarng inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body konbol konbol inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality boṇ boṇ inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kinyji XXngl vowel harmony fine, but why not kinyj? kinyji XXngl vowel harmony fine, bud why nod kinyj? inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture jib [t@ieban] jib [jeban] inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ner magolan nerr makolan inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment maloran malurran inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body djaŋ jaŋ inheritance Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human ba""be-nin_ baabe-ning inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ma-wanjen ma-wanyen inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment waden waden inheritance Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality bindj binj inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion mad@ietan majedan inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact mamaran mamarran inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental mad@iombaran majombarran inheritance Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental -ngalg- [mangalgan] -ngalk- [mangalkan] inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact katz katz maman kadz kadz maman loan English Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state mad@iemban majimban inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact mabugaran mabukarran inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna kurrird kurrird inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality ŋōnbe ŋōnbe inheritance Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental ma-bu""garen ma-buukarren doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body magetan makedan inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality lalk lalk inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment barnd barnd inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body nalebab nalebab inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body yareweden [-wid-] XXgl we eat yarreweden [-wid-] inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna lagor lakor inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body n@iem ^ nyem inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body poto bodo inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion mad@ialkan majalkan inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality ma.r ma.r inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body led; led; inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship gobol kobol inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental -jarg- [midierek] -jark- [midyerek] inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna bandel bandel inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment djun_g jungk inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna wil wil inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion djoror jorrorr inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment bo""b buub inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion -birril- [ma-berelan] -birril- [ma-berelan] inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment lanen lanen inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body nabala nabala inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality laip layib inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state mihiteo XXngl typo? XXgl get bigger mihideo inheritance Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mogon mokon inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body na'mala [-mala] na'mala [-mala] inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body -alm -alm inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental -likarr- [malegaran] -likarr- [malekaran] inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ramben ramben inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion -gad- [magetan] XXgl hide oneself XXngl should probably go under 'bury' -kad- [makedan] inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -dam- [ma-daman; ma'daman] XXgl to take aim, to hit, to aim at, beat -dam- [ma-daman; ma'daman] XXkl do dake ayim, do hid, do ayim ad, bead inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ba:d baad inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar angad angad unknown Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location gadin kadin inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body bulg bulk inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body jabijab -ju- jabijab -ju- inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact -dam- -dam- inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ma-leŋgen ma-leŋken inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental -gam- [makaman] XXgl to laugh, joke. -kam- [makaman] XXkl do laukh, joke. inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment bilibil; birlabirl bilibil; birlabirl inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ŋalgarman ŋalkarman unknown Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body midi midi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ma-djalgen ma-jalken inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment binmag binmak inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body gaabir kaabir inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality iwal iwal inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna mol [mul] mol [mul] inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body barrij barrij inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human wamb wamb inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna marbar; pad@iad(a) marbar unique Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment gunyu(v)l kunyu(v)l inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship berai berrayi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body naler -ler ^ nalerr -lerr inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human nalaol nalaol inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body munggurn XXngl maybe a mistake mungkurn inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality yangarn yangarn inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body nimanj nimany inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ngimbir ngimbir inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar are arre inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body -mi(r)l -mi(r)l inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality nyungurl nyungurl inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number warinjerr warinjerr inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other bab -nyu- bab -nyu- inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar warl, war warl, war inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body binbal binbal inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human missing Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body pandeet XXgl tumor bandid inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment barrbEgun, gurlay, janjarl, rIrrar barrbEkun, kurlay, janjarl, rIrrar inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour werer werer inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body djoron_g jorrongk inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture magarr [magar] makarr [makar] inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora garrinygam; nimal, nirlbun XXngl last one of these is 'bush onion' in Bardi karrinykam; nimal, nirlbun XXngl lasd one of dhese is 'bush onion' in Bardi inheritance Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality bi""n biin inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment barnd; baarnd barnd; baarnd inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental mad@ian majan inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact kede kede nanareo kede kede nanarreo unique Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental -jal- [mad@ialan] XXgl see, be faithful -jal- [majalan] XXkl si, be fayidhful inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality gardj karrj inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bany -m- bany -m- semantic shift Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality roborr; ruburr roborr; ruburr inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body gundijin; langarn; gulujunu kundijin; langarn; kulujunu inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state mijarl inin mijarl inin inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body baden baden inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment gurrwal kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body mamulkan mamulkan inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality mururl mururl inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body ma-bandjen ma-banjen inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment bulgurn bulkurn inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body djibel jibel inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact baṛ m-aṛan baṛ m-aṛan inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact duly -w- duly -w- inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact m-aran m-arran inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yalk -n- yalk -n- inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment warrabalag warrabalak inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other lanyb -kal- lanyb -kal- inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment missing Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body djonj jony inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time waalg waalk inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body djudugur judukurr inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body -bukum- [mabugoman] -bukum- [mabukoman] inheritance Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion duburl XXngl probably goes with the 'fly' words duburl inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body niwarl niwarl inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ginyingk, bin kinyingk, bin inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality -ma- bardangak [maman badangak] XXgl lean on a stick -ma- bardangak [maman badangak] unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barrebarren] inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar kinyingk kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number irrjawar irrjawar inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body nawang ^ nawang unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -ngurl- -ngurl- inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment jidam jidam inheritance Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kirdkird -nyu- XXgl strangle kirdkird -nyu- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body -(a)ngarl -(a)ngarl inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body jarringg jarringk inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality niŋar niŋar unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other nolo man@ian nolo manyan unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number gujarr kujarr inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body -kanyb- [makenban] -kanyb- [makenban] inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion marriny -jid- marriny -jid- unique Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wu(r)l wu(r)l inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality gōbad kōbad inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar missing Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar anog anok inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour bulgar bulkar inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar angg angk inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship malirr malirr inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wanga(v)l wanga(v)l inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body minbal minbal inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human woriny woriny inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other murrgu(v)l murrku(v)l inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ber%al berral inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis garabol [garrabul] garabol [garrabul] inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae mibalad, mibelad mibalad, mibelad unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus jarlinymarr jarlinymarr inheritance underived? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii badjalbar badjalbar inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora yōd yōd unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer karajarr karajarr unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp minyaminy minyaminy loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna karrambal karambel inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus wolgodanj wolgodanj inheritance underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri gādj gādj inheritance underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae bi""n bi""n inheritance WW %pirniny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lungkurt lungkurt inheritance so lungkurta/lungkura in NGY os borrowed - inot proto NGY - WW %lungkurt underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii jarrjurr jarrjurr inheritance reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus garedj garedj unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kUdUlwa:ny [kudulwany] kUdUlwa:ny [kudulwany] inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus ganbalinj ganbalinj semantic shift cf oystercatcher in Bardi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula langgurr langgurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) garbin garbin semantic shift ‘shield’ WW %karrpin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius windog windok loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis mun-gēra bakarr unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera bendebend bendebend inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota paninypor inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) barol barol inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda raborrbil [rabarrbil] raborrbil [rabarrbil] inheritance derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae mawaŋan unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes waṛalal inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo kurrird kurrird inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris iil, yi(r)l iil, yi(r)l inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae ŋagalaŋan, ŋagolaŋan ŋagalaŋan, ŋagolaŋan unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong wardabal XXngl irregular correspondence, final rr:l wardabal XXngl irregular correspondence, final rr:l inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta bininy bininy inheritance could be doublet with earlier occurrence of WW? WW %pirniny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wini wini inheritance cf. Gur. Winini 'emu chick' WW %wini underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kumb(u) kumb(u) semantic shift underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) buub(u) buub(u) loan direction unknown WW WW %pupu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mungun mungun inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wadjon nimanbur inheritance NN/Nim underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni gwane gwane loan Marrngu WW %kuwaniya underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kuluman kuluman inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gai gai gai gai unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pIlItypIlIty inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gurlibil gurlibil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp baarni baarni loan direction unknown WW WW %paarni underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) maarr maarr loan with meaning change Worrorran WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera laladj lalaj unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis gēlj gēlj inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas gulebil gulebil inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus wīṇg wīṇg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawad yawad loan areal WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae minimp minimp doubtful loan into protolanguage Bardi WW %miinimbi missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic djur% djur% inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus lililil unique 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae burrug burrug inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda gorimbodo gorimbodo unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera nilangol nilangol inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) molgororoŋ molgororoŋ unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) djur% djur% inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius kawoorrkawoorr kawoorrkawoorr inheritance reduplicated 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia yamdalŋor yamdalŋor inheritance derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis murranginy murranginy unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis manbaŋ manbaŋ inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya bagarl bagarl inheritance NGY and others pakarli < proto-NGY *r>rl WW %pakari underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gologog gologog inheritance onomatopoeic 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp goan goan inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca dindi dindi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus djōg djōg inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea gologoloman gologoloman inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi dareal dareal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus lingor lingor inheritance Walm linykurra WW %linykurra underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata djineb djineb semantic shift cf Bardi stingray sp underived 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones bān bān loan into protolanguage WW %PAARN WW %paarn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha lolol lolol inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna giinyj giinyj inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus gamaran_anj XXngl W gamaran_anj XXngl W loan WW %kamaranginy underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna bulgun, juurr bulgun, juurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae marbad marbad unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species maar maar loan with meaning change underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae yamban yamban inheritance perhaps with meaning change underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita nalok nalok inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale nigalbadan nigalbadan inheritance derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea djiner djiner unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides bo~r%o~l bo~r%o~l bo~r%o~l bo~r%o~l inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera tje'didjon tje'didjon inheritance derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) djilger djilger unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina mUrdUrl mUrdUrl inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangki(r)d wangki(r)d inheritance WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) bardangg bardangg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma wirrmangarrin wirrmangarrin unique underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis gedeged gedeged unique reduplicated 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax waragan waragan loan into protolanguage may not be same root WW %walakurru 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys dyindibereber [jindibirrbirr] dyindibereber [jindibirrbirr] loan into protolanguage WW WW %tyintipirri reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) galbedjon galbedjon inheritance derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna bardangk bardangk inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna mibalad, mibelad mibalad, mibelad unique Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna karrambal karrambal inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mukiny mukiny inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna iil, yi(r)l iil, yi(r)l inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna maarr maarr semantic shift Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna balingg balingk inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna marbad marbad unique Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress missing Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool waraŋaj loan Bardi WW %warankatyi Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool damiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material madaŋanar inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool languar inheritance Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material binjen inheritance Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool jib [jeban] inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material warndarl inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport yanjelbarra loan Bardi WW %yandilybara Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology lanbirr inheritance other word for ‘scar’ Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology kanbak loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool nawurl inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food -marra- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology borrb majan inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool -bugarr- [mabugaran] CHECK - verb not noun and wrong gloss! Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology -pukarr- [mapukaran] CHECK - verb not noun Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology banmen loan WW %barnman Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology bambu loan English WW %pampu Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool jimar unknown Claire Bowern
fire-saw other jabarr inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other lalb inheritance Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other jungku doubtful loan Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool yelŋam inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food ma-banyden semantic shift Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wile wile mawandan unique Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool welewel loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool mayurr; majukurr inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool not used not used Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food not used not used Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wi:rl; wirl inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology banbalk doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food ka:ri loan areal WW %kari Claire Bowern
hair belt dress ba:l inheritance Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jalngkangurr loan areal WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food moŋ semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other mayar, ba:rl loan areal WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ma-jolben inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology job manian bab loan English ‘chop’ ? Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology la:j unique Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material missing Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wi:je unique Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology kaltyint unique Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport biyal biyal semantic shift Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool not used not used Claire Bowern
nosepeg other warrangaj inheritance Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport borrej inheritance Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology babakon [babakun] inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology -purr- [ma-porran] inheritance Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other baib loan English WW pipe Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology bidimarr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kem loan English Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food ka:ri, karr loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology jerrm; nurl inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology liljin unique Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool tyinal loan areal WW %jinal Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ngabaliny inheritance Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool jimbil inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material burrurr inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food belebel semantic shift ‘leaf’ Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics jubak loan English Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology rai loan areal WW %raya Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other wark inheritance Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation barel loan English Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation mirlimirl loan English ‘mail’ WW %milimili ‘mail’ Claire Bowern
corpse food karrikan loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology mamida unique Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics merejen loan English ‘medicine’ WW medicine ‘medicine’ Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation limba semantic shift Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation mijaw loan Kriol Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation jirlaman loan Kriol WW %jinal Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress jongor inheritance Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture meredj merej inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture dujuldujul -nyu- dujuldujul -nyu- unique Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yongar yonkar loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
house other mayar, baarl mayar, baarl loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done? 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done? 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty j done? 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done? 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done? 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes done? 1
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done? 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done? 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done? 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done? 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done? 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done? 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done? 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done? 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done? 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done? 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done? 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no done? 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes done? 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done? 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done? 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info done? x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info done? x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info done? x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done? 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info done? x
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info done? x
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no 0 done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 2 done? 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 10 done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info done? x
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done? 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done? 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info done? x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info done? x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info done? x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info done? x
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info done? x
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no done? 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done? 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done? 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done? 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done? 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done? 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done? 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done? 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done? 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done? 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done? 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no done? 0
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done? 1
Word Order Noun-Dem no done? 0
Word Order Num-Noun yes done? 1
Word Order Noun-Num no done? 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info done? x
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info done? x
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info done? x
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info done? x
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info done? x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info done? x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes done? 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? yes done? 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done? 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? yes done? 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes done? 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no done? 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info done? x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no info done? x
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? N/A done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? N/A done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes done? 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no done? 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? N/A done? 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? yes done? 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? no? done? 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes done? 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no done? 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done? 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? no done? 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? yes done? 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? no done? 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done? 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done? 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no