axe/stone axe

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
hacha (de piedra)
Meaning Portuguese
machado (de pedra)

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Kakua ʧak-daʔ ʧak-daʔ [axe-cl.round] axe-cl.round inheritance Simplex axe-cl.round especially for clearing fields See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu ji ʒi inheritance *jɨ Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani a-wæ̃-ka (IDS) unique Other complex a-wæ̃= tree/wood; ka=??? especially for clearing fields See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï tote unique Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami poo, poo porepɨ po:, po: poɾepɨ (made of stone) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: po: Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam poo (palm wood); haowatima (steel fragment set in stick) (both WM99) poo; haowatima (both WM99) palm wood, steel fragment set in stick inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: haowatima Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria ~khoba ~kʰoba inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo joecʉ, joetʉrʉva, abujujoedʉ (stone) hoekʉ, hoetɨrɨva, abuhuhoedʉ (stone) stone axe unique Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general a Classifier -dɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano komé komé inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano cõme kõme inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki dɨo ago dɨo ago unique Simplex ago= feminine noun classifier especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup mɔm mɔm inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw mãàm mã̂m inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani sipari (Rivet 48) loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara especially for clearing fields See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan chipál tʃipál loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere, via Piapoco in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero sparǝ, fiapan (R18) loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere, via Piapoco in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon wakka (E1980) waʔka (E1980) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio wakka waʔka inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi waaká waaká inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa čihtyə (generic ax) tʃihtyə (generic ax) unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna jipa jiñekaná (jipa 'stone', jiñekaná '?') hipa hiɲekaná 'para prender fuego' inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Alternate: peɾu (axe) Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana episí-da episí-da inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Derived -da = round classifier especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ˀbaru ˀbaru unique Spanish? See other Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa épitʃi (general), tʃípaɺa (iron axe) épitʃi (general), tʃípaɺa (iron axe) axe (stone or metal) inheritance; loan - WW Proto North Central Arawak %sipara/sapere Alternate: tʃípaɺa (stone axe) (Ramirez marks this term as probable loan), dzóoka Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro epíitshi epíitsʰi inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yir-Yoront kay unknown Barry Alpher
Djinang birndyarra unique Claire Bowern
Gumatj birrarrapi unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ḏakul' inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ḏakul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu ḏakul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa dala:kurru unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul damiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru damiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu dhakul(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra galamaŋ unique Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gapamarda unique Claire Bowern
Jawi jamion inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr jamion inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru jamiyan inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma katyu doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri katyu loan direction unknown areal Pilbara word but also found in Marrngu and Nyikina Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl kumbara loan direction unknown used yuwana; said also to mean ‘crab’ by N&W Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta marti loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
Bardi tamiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyalay unique Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga tyila unique Claire Bowern
Yulparija wityirri unique Claire Bowern
Mangala yiwana; yiwana loan direction unknown areal Pilbara word but also found in Marrngu and Nyikina Claire Bowern
Walmajarri tarlakurr unique also kurra inheritance cf. Gur kurrwa, spec. 'stone axe' WW %tarlakurr; %kurrwa also kurra inheritance cf. Gur kurrwa, spec. 'stone axe' Patrick McConvell
Mudburra mayingka loan Jingulu mayingkini 'tomahawk;bag WW %mayingka Patrick McConvell
Jaru tawurtawu inheritance reduplication of dawu - noise derived Patrick McConvell
Gurindji kurrwa inheritance WW %kurrwa Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi tyamayina loan Jaru Jaru tyampayina 'big axe' Jaru tyampayina 'big axe' Patrick McConvell
Bunuba kurra loan Walmajarri WW %kurrwa Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng parntan unique stone axe karlpang stone axe; generic lijberrg. Woonayang; Mir. lithpurrk generic Patrick McConvell
Djapu rdakul(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaminjung wirlka semantic shift <foot/leg; widely borrowed for steel axe; also litypurrk, paranyin WW %wirlka Patrick McConvell
Miriwung lithpurrk inheritance Gaj. Lijperrk, also Jam. Lijpurrk;also nininy, mantiyany; stone ane axe menintheleng WW %litypurrk Patrick McConvell
Jingulu wurtila unknown stone/steel; also tartawu <Mud,tawutawu; mayingkirni (steel) < Mud. Mayingka Patrick McConvell
Kija wumal unique Patrick McConvell
Wardaman parntan unknown karlpang stone axe Patrick McConvell
Achagua tʃúuʃi tʃúuʃi unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco chìpaali tʃìpaali especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena tsu:wahã, tʃipála (R01) tsu:wahã, tʃipála (R01) especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ¢uwa tsuwa especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi irikatihĩ idjikatihĩ unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure po'e po'e unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá e'pi; -ɣawa e'pi; -ɣawa inheritance; inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora ḯkwaá-xɨ ɯ́kwaá-xɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane xɨ́gáá-xe {axe-flat} xɨ́gáá-xɛ {axe-flat} especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai wywy wɨwɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana potpu (stone), wïwï potpu (stone), wɨwɨ inheritance; inheritance shared Mapoyo especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
Carijona wɨwɨ (generic ax) inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó wɨwɨ wɨwɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare wɨ̄wɨ (IDS) (means 'axe') wɨ:wɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo pata pata especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai yawaka jawaka inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari wury wurɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ascho, vasa, uacha astʃo, vasa, uaʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá zagará zagará especially for clearing fields See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán ovacco´cho oβakhoʔtʃo phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra mchoki mtʃoki unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro a´je aʔxɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez am am especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ioéma (Alv44) joéma unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina teru teɽu unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke pʌʌ pʌʌ unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé hibɛ especially for clearing fields See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar jákam xakam especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa jaacha (Spanish loan) xa:ntʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna kanám(pa) kanám(pa) unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses moco, duë moko, duɨ unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo poro-ma poro-ma unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jase xase unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua acha (Spanish loan) atʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano hacha (Spanish loan) hatʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa da'pEk'eh daʔpækʔeh unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ñoahite, ñohãhite ɲoaʔite, ɲoʔãʔite unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano kõbẽ-ã́ kõbẽ-ã́ especially for clearing fields See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'kõbẽ-ã 'kõbẽ-ã especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna cocõmea (cõmea - ax) kokõmɛa (kõmɛa - ax) inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti 'kṍõbẽã 'kṍõbẽã especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana kõ'bẽ kõ'bẽ especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano cõmé kõmé especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca ãta kõ'bẽã ãta kõ'bẽã inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo kõbẽ-ã kõbẽ-ã especially for clearing fields See Language page
Tuyuka kõ'bẽã kõʔbẽã especially for clearing fields See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja kʰõmẽ́ã̀ kʰõmẽ́ã̀ especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje su'upo suʔupo inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona zu'ubo zuʔubo inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya tsu'upo (regular axe) tsũʔupɔ especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana hikɨnɨt hikynyt unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
Sirionó siniɲa; eita siniɲa; eita unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina fuuxo ɸɯɯxo unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto čo-βéma tʃo-βέma especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto háta háta especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto hata hata doubtful loan Spanish hacha especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá boa hẽdu (hatchet) boa hẽdu (hatchet) inheritance? especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito caáji kaáhi inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo naruka kahicha naruka kahiʧa especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
Wari ʔirikatʃi wak (Sousa2009) ʔirikatʃi wak (Sousa2009) especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo šoši-xi; sewe-s̆a (Girard 1971) šoši-xi; sewe-s̆a (Girard 1971) especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña hača (From Spanish "hacha"; IDS notes that the H is pronounced) hača loan Spanish hacha especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jacha (P04) [ača] especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
Kwazá ale ale especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima lai-ɬa lai-ɬa especially for clearing fields See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai iau=šɨ=kuaš iau=šɨ=kuaš unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mèg mɛŋ especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
Suyá tuči tuči especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi mĩtä mĩtǝ especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE