Gumatj

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
guf
Location
-12.25°, 136.80°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (129)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ŋäṯi(') ga:lkal inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus gäḻumay(') ga:ḻumay(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii wuyunuŋu(') wuyunuŋu(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora ŋaḻamay(') ŋaḻamay(') unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer watjarrkaḻi(') balin inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp lämbiny la:mbiny unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna djikay(') dyikay(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing rdamala inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae bewiyik bewiyik inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri wäwuru(') baḻwurr inheritance underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae gathiŋaḻi(') gathiŋaḻi(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species guŋaluŋ(') dhamiḻiny inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii garrukal(') garrukal(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda guḏurrku(') ḏaŋgultyi(') inheritance Central Yolngu; also gurdurrku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis wayathul' wayathul' unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing yukuwa(7) inheritance 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera ḏapal(') ḏapal(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda djaṯam dyaṯam inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species wurraṉ wurraṉ inheritance 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus dhambaṉiny dhambaṉiny unique 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wärraŋ wa:rraŋ inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris waṯu waṯu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae muthali(') dakitaki inheritance reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong djunuŋguyaŋu dyunuŋguyaŋu inheritance 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta mewirri(') mewirri(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrpaṉ maḻwiya inheritance underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna bukurru(') barrarritya inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) buḻpuḻ(') buḻpuḻ(') unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera wurruḻuḻ(') wurruḻuḻ(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) winyiwinyi warrnyu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni djärrwiṯ dya:rrwiṯ inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii banbiṉawuy banbiṉawuy unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garkman garkman inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla missing 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) miyapunu ma:ṯala unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp ḏilkam ḏilkam inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) buḻwutja(') buḻwutya(') unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis djurwirr(') dyurwirr(') loan direction unknown WW %tyurwirr 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina ŋämuk ŋa:muk unique 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas dhalwaṯpu dhalwaṯpu inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata garanaŋga(') garanaŋga(') inheritance underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus djuku dyuku inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarraman' yarraman' inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing mirinyuŋu unique 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic wuyuwuyu(') murraymurray unique reduplicated Narrower [unidentified beetle] 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gandyi(7) inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae weṯi(') weṯi(') inheritance 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumaṯtji gurrumaṯtyi inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gaṉamu gaṉamu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus barkuma(') barkuma(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mäṉḏa gutatu doubtful loan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya barrukala(') barrukala(') inheritance 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca ḏelili ḏelili inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing dyurrayŋaniŋ unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus birrkin-birrkin birrkin-birrkin unique semantic shift? reduplicated 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones buthuŋu buthuŋu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna ŋaraka ŋaraka inheritance cf Gupapuyungu “ŋarakalam(a)” to find or collect underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djirrmaŋa(') dyirrmaŋa(') inheritance 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae gärr' ga:rr' inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia garrala garrala inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae maranydjalk belpil semantic shift also word for “knife” underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita baḏikan baḏikan inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera djakuḻuḻu(') gunaŋa(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) gunaŋa(') gunaŋa(') inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wäk wa:k inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) gäyu dharpa inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma wakwak dhatam(') inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis gaḻayin(') gaḻayin(') inheritance underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax ḏamala ḏamala inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys djirrwiyirrwi' dyirrwiyirrwi' inheritance reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) guyita ga:muruŋ inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no


Cultural Vocabulary (103)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology burralku doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
armband dress wurrwa unique Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool birrarrapi unique Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material bandak unique Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yipaŋ unique Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology buḻuk inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool gaḻiwaḻi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material dhaniya(') inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport gapala(') unique Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology biḏipi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology biḻma inheritance Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
cook food food dhaḻ' CHECK Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology girityirr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology dya:ybuŋ unique Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology yiḏaki inheritance Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool rduttyi(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other ḏuttyi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other dhurrmururl7 inheritance Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool yuṉḏiti' unique Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food binydyarr'yun unique Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool raki(') inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool rrurrambu unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food warrakan(') inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology baḻirrpaḻirr unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool gonydyuy(') unique Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology gapany unique Claire Bowern
grog food ŋa:nityi loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress warambala(') unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology marrŋgity inheritance Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food ŋuwa-ŋuwa unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other gatyambarri semantic shift Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food bar'parmarama semantic shift Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nayip loan English Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport gayuŋgi inheritance Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology miku(') inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food dye'la inheritance Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other buṉbu inheritance Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool bindyurrwuy unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool ba:wurr unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool narrityin unique Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material marrputya inheritance Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation dyoka' loan English WW sugar Claire Bowern
tea food ḏilip loan English WW tea Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics *gotyu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other bu:nhdhu unique Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology dyolurr unique Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation goḻ loan English Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool banambi unique Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation buthuḻu(') loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation baypa loan English WW paper Claire Bowern
corpse food dharra' inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation dyikin loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology rdimbuka(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology muwayak semantic shift Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material batigut loan with semantic shift English WW petticoat Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dyapathu loan Makassar WW %dhapathung Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics miḏityin' loan English WW medicine Claire Bowern
earth oven food gurnrda semantic shift Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation biḻityuman loan Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation butyikit loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ma:rryaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress bathapu(') loan Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense seasonal yes