cat

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
gato
Meaning Portuguese
gato

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla gaatu7 cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Sauvel and Munro 1981 Jane Hill
Cupeño gaatu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño tuukut kingawish house cat (Harrington) unique WW %tuku phrase Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino to-koot cat semantic shift *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
Serrano gātu7 cat loan Spanish also kiri7 WW %gato simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk ŋatï7 cat loan Spanish from an intermediate lg WW %gato simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal nātü7 cat loan Spanish Spanish from an intermediate language WW %gato simplex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu naaty7y cat loan Kitanemuk < Spanish WW %gato simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi pu:sI, pu:sitsI domestic cat loan English tukupukutsI also WW %pussy simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute qattatsI cat loan English? Spanish? WW %cat other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute muusa-ci cat semantic shift *mis Uto-Aztecan lots of arguments but I'm committed other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone naatty cat, kitty loan Spanish intermediate lg? Kawaiisu? WW %gato simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone kyti housecat, cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche wa7oo7, wa7o7a cat unique loan from where??? simplex R Jane Hill
Western Mono qaatU7 cat loan Spanish also kidi WW %gato simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute kaadu cat loan English WW %cat simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok ka:to- cat loan Spanish also pu:si WW %gato simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok pu:si- cat loan English also tonci from © only 218 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok tonci- cat loan Yokutsan Wappo also has this word WW %talom simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok káatu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu k'ík'i cat loan English also k'éti from 'cat' WW %kitty simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani ga:do: cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Newman 1944 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo missing missing Jane Hill
Wintu kiri, kirikirit cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki kiti, kiTe cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 Jane Hill
Wappo tónči7 cat loan Yokutsan see Plains Miwok tonci7 WW %talom simplex Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun penyék cat unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen mi's-ka-tas cat (Carmelo language?) loan Spanish Henshaw; this is %mis-mis-mis to call a cat WW %mis other complex Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
Salinan A šméš cat loan Spanish Mason smic p. 124; could this be from the /mis/ loanword with some kind of prefix?? WW %mis other complex s- animal prefix on mis Turner 1987 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno miSina, miXina as in German ich' gato (tame), house cat loan Spanish maybe from a UA language?? WW %mis simplex Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno katu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno katu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno missing missing Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa gaat domestic cat loan Spanish also meniis p. 32 WW %gato simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa kíri cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave posh, poosh cat loan English WW %pussy simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai ñmí cat Semantic shift Proto-Yuman wildcat word simplex ñmīta 'mountain lion' (a marking reversal?) Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa nmi7 cat semantic shift *-mi(7) 'mountain lion' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:82 simplex *n-mi 'cry'??? Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) miist cat loan O'odham (M&M think it's Spanish, it isn't) simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua piʧina piʧina loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu pixana (Casas2000) piʃana (Casas2000) loan - WW %pisana Via Nheengatu into: Tariana pisána, Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana; Hup picana; Tukanoan E. family (eg: Wanano pisana) WW %pisana Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani kede (IDS) loan English (prob via missionaries) See also Ninam kitikiti; probably entered via SIL missionaries See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï yewi 'dog, cat'; [kato] cat, dog [maybe also jaguar??] semantic shift; loan cf. 'dog' (loan); English Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami mishi, yaomɨ, henapë (domestic cats), thoropowarewë (rat eater), ira tikëkërimɨ (mountain cat), irimɨ (si), tururumɨ (mosi) (black tiger) miʃi, yaomɨ =, henapə (domestic cats), tʰoropowarewə (rat eater), ɨra tikəkərimɨ (mountain cat), irimɨ (si), tururumɨ (si) (black tiger) loan - WW; unique %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam mɨʃɨ missing North Arawak? Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam kitikiti kitikiti loan English Probably via American missionaries? Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria pisana pisana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo pichana pitʃana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano pisána pisána loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano pisana pisana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki michi aguɨ mitʃi agɨ loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex agɨ/ago M/F animate CL See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup picana picana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw sãàn’ ʃã̂n’ loan - WW %pisana probably from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani mitsi mitsi loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Pemon pichana (A1981) pitʃana (A1981) loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio kaiguuzhii (E 1980) kaɪguʒi unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi pisana pisana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa michi apo' (MM); miǩi (IDS) mitʃi apɔʔ (MM); mitʃi (IDS) loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna michi mit͡ʃi loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana pisána pisána loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); other Arawak (e.g. Wapishana piʃani); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana piʃani piʃani loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa pitsána loan Nheengatu probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro miishí miiʃí loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Burarra budyibudyi loan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu butyigat loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Gumatj butyikit loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Dhuwal butyikit loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Yawuru kurirdi minyaw semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi marurrumburr semantic shift Claire Bowern
Karajarri matu kunkulu unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul mijaw loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Yulparija milkarrpa semantic shift need to check that there isn’t another word for cat; this is also ‘female cat’ Claire Bowern
Nyikina minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Nimanburru minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Jawi minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Bardi minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Warrwa minyawu loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Mangala minyawu loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta ŋawu-ŋawu unique onomaopoeic? Claire Bowern
Ngarluma putyi loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga putyiputyi loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Walmajarri miyawu loan Kriol Patrick McConvell
Mudburra putyikat loan Kriol old name nyurna, Patrick McConvell
Gurindji ngatyukayin unknown Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng kutyapi unknown also mapurn - also scar, stripe Patrick McConvell
Djapu butyikit loan English WW cat Claire Bowern
Jaminjung wilymurrumawu derived having wire - ref to claws? The wire word is probably a loan source unknown. WW %wilmurr derived Patrick McConvell
Jingulu putyikarta loan Kriol also kartayi WW cat Patrick McConvell
Kija ngirrngiliny semantic shift Gajirrabeng type oF devil spiriT, cat Patrick McConvell
Miriwung ngirrngeleng inheritance semantic shift <spirit type cf Kija, Patrick McConvell
Wardaman kutyapi loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
Achagua míitʃi míitʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco míichi míitʃi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero gatu (Sp loan) gatu (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare mitʃi mitʃi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baure misi misi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kuruwãu; ĩyãu (latter can also refer to a human being) kuruwãu; ĩjãu (latter can also refer to a human being) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora mííchi míítʃʰi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane mííshi mííʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai pisa pisa loan - WW %pisana See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana mimi mimi unknown See Language page PLE
Carijona mici (M2000) loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó miki miki loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare mēši (IDS) me:ʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai kamarači kamarači unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa kato (domesticate) kato (domesticate) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca nymy 'wild cat' nɨmɨ 'wild cat' See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá misi (loan Sp michico, IDS) misi (loan Sp michico, IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán mishi miʃi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra miishi miiʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro he'ica hɨʔika See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [miš] [miš] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna pitchána (Alv44) pitʃána loan - WW %pisana See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina misito misito loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé pãrẽmẽ boĩ (? little) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [misi] [misi] loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar míshi míʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa mishu miʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna [bišu] [bišu] loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses quidi quidi kidi kidi loan English (prob via missionaries) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo kama-no kama-no unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua michiy mitʃij loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua mishu miʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá michi mitʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua misi misi See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano misi misi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa mi'cih miɁsih loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva misi misi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana pisana pisana See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna pisana pisana loan - WW %pisana See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Koreguaje misi misi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona miči miči loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana 'ĩn 'ĩn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi malakaya (also 'margay', Felis wiedii) malakaja (also 'margay', Felis wiedii) semantic shift refers to native cat See Language page PLE
Sirionó ɲakʷa ɲakʷa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Nɨpode Witoto mítʃi mítʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto mítʃi mítʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto mííʃi mííʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito míisi míisi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari kaʃikon mijak (Sousa2009) kaʃikon mijak (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo [misi] [misi] See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña miši (IDS notes that similar forms occur throughout the Americas; Girard states that it is borrowed from Aymara-Quechua) miši See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá jãu jãu See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima miči mitʃi See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang mĩŋ sĩ (loan, IDS) mĩŋ sĩ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi warurei warurei See Language page PLE