Yokuts Yawdanchi

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yok
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ThipHin “top, up, on, sky” 237 H is aspiration inheritance K07:237, G64 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar batc-yo “again” inheritance K07:237 Jane Hill
all todo todos other k'umui inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
and y e grammar ama “and then” inheritance K07:,245 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kHuyo inheritance K07:235 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hapac (hapash) x inheritance K07:233 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body k'ewe:t inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality toTHe inheritance K07:244,G64 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body t:ot: 238 x inheritance K07:238 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location atit “down, low, below” inheritance K07:245, G64 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality meTH inheritance K07:244, G64 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 7ajij inheritance K07:246, G64 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tcUmgutan (chy:mgatan?) xU is u/umlaut unknown K07:244, G64 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body hOpa 236 xO is o/umlaut inheritance K07:236 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body ch'i:y I w/ umlaut inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pHO7OchH “breast, sternum” x inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hong- inheritance K07:248 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment thut (G64:61) inheritance K07:274, G64 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human wit'epH inheritance K07:240,G64 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment k'Udai inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality dOtc “be cold” x inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion tHaxin inheritance K07:251, G64 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality me\'tc (me:7ch) inheritance K07:272 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental pHich'- inheritance K07:250, G64 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ah- inheritance K07:246 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing Jane Hill
day día dia time opH-ti inheritance K07:243, G64 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state tHawich inheritance K07:251 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna iwe\itc 241 inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental angatc-wat < “sleep”?? loan into protolanguage K07:237 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body uk-un- inheritance K07:253, G64 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality missing Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tHukH inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment p'a:n “land” 239; p'a:an 243; inheritance K07:239,243 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body duy inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hong inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body shasha inheritance K07:238, G64 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body bidik 241 inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wox “fall over” unknown K07:254 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wa inheritance K07:237 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body he:xa inheritance K07:241, G64 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship natet unknown K07:240 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental pax- inheritance K07:246, G64 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna tcodo\ngic “feathers” unknown K07:241 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7ushitH inheritance K07:243, G64 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna topHiTH inheritance K07:242, G64 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion hodj (?) unknown K07:248 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7e:taw inheritance K07:243, G64 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hay-in- inheritance K07:248, G64 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment tceheng unknown K07:243 Jane Hill
foot pie body wutong inheritance K07:236 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality injij, inij-ij 236 inheritance K07:236,G64 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state poohu'tcu inheritance K07:268 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body to\t: 238, 240 inheritance K07:238,240, Jane Hill
hand mano mão body puTHong “hand, arm” inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body to\t: 238, 240 perhaps to:TH inheritance K07:238,240, Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental tang- inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion hish-n- inheritance K07:248, G64 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kHo7o inheritance K07:249; G64 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar naa-, -na inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
if si se grammar akam “perhaps” unknown K07:273 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body doc unknown K07:237 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact shox- inheritance K07:246 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hutH inheritance K07:249; G64 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pa:aji loan into protolanguage K07 :243 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental hay- inheritance K07:248, G64 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment tapHtapH inheritance K07:239,243 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body kHatasha (poku) “lower leg” inheritance K07 ; G64 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion k'Unu “lie” inheritance K07:249; G64 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body gho “be, sit, live” inheritance K07:248 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body tipH inheritance K07:238,G64 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality wa: (see also “far”) inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tehet: “head”; inheritance K07:242 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body comot 241 inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human no\no inheritance K07:274 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ce\cat (she:shat) inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7upH-ish inheritance K07:237, G64 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship najoj inheritance K07:240 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body shama inheritance K07:241, G64 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human hoyowac inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality penau unknown K07:245 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body o\gun inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time tHoyono inheritance K07:243, G64 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar k'amu “No”, loan direction unknown K07:245 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body THUngUkh U is u/umlaut inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality moxot-o “old person, man” inheritance K07:193, G64 Jane Hill
one uno um number yetH inheritance K07:236 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other at:id (7aTi-d) inheritance K07:246 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar niudi “another” unknown K07:245 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body chHUxUchH (verb to be hurt, sick) inheritance K07:253, G64 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human mai 238 inheritance K07:238 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact duku “pulverize” 247; unknown K07:247 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment xotoo; G64:64 xotH- inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour badjikin 244 inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pHi:t loan into protolanguage K07:239, G64 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ho:pHut inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment wages 243 inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental wid 253 inheritance K07:253 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact k'uyuk 249 unknown K07:249 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental 7Okha inheritance K07:250, G64 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact t'uy- inheritance K07:251, G64 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality at'e 244 unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body t:apad 241 inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state gho “be, sit, live” inheritance K07:248 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body tcudui 237 inheritance K07:237 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment ThipHin “top, up, on, sky” 237 inheritance K07:237 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body engt-im inheritance K07:248 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality pu:nun, pu:tcutc 244 unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mod:ak 243 loan into protolanguage K07:243 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hOng 236; 249 O is w/ umlaut inheritance K07:236,49 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact nit:' “squeeze with hand” unknown K07:250 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact xatc “stab” unknown K07:254 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wo-wud inheritance K07:236 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment ch'oytHosh inheritance K07:243, G64 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora hUtac “wood” loan into protolanguage K07:243 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment yakau 243 inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body tumukH inheritance K07:241, 247 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion ep K07:248 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kutH inheritance K07:238, G64 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ta- 260 (general, invisible); inheritance K07:260 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar na:n inheritance K07:221 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality t'Ung-Uk U w/ umlaut inheritance K07:236 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental dim inheritance K07:247 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar xe (near p1); xi (near P2) inheritance K07 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ma sg, inheritance K07:261 Jane Hill
three tres tres number sho:pHin inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body hocod, inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact t:o “throw at” K07:252 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment t:akaa unique K07:243 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact T'ikH- (K gives just this to mean tie!) inheritance K07:214 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body tHatxaTH inheritance K07:241, G64 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tHe:ti inheritance K07:241 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tcadax K07:252 Jane Hill
two dos dois number pHongoy inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion hiwetH loan into protolanguage K07:235, G64 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7itikH inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nak (dual), na:n (plural) inheritance K07:221 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mak (dual), mai (plural) inheritance K07:221 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality missing Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ha- 267 han 228 inheritance K07:267,228 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar haudau unknown K07:228 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hide7e inheritance K07 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tcodod inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar wat inheritance K07:228 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship yiwin “wife” unknown K07:240 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment tcidaca unknown K07:243 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kHapat inheritance K07:241, G64 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human muk'-ash inheritance K07:236, G64 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tcow inheritance K07:253 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ch'i:y-matH “green” inheritance G64:62 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mam 270 inheritance K07:261,270 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae hus-sah ant, black ant (esp. smal stinking kind) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Chuk, Gashowu. hah'-se' “black ant”, same underived Merriam 58:373 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana coyod, coyit (220) antelope inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber missing Pal., Buena Vista has the mu- form WW %sok same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus huyaktîtsi badger unique unique in Kroeber same other complex surely complex but I don't recognize the forms Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus owik bald eagle inheritance Yokutsan unless Pal. form is really Yowlumne, this is Yokutsan; all but two forms in Kroeber are this one; note Wappo ah-wā-ko'-mah same underived Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata acongin pigeon (Merriam confirms 58:363) unique Might be reflex of *s/howin Golla 1964:61 “dove 2”, but perhaps better Palewyami trok'-in-wah same underived Kroeber 1961:220 (spec) 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp tc'imtc'im bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan only in Homet, Pal, Yaw in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU * *şim ... same reduplicated Kroeber 1907:196 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor töpük beaver inheritance *t'/t''ɨpɨkʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354 WW %t'ypyk same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp ahn-titch 13-line junebug unique same other complex probably has -itch agentive Merriam 58:373 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus cuyo, cuyo' round tule (Scirpus acutus) (Merriam confirms S. acutus 58:381); unique Kings River, Tule-Kaweah (adjacent subgroups) If cognate in Kings River, Tule-Kaweah, then this is a Nim-Yokuts form. But since groups are adjacent better to judge it as a low-level form and “unknown” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 2 0 0 tule mats obtained from Tachi, Chunut who lived at the tulares no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tcox skunk inheritance *cʰox Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:356 same underived perhaps from tcukit “stink” Kroeber 1907:181 Kroeber 1961:201 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus iwèyiT wolf inheritance Nim-Yokuts nearly universal in Kroeber; this form probably metathesis of the yVw- forms from “chase” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis diwècip mountain sheep inheritance Nim-Yokuts Note similar forms as far east as Tub le:wshe:p “female spirit, perhaps otter”; Yowlumne lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip; Nim-Yokuts diwècip (Yawdanchi form); Salinan lă-wā'-sit WW %lewasip same underived complex form but may be a loan Kroeber 1907:198 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tènip; dètchip (1907:198) bird (Merriam's Wik has latter form 58:369) inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Kroeber, in all Y. branches except Buena Vista and Palewyami same underived initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Kroeber 1961:201 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger haw'-di-haw'-di; Black ant (Wik) inheritance *k/po:lay- Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 same reduplicated Merriam 58:373) 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus dûuxun bear unique only in Yawd, Wik (Tule-Kaweah branch) same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus dopod jack rabbit (Merriam confirms top'pul 58:359) inheritance *topol Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:325 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus mah'-min blackberry, Rubus ursinus (Merriam confirms 58:377) inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Chukchansi, Yowlumne WW %mam broader (probably for any berry) unknown Merriam 58:503 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? wup'-tah blue grouse unique they call it kah'-hoot at Patishwa (that's a UA loan JHH) same underived Merriam 58:363 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus t'ungod wildcat inheritance *t'onol < **t'ol'an Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:32 (Gamble's reconstruction), note Pmi *tol:o:m:a “wildcat” same underived complex, -god probably separable, but no analysis possible with available sources Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera laulau butterfly unique Wik is walwal -- otherwise, unique in Kroeber same reduplicated Kroeber 1961:207) 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus witc condor inheritance *wi*č' (N-Y) Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 WW %wit same underived Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? Táicudètc bluejay (Merriam confirms Aphelocoma 58:363) loan into protolanguage *T'ayT'ay General Yokuts unknown Callaghan 1997:58; missing only in Pal; compare Mis Tajič, Miw *$aji:ch, Nisenan ch'ajit “bluejay”; Yukian *č'ə7əy; but Pomo c'ayi, ca”yi better; Wintun čayi(:)k, etc. WW %chaj same other complex this has the T'ay element and a suffix that looks like Pal. -wilets. Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palâdat woodpecker (Merriam confirms 58:363) loan *phala:tath Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:66; Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts”; Costanoan has *para:Ta, CHECK WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. tciviyi, tcivili chipmunk (Merriam confirms 58:359) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Yowl. che-wil'-le same underived Kroeber 1907:241 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota taipālutc Merriam ti'-pum-nautch (Wik) is barn swallow Hirundo 58:363 swallow unique The taip- element also in Wechitit in Kroeber, but this is geographically adjacent unknown Kroeber 1961:212 (224) 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana datcai mudhen (Merriam confirms 58:369) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber except for Buena Vista, Pal, Yowl same underived Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii ti'w cottontail (Merriam confirms 58:359) inheritance *č,hiw, *thiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. dap'-pah cottonwood inheritance Yokutsan lep-pah in Palewyami; similar form in all Merriam's lists WW %pat ~ %lapat same underived might be related to/dapdap/ “leaf” with some consonantal sound symbolism byt this would be an ancient derivation Merriam 58:501 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans kaíu coyote inheritance *kʰay'iw Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354; could this be related to the haju “dog” words in Clear Lake area? WW %kaju same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos áduuT, adwutc (220) crow inheritance *ɂalwuT' Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:28, probably loan into this proto-language from UA *ata-wɨ-ta, hence Callaghan's resemblance to Pmi *ɂa:wy(č) is spurious same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii tahng'-i' Datura inheritance Yokutsan WW %tanai same underived Merriam 58:509 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus xoi deer inheritance *xoy Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tòngac digger (bull) pine inheritance *tho:ŋas Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61; Callagan 2001:324 compares Proto-Maidu *to:n “digger pine” same underived since P. ponderosa is Yowl to:n, the -ac may be suffix historically Kroeber 1961:211 (162) 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris tcèjej dog inheritance *če:- Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:199 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum hox a shrub, string fiber (1907:239); “large shrub, inner bark used for string” (p. 219 in Kroeber's notes); see species notes unique chuk tc'aka; Note Miss huken “milkweed” unknown 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura upyayi mourning dove (Meriam confirms 58:363) inheritance *ɂuphlal(l)iɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:220 (spec) 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hayana; hayina (220) duck inheritance General Yokuts most widespread form (from hayin “to fly”; universal except for languages that have waTwaT same derived from “to fly” (perhaps only etymologically) Kroeber 1961:204 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus wicèta elder tree (Merriam confirms Sambuus) inheritance *wiše:thaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived K 1907:236 relates to wicit erectio penis Kroeber 1961:219 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus coxgoi elk inheritance *$ohkoj <$ohkaj Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:59, compare Pmis *hak:a:ja-; Callaghan 2001:325 compares Hill Patwin koko:ja “tule elk” WW %sok same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna dopiT fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Kroeber 1961:205 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera b'akid flea inheritance *p'a:k'il Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355 same underived Kroeber 1961:206) 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. T'íwica yellowhammer (Merriam confirms 58:363) inheritance *T'iwis(a) Yokutsan Callaghan 1937:38, compare PU *tiw(:)a same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera p'anuckai fly inheritance *p'an'isk'aj ?? Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:326 same phrase p'an world K 1907:237 Kroeber 1961:205 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon au'tca fox (Merriam: Gray fox (WIK 58:357) inheritance *ɂawčhaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 2001:325 notes PW *ha:w “fox”, PM *haw “gray fox”, considers this YU-W-M, notes also Mim Ah-wah-ke “gray fox (Merriam) WW %kaw same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna koyòyiT Merriam go-doit (Wik) 58:371 frog inheritance *kojo... Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:33; compare Mil kolo:lo same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos Doxid; tcoxit (220 from spec.) Tohit' eagle inheritance Nim-Yokuts In all Kroeber except Pal., Homet. (Tulamni missing) same underived Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer hû'cudètc gopher snake inheritance *xo:ThongiTh (?) Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1937:60, compare Pmis ho.tang-ja:; I think the Yawd form here is a cognate same other complex huc-udetch “hoosh-sayer” K 1907:234 Kroeber 1961:212 (241) 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yâwud probably yawuT grass (Merriam confirms yah'-wut) inheritance *ja:wil Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:324, notes Csf yah wah “grass”, rejects Csr wai broader (probably includes brush) underived Kroeber 1961:198 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tc'anèkac grasshopper inheritance *t'a:n-, *č'a:n Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:62 same underived probably complex but no possibility of analysis Kroeber 1961:206) 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. bohad ground squirrel (Merriam confirms 58:359) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Yawd, Wik, also Yawl in my data same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. yongxo tree squirrel inheritance Nim-Yokuts only resemblants in Yowlumne same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus [hutulu] sic, hutulu (220 from spec.) large owl (Merriam confirms 58:361) inheritance *huttulu-? Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:59, compares some Mi forms, but...; Wappo hutúku:lu, Pmi *tuk:uli WW %(hu)tukul same underived probably sound-imitative in origin Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis ngohoo grizzly bear inheritance *ŋohɂoɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae djitcpaapu horned toad inheritance Yokutsan Merriam has this form in lists for every subgroup of Yokutsan same underived must be complex etymologically Kroeber 1907:242 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae mamgutc hummingbird inheritance Nim-Yokuts widespread but not universal in Kroeber; note Yowlumne be:mamgo:c' same other complex mam and -go:'c are separable etymologically but in absence of dictionary no analysis Kroeber 1961:203 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. sho'-kon Indian tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1937:41 or a very old loan WW %sokon same underived ultimately a derivation, but I don't think synchronically Merriam 58:379 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp cho-we'-nah Junco (Wik) unique Note Merriam's Tinlinne cho'-me-ul; same underived possibly the cho- is a formative element Merriam 58:365 (Wik) 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera teeT louse (head louse) inheritance *tʰihiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; Callaghan 2007:327 “matches PM *di- 'head louse'” narrower (head louse only) underived Kroeber 1961:206) 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos waTwaT mallard inheritance *waThwaTh Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:59; compare Pmiw *wat, Mil watmaj, Mib watmal same onomatopoeic, reduplicated Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. apTu manzanita (Merriam confirms) inheritance *ɂaphThiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:325 notes Maidu ?ekpy “large manzanita” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa cax milkweed used for string (Merriam confirms eriocarpa 58:381) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Note Merriam's che-kah for Chukchansi -- cognate? same underived Kroeber 1961:219 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis hòngatchhungatch milkweed used for gum inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber has same form for Yowlumne same reduplicated Kroeber 1907:243 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera k'acop mosquito inheritance Nim-Yokuts Also in Merriam's Chukchansi, Gashowu and in Yowl same underived Kroeber 1907:242 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera toi-yo'-no low-low Moth (Sphynx) (Wik) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Tinlinne has toi-yu; the low-low part is laulau same phrase some modification on “butterfly Merriam 58:373 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wöhöcit puma inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived probably complex but no possibility of analysis Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus Tipdi mountain quail (Merriam confirms Mountain quail 58:363) inheritance *T'iphith Yokutsan Golla 1964:60 same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. kŭ'-pitch fresh water mussels (Wik) unique same other complex probably has the -itch' agentibve suffix Merriam 58:371 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata pòde disc beads inheritance Nim-Yokuts Yowl. Polay; note UA po… words narrower (probably just the beads, not the shell and animal) underived Kroeber 1961:218 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? xaixai crested jay (Merriam confirms Cyanocitta) loan into protolanguage *xay- Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:63 WW %kaj same reduplicated Kroeber 1907:242 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum cuyut' beads (clam shell disks) (Merriam glosses as “a shell” 58:371 inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber also has this form for Yowl narrower (probably just the beads, not the shell and animal) underived Kroeber 1961:194 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys hunxut gopher (Merriam confirms 58:359) inheritance Nim-Yokuts all Kroeber except Yowl; Pal., Buena Vista missing same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum che-wik' Poison oak inheritance *č'iwik' Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:64 same underived Merriam 58:505 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. Tööd rattlesnake inheritance *Thy?yl Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:326, “matches PW *ch'iwil” same underived Kroeber 1961:204 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp kakau large red ant used as counterirritant inheritance Nim-Yokuts Same in Merriam's Chukchansi, Gashowu lists same underived Kroeber 1961:220 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus tcak Merriam ko-toon' chahk' blackbird (Brewer), CHM is Agelaius rsb ) 58:363 loan into protolanguage *č'ax Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:60; areal; “ Hill Patwin c'akatu “black bird”” 1965:204); Wintu L'ul č'ač'at; Mil c'akattu/a; but note Pmis *chakup-:a- (Callaghan 1997:58); Wappo č'ákh WW %chak same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis cuxup hawk sp. (Merriam confirms cuxup 58:361) inheritance Nim-Yokuts In all Kroeber except Pal. (Buena Vista forms are missing) same underived Kroeber 1961:202 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oiui road runner inheritance *ɂoyɂoy (NY) Yokutsan Callaghan 1939:60, compare Pmie *?uj(:)uj:u- WW %uji same reduplicated Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica mah-trim'-me sage herb, A. californica unique same underived Merriam 58:507 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss èpic lake trout (Merriam says is Steelhead Salmon); Merriam has ki'-ye-hrit for “salmon” in Wik: 58:371 inheritance Yokutsan in all Kroeber except Chunut same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? k'onče:ča (Golla 1964:63) Scaly lizard (Wik) (Merriam confirms genus Sceloporus) inheritance *k'on-čo:čiɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:63; looks a bit like the Mutsun “snake” word ko:Tehwa broader (may be generic for “lizard” other complex the k'on element is separable Merriam 58:371; transcription Golla 1964:63 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna te-he'-hip, tā-nip small bird inheritance Nim-Yokuts This is same word as (2) “bird” same underived Merriam 58:369 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna kóndjèdja lizard sp. (Merriam does NOT confirm but he has this for Uta sp. for Pal.) inheritance *k'on-čo:čiɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 broader (may be generic for “lizard” other complex k'on “to fall”, alight” K 1907:237 Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna e-now'-we-det' snake (any) (Wik) unique same other complex I'm sure this is complex form but analysis impossible Merriam 58:371 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum so-ho' (1961), tcoxotc (1907:243) soaproot, C. pomeridianum inheritance *ThoxoTh Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:65 same underived Merriam 58:509 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata tă-kah'-te; tah-kah'-te Sour berry (Wik) inheritance Nim-Yokuts kroeber's Chuk taxâti “sour red berry eaten with salt” 1961:219); Note Cupeño tatxa'ish “manzanita berries”! narrower (probably just the berries, not the plant) underived Merriam 58:379 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco üdatc; ütatc 220 (from spec.) hawk sp. (Merriam confirms ut-tuch 58 361) inheritance *?yt'ychH Yokutsan Callaghan 1937:59 says is only Nim, butPalewyami form suggests Yokutsan; compare Mil ?i:t'it, (loanword from Patwin?) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (212) 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae mutca spider (Merriam for Wik says is “bad black kind” 58:373) inheritance *mə:ča- ?? Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:327 “matches Maidu makaT “spider”; Pomo *mikHa(:) same underived Kroeber 1961:206) 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tcitcèu polecat (K explains this is the smaller skunk) (Merriam confirms for Wik 58:357) inheritance Nim-Yokuts universal in Kroeber but Pal., Buena Vista missing same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae o-ko'-ko, oo-koo'-koo toad (Wik) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber lists define Nim-Yokuts (no Buena Vista form; Pal. also missing) same underived Merriam 58:371 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) yapkin tree inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yowlumne, Choynuk same underived Kroeber 1961:198 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura Tanka; tcadka (220 from spec.) buzzard (Merriam confirms 58:361) inheritance Nim-Yokuts only Yawd, Wik, Yowl (where K has Tan'k'a') same underived Kroeber 1961:202 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines Toto turtle inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yawel, Palew is probably bilingual nonce loan same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia öcün black oak; Merriam confirms Q. californica Black Oak 58:375 inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber and Merriam both have the cognate form for Palewyami (es-sen-ne in Merriam, esin in Kroeber); note Eappo -i:š- “oak” (Sawyer 1991:33) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (#165) 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata k'ömiux plains oak (Merriam confirms Q. lobata 58:375 inheritance Yok-Utian Note Kroeber's Palewyami kimiax (where Yowl has k'inim) broader (includes acorns) underived Kroeber 1961:198 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hummud quail (Merriam confirms Valley quail, Callipepla 58:363) inheritance *humn-ul Yokutsan Golla 1964:64 WW %hum same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis la'la goose (Merriam confirms for WCG: 58:367) loan into protolanguage *laɂlaɂ Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 1997:59 compare Pcos *la'lak, nisenan la:lak' “gray goose, Maidu lylyk' “flock of geese WW %lala ~ %lak same reduplicated perhaps onomatopoeic in origin Kroeber 1961:204 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos hòhuimuc pelican unique directionality of loan hre is unclear: W. Mono hoi-hoi'-mus “pelican” and note Barbareno Chumash hew' “brown pelican” WW %hew same other complex obviously a complex form but no analysis possible with existing materials Kroeber 1961:212 (233) 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica so-no'-tis wild grapevine inheritance Nim-Yokuts Yowl. sono:dip same underived probably complex (Yowl-ip, Yawd -is obviously different elements) Merriam 58:509 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) ah-wā'-nah wild oats loan Spanish loan WW %avena same underived Merriam 58:509 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ho'wahs' Wild rose (Wik) unique Gashowu, Chukchansi ho-yah in Merriam, same? same underived Merriam 58:377 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) wahs'-ă-wi' (the plant) Wild sunflower unique same underived seeds are good food Merriam 58:383 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. caxatc willow (Merriam confirms; for Wik is S. lasiolepis (58:575) loan Takic perhaps from Kitanemuk/Serrano before the change *s > /h/;; probably into Proto-Nim-Yokuts same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. domòdumutc wood rat (Merriam confirms 58:359) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Yawd, Wik, Michahay, Tachi same reduplicated Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) to'-at-to'-mat worm, hairy caterpillar (food) (Wik) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Tinlinne has tro-maht tro-maht same reduplicated Merriam 58:373 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper gaTu worm, “presumably earthworm” (p. 216) inheritance (k'aThuw (?) Nim-Yokuts Yawd, Wik, Chuk, Mich onlyin Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:35; compare Pmie *ke:$u, *ke:$y- “angleworm”; Callaghan 2001:327 says “matches PW *k'es “worm” WW %kes same underived Kroeber 1961:206) 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. baònai yellow jacket inheritance *paɂo:nay Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:66 same underived Kroeber 1961:206) 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia chin-chin'-ne Yellowbird (Astragalinus) (Wik) unique same reduplicated Merriam 58:365 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum kut'-ten-ā'-sit Yerba santa, E. californicum unique same underived probably complex but no possibility of analysis Merriam 58:503 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna kakau red ant unknown K07:242 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna de\tchip, (de:chip) x unknown K07:242 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mumai “blowfly” 242 A w/ umlaut loan into protolanguage, direction unknown K07:242 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna che:jej j is zh inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yawud “brush, grass” 243 inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna xoy inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna t:OOd “rattlesnake” 242 THO7Ot? inheritance K07:242 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food dik acorn mush unknown simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology tibiknitc world of the dead unknown derived Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
feather headband dress cèma headband of eagle down unknown simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool t'uyosh arrow inheritance *t'ujos Proto-Nim-Yokuts Kroeber 1907:178 cikid 'hunting arrow' (< cokud 'pierce')' t'uyosh "war arrow" (p. 244); and note Wikchamni pah-hool' 'arrow, general name', from W. Mono or Tub Merriam 44:445 derived see t'uy 'to shoot' Golla1964 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material katcau basket unknown simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material koh-tow', kah-chow (purchased) at 345 small mush or soup bowl unknown tā'-witsh in Porterville Merriam 44:447 simplex Merriam 44:189 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material wo-koo'-mut basket hat worn by women unknown derived suffix -'muT' (Newman 161) Merriam 44:181 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material pode, cuyut beads inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts xumana 'long beads' ; Merriam has po'-di' 44:181 simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool tcutya, tcutia carrying net unknown derived has the -a(7) suffix Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology diya7 chief inheritance Nim-Yokuts see Yawelmani derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wot: stick (for hitting with) unknown wut-tuts 'club' Wikchamni (Porterville) Merriam 44:445; looks like Takic *wyt, probably coincidence derived truncated verbal noun Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food su-sah'-hah cooked unknown hēs'-sah 'cooked' (Porterville Merriam 44:443) derived extra syllable; same word as 'ripe' Merriam 44:343 Jane Hill
corpse food tawatca dead one inheritance Palewyami tawatsi 'he is dead' Gamble 1991:74; Merriam confirms tawatca 44:197; Merriam heard tow-wah-trah so is probably T, not "tc" 44:353 derived Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology ka'm dance inheritance perhaps Yokutian: Callaghan 2001:340; Merriam confirms 44:355 'any dance' simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Thiphni supernatural being inheritance *Thiphni7, *chhiphni7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam te-gah'-ah 'world maker' 44:197 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool tcapoi digging stick loan Southern Sierra Miwok ah'-se (Porterville) Merriam 44:445; note SSM sype- 'digging stick' simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other po'-nim' ear pendant inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts see Yawel po: derived Yawl is just po7 Merriam 44:181 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool so-kōt-te' fire drill unknown se'-kit-nē' 'fire drill' Merriam 44:343 derived Merriam 44:187 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other ho-to'-ne miyin fireplace ours inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived Merriam 44:183 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other hitec c=sh wood inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts hidesh in Chaw? Gash? In Newman before p. 134, search; Harrington has Yawl hit'es 'post, leña' 2,97,0009 derived truncated verbal noun Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food tipin acorn bread made in flat basket inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts kodwidin acorn bread cooked in water; caca-ñitc acorn bread cooked in hole, t'adic soft acorn bread cooked in rocks (244) derived verbal noun in -n Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other he-pĕsh' the counters unknown Porterville derived truncation (a guess) Merriam 44:451 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hitcwa/iu ghost inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts note Yawelmani hiT'wa:yu7 'Evil One' in Newman; Merriam gives yem-tah' witch-e 'spirit after leaving body' 44:197; ā-yum'-che' 'ghost' 44:197. me-tri'-ah 44:355 derived verbal noun, see Yawl. Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool troCH-ō>t glue of soaproot Inheritance *ThoxoTh Proto-Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:65 'soaproot' simplex Merriam 44:187 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food tan'-ni whiskey semantic shift datura (Wikchamni (Porterville) WW %tanai simplex Merriam 44:443 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics tañai ñ is ng Jimsonweed inheritance Proto-Yokutsan WW %tanai simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 7angThu shaman inheritance *7angThuw Proto-Nim-Yokuts Chumashan loan into PNY simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other The7 house inheritance *Thi7 Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami simplex Gollal 1964 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food tcok, t:ok hunt, hit unknown simplex t:ok- 'hit' 223 Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material no-koch''-o knife inheritance Proto-Yokutsan kā-tā' Merriam 44:343 derived from 'obsidian' Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
mat culture-material kot-tin'-ne mat of tules inheritance Proto-Yokutsan note Yawelmani Thiniy 'spread something out', Palewyami teng'-e (this form from Porterville) other complex Yawl. Has only 'tin-ne' /"tayni"/ Merriam 44:447 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pőwac portable mortar inheritance Proto-General Yokuts Kroeber 1962 says powac is bedrock m., also padiñ 'bedrock mortar', k'oiwoc 'small mortar' derived instrumental -ac'? Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
necklace other waiatc necklace, garland inheritance Proto-Yokutsan merriam confirms 44:181, so not a typo, but must be related to the walaT forms in Yawl, Palew derived instrumental -ac'? Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool pawukh awl inheritance *p'aw'ukh Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport I'-yi' paddle for boat inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Porterville simplex Merriam 44:447 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool padui pestle inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts? Merriam confirms pad'-we 44:187 simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
pinole food lŏ'-kew pinole unknown unique in Kroeber's list; Wikchamni (Ko-yet-te originally at Porterville) simplex Merriam 44:443 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other badāwuñut pipe unique Merriam shook'-mi' (of manzanita) 44:187, pah-mo'-e 'pipe' 44:345 derived obviously a complex word but I can't find an analysis Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
pitch food cakai asphalt inheritance Proto-NimYokuts simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool yo-koi'-e pot for cooking unknown Porterville simplex Merriam 44:445 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool te-mi'-hah quiver inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts see 'also' forms in Yawel derived suffix -a Merriam 44:185, 343 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sang-ets' rattle (of cocoons) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived instrumental ac' Merriam 44:355 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology hoo'-yu red paint inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Palewyami haw-yu simplex Merriam 44:183 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food koi'-yo salt inheritance Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Merriam 44:353 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tcaiji open-work seed beater loan unknown hah'-li Porterville Merriam 44:447 WW %chaj2 simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool tayaph bow (2) inheritance *T'alaph Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tcoxun ceremonial skirt of eagle down unknown Merriam 44:181 kin'-nip, choo'-nish? 'front apron of deerskin'; so-mis' 'front apron' 44:337 simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool po-an'-ne snare inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived from 'set trap', see Yawl. Form Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool too'-koi spear for fish inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
stirring stick food shi'-yow stirring stick unknown King's River Yokutsan, Wik. Šaj'aw Callaghan 1997:28 simplex Merriam 44:187 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture cax c is sh milkweed, string-fiber unknown simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mo'-gut, maw-koot tobacco bag; bag or sack inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Porterville; mago'o < UA in N.P.; but also note mo'-ket, same as antelope, in Palewyami so this is obscure! Areal, like antelope words, maybe substratal WW %mok simplex Merriam 44:445, 447 Jane Hill
string of shell money other k'ö:xa beads, shell beads (276) loan into protolanguage *k'e:xa7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts Takic Golla 1964; same as 'money' in Yawelmani; Merriam 44:181 has mo-jo'-kaw and ho-man'-nah 'wampum'; the latter of rabbit bones Merriam 44:487 WW %kys simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other mosh sweathouse inheritance *mosh Proto-Nim-Yokuts WW %mosh simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics sòkon tobacco inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41 WW %sokon simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
tule boat transport owon tule boat inheritance *7ow'in (?) Proto-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:322 derived vowel harmony shows derivation Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology xojojidj white mineral paint unknown hwā'-satch Merriam 44:183 'white paint'; haw-suts (Porterville 44:449) derived tcoy-oi 'white' Kroeber 1907:345 Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material kaiadju sifting basket unknown Merriam ki-aw-trow 44:189 'circular winnower'. Ah-pod 'snowshoe-shaped winnower' 44:345 other complex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dahitci moccasin inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam 44:181 has Yowl. lah'-hiCH 'moccasin' simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material ah-hā'-che baby basket unknown simplex Merriam 44:345 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation trow-id' music sticks of split elder unknown simplex Merriam 44:355 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pOwac “portable mortar” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown K07, G64 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool tcapoi unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture padu-i “pestle” 235 loan into protolanguage, direction unknown K07:235 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool tayapH “bow” inheritance K07:244, G64 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cikid “arrow” unknown K07:244 Jane Hill
house other The inheritance K07,G64 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no