frog (generic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim oo'-koo-koo Frog loan Yokuts Yowlumne o-gŏ-ko; ho-gŏ-ko “toad”, Palewyami oo-koo'-ko “frog” (so Proto-Yokutsan) same underived presumably onomatopoeic in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pa-jakkosa, pa-jakwaca, waako (bullfrog at Duckwater) frog, )M:Frog (Rana) inheritance -jakwaca with pa- "water" WW %wakat same phrase water-? Crapo 1976;134 2 2 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla wáxačilʸ ˈwaxaʧiʎ frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set WW %wakat broader (includes “toad” according to Merriam notes) other complex ˈwaxaʧi-ʎ (-ʧi-ʎ is cognate with Numic diminutives, but frozen and non-productive in Takic) -7aʃ “pet” possessive classifier --7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:233 no info 2 Instrumental in death of creator (Seiler 1970:50-51) 2 Bean 1972 does not include frogs in his list of animals eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Wetlands, lakes and streams no
Central Sierra Miwok waTăksa7ji- frog inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Callaghan 2001:326; note Pwintu *wataq *; but onomatopoeic “susceptible to borrowing” WW %wakat other complex -sa7-ji is suffix complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 2 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi wagátatsI Frog sp. inheritance *wakatta/*wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex wagáta-tsI Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno waq'aq' frog inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno weqeq WW %wakat reduplicated Ono 124, Beeler 1978:188 2 2 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno wah-kahk' frog inheritance *waqaq Proto-Chumash Obispeno weqeq WW %wakat reduplicated Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno weqeq frog inheritance *waqaq Proto-Chumash widespread areal form, but NOT regular inside Chumash so diversely loaned? WW %wakat reduplicated Turner 1983:236 2 2 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno xwetet; JPH waqaq from FL frog (Merriam confirms) unique WW %wakat underived Mamet 2008:92; JPH III:69:0081 2 2 0 0 0 no
Cocopa xanyá frog inheritance Proto-Yuman resemblant M. hanye -- probably cognate but I'm not sure same underived Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
Comanche pohpi kwáai; Rejon pasauiyió 29 (pasawii?o?) frog unique same finite clause? jumping goes (R&A) Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 2 0 0 0 no
Cupeño waxachily ˈwaxaʧiʎ frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set same other complex ˈwaxaʧi-ʎ frog-npn (root contains unproductive diminutive) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:177 no info 2 bewitched creator and caused his death (Strong 1929:269) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
Esselen missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino kwa'ro' ˈkʷaʔroʔ zapo inheritance *kwaʔro Uto-Aztecan S941 (Stubbs 2009:157) same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 116 no info 2 Frog is shaman who bewitches Wuyot (White 1963:141), or perhaps his wife 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
Iipay 'Aa hantak frog, toad inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG broader (frogs and toads) underived etymologically complex, ha-n-tak water its-?(dirt?) Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 2 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu wogata frog inheritance *wakatta/*wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa x?nqhaatq toads, frogs unique Probably not Langdon 1979:637 *xa-nya FROG broader (toads and frogs) underived but x? may be “water; perhaps xa?=naa “swim”??? Mixco 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk wakatat ˈwakatat frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set WW %wakat broader (includes toads) other complex ˈwakata-t frog-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:562 no info 2 frog is wife of coyote (Anderton 562) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
Lake Miwok kolóolo frog unique May be a sound-symb. variant of Pmiw form which has /t/ in Mib; Bodega Dic p. 40 has Pmiw *koto:la (?) 'frog, toad, notes S. Pomo go:tolo “tadpole” reduplicated Callaghan 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
Luiseño waxáw'kila (B) waʹxawɁkila frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set. Lu. form waxáw'kila (B) has some kind of odd derivation, perhaps a reduplication??? WW %wakat narrower (doesn't include bullfrogs, apparently) derived waxá-w'ki-la (B) frog-dup?-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:1037 no info 2 Frog (actually waxaawut, Calif. red-legged frog) is shaman who bewitches Wuyot (White 1963:141) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes and streams no
Maidu wélk'et'ì frog (general) unique odd take on areal forms in wakat, watak, waraq, etc. WW %wakat other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
Mojave hanye frog inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG; Yuma xanyk7o/ “bullfrog” broader (frogs and toads) phrase ha- “water” Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
Mutsun wakaraT-smin frog inheritance *waT(ar)ak- Utian Callaghan 1962:103 relates to Mi *waTak forms, but notes 2001:326 that such words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing WW %wakat relative clause -min "one who is/has" Mason 1916:427 2 2 0 0 0 no
Nisenan potpoto; wah'-kaht frog loan Wintun potpot is Miwokan frog word WW %wakat reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966; Merriam 57:241 2 2 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute pamogo Frog (Rana) inheritance this is not *pa: “water” which would yield pawogo.But see Tumpisa Shoshone pawaka (approx), must be the same word. WW %wakat same underived Yerington Dictionary 2 2 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok waTaksaji- frogs (little, not bullfrog) inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Bodega Dic, Callaghan 2001:326, note ProtoWintu *wataq “frog”. “These words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing” (Callaghan 2001:326) other complex -sa-ji Callaghan 1987 2 2 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok potpot, potpoto- frog, bullfrog inheritance Eastern Miwokan Mins word for “toad, bullfrog” reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
Salinan A wá:keT frog unique Salinan very widespread frog word of unknown origin; e.g. PUA *wakaC-ta; WW %wakat underived Mason 1918:125; Turner 1980:74 2 2 0 0 0 no
Salinan M wákaT' frog unique Salinan very widespread frog word of unknown origin; e.g. PUA *wakaC-ta; WW %wakat underived Mason 1918:125 2 2 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) otác frog, toad unique WW %wakat broader (frogs and toads) underived Comcaac Dictionary 460 2 2 0 0 0 no
Serrano waqar-t frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157) WW %wakat other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 2 2 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute wa·gotsI Frog (Rana) inheritance *wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex Said by SP's to be onomatopoeic, but old; has -tsi ABS sapir 1930:713 2 2 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok waTak-Hna- frog inheritance *waTa:k Miwokan Callaghan 2001:326; note Pwintu *wataq “frog”. “These words are onomatopoeic and susceptible to borrowing “ Callaghan 2001:326 WW %wakat other complex -Hna Broadbent 1964: 2 2 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute paqxwánI frog inheritance *kwa'Lo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 941 (2008:157) here with pa- “water” like S. Paiute same other complex -ni suffix is some kind of derivation; historically phrasal Givon 1979 2 2 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal wōhnāl wo:hˈna:l large kind of frog unique broader (includes toad) other complex wo:hˈna:-l frog.sp-npn Hill 2010:121 no info 2 2 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
Tümpisa Shoshone pookoo, pawoko frog, man's name inheritance Is this from pa-wakaN??? In which case PUA “water” plus S940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex pa-po0koo water-toad Dayley 1989:198 2 2 0 0 0 no
Wappo k'áTik' frog (CHM confirms 52:577) unique underived Sawyer 1965 2 2 0 0 0 no
Washo gó:t'a7 frog unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 2 2 0 0 0 no
Western Mono wazaGa' frog inheritance *wakaCta Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157); Stubbs believes Mono metathesized the two medial consonants same underived Bethel et al.:278 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
Wintu wataq(met) frog (CHM confirms 56:15) inheritance *wataq Wintun Shepherd 2005; a large areal group of very similar forms WW %wakat underived waq...1 Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yavapai hàɲkŏ, hàɲâ breve is hachek frog 1, frog 2 inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami oo-koo'-ko frog unique this looks like a very widespread word for “frog”. Could Merriam have made a mistake? same onomatopoeic Merriam 58:529 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi koyòyiT Merriam go-doit (Wik) 58:371 frog inheritance *kojo... Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:33; compare Mil kolo:lo same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne k'oyotwoT' frog inheritance *kojo... Nim-Yokuts Callagan 1997:33, compare MiL kolo:lo same other complex Almost certainly the woT is a suffix. A “koy” root appears also in “turtle” -- related? Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yuki 7oT'a F, 7o:7oT A frog inheritance *7oT'a7; *7oT' Yukian Schlichter 1985 other complex -a7 "animate suffix on substantives" (Schlicter diss p. 52) Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
Yuma hahn'-n>yĕ; xanyk7o/ “bullfrog” (Langdon 1979:637) Frog (Rana) inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG unknown Merriam 61:463 2 2 0 0 0 no
Bardi (many species) garrjarl garrjarl unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba (many species) balngawuna balngawuna loan Jaru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra (many species) bogaboga bogaboga unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi (many species) djaµmal dyarnmal unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djinang (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng (many species) bilthoon pilthun unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi (many species) woogoo woogoo loan Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj (many species) garkman garkman inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji (many species) ngaltya ngaltya loan Miriwung also palngawurn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr (many species) thandaar & thanamundi & garrgurr thandaar & thanamundi & garrgurr frog & green frog & sand frog inheritance *canta+ pEastern Questionable: /thandaar/ poss. to Muruwari /thantay/ 'frog'. /thanamundi/ is unique, but garrgurr 'sand frog' is cognate w KYal karrkurr 'green frog' underived /thandaar/ is apparently generic 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaminjung (many species) malara malara unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru (many species) balngawan balngawan inheritance palngawurn Ngumpin-Yapa Walm. 'green tree frog' uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu (many species) ngalayimityji ngalayimityji unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri (many species) putuwanin putuwanin unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija (many species) wukeny wukeny inheritance wuku Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera (many species) KOW-KACHÁL & thenpén KOW-KACÁL & thenpén GREEN FROG & GREEN TREE FROG, bullfrog unique Also ko-kacál 'long-nose frog', a sp. name sometimes used as a generic compound stress-second compound; thenpén is simplex
Kuku-Thaypan (many species) amorakong amorakong unique underived ? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji (many species) yirku-yirku & karrkurr & yuday yirku-yirku & karrkurr & yuday unique yirku-yirku & yuday are unique, but karrkurr 'green frog' is cognate with GYim garrgurr 'sand frog' reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar (many species) bheech & dhoom bheech & dhoom unique underived eeny 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre (many species) thatvr thatvr inheritance *catal Local Local. As *cata pPaman, with poss.cognates in Gunwinyguan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala (many species) purru-karraŋu purru-karraŋu unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram (many species) nol nol unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung (many species) ngaldjan ngaldjan unique also palngawun<proto-form WW %ngaltya underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi (many species) dakbarara7 dakawa7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin (many species) manggurrarri manggurrarri unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl (many species) waljaburring waljaburring unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru (many species) dyergabinj dyergabinj semantic shift underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta (many species) pupuka pupuka unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina (many species) jiraki, jirrirri, kankarramal jiraki, jirrirri, kankarramal unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul (many species) gai gai gai gai unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh (many species) thata thata inheritance *cata pPaman With pGunwinyguan *catti ('frog'; Harvey) this could be very old underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga (many species) karkman karkman loan Yolngu kark onomat -man sound suffix in Wardaman etc simplex generic for frogs and specific for green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay (many species) wubun wupun frog, toad (generic) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol (many species) ednbal ednbal frog (generic./classifier) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand (many species) ednbal ednbal frog (generic/classifier) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri (many species) lirrajapal lirrajapal inheritance lirra-tyapal Ngumpin-Yapa compound mouth-open 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman (many species) jabarlng jabarlng unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warlpiri (many species) jarlji jarlji unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan (many species) waapel waapvl frog (generic) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra (many species) dyirrandya dyirrandya doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Nyikina? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu (many species) garkma garkma inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru (many species) walag walag inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny (many species) manggum manggum unique underived Used as a generic in generic-specific terms 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront (many species) thertl thertl inheritance *cata pPaman; poss. pre-Pama-Nyungan (cognates in Gunwinyguan) The protoform *catal is Local underived 0 0 0 0 0 no