Semantic Field
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar
Meaning Portuguese


Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
Cahuilla missing missing
Cupeño missing missing
Luiseño pavyut ceremonial wand, ceremonial beads inheritance *payu, *papayu Takic Stubbs 2011 1268a Lu, Ca, add Gab other complex really reduplicated but probably not synchronically Elliott 1999
Gabrielino to-koo-par beads inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky"; also tomo:$axar kind of beads H 456 other complex Merriam 49:97
Serrano missing missing
Kitanemuk tukuhpač bead (gen.?), metal, sky inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky" other complex Anderton 1988
Tübatulabal tukumpal sky; bead, beads, white clamshell disks inheritance *tukuN-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032a, related to b) other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng
Bankalachi Toloim lil'-nah beads loan Yokuts simplex Merriam 49:183
Kawaiisu tugu-bi beads, iron inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky" other complex Zigmond et al. 1990
Chemehuevi himpY shell beads of size and shape (cheerios JHH) inheritance *hini Numic Stubbs 2011 2283; see Chemehuevi "bead"; probably a "belongings" word other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969)
Southern Paiute choi-N bead (used for any purpose), beads inheritance *coiN Numic Also in W. Shoshone, Comanche; Stubbs 1513 siplex Sapir
Southern Ute cii-vY bead(s) inheritance *coiN Numic Also in W. Shoshone, Comanche; Stubbs 1513 other complex Givon
Tümpisa Shoshone namokkuttsi beads loan *nammakku Numic unknown WW %waku See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', Comanche 'clothes'; W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads; also hoi-yah, ahts-ă-kan-nah red & blue beads, probably Hudson Bay Merriam 45:303 other complex Dayley 1989
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone coon beads inheritance *coiN Numic Also in Southern Numic; Stubbs 1513 simplex Crapo 1976
Comanche tsoomY bead inheritance *coiN Numic Also in Southern Numic; Stubbs 1513 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990
Western Mono qakIbi beads inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 other complex qakiya- 'to wear around neck' Loether & Bethel 1993
Northern Paiute namakoo old kind of beads inheritance *nammakku Numic unknown WW %waku See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads, Comanche 'clothes' simplex Yerington 1987
Southern Sierra Miwok kumsul- whole Olivella shell bead unique also lacah:ana- long narrow shell bead (dentalium?), ky:cyp- long shell bead); ho:wok, ho:wos-, ho:wot- "beads" simplex Broadbent 1964
Central Sierra Miwok lúk:u- shell beads inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Note Mie luk:u- 'piece of abalone shell'; hów:out- 'disk beads' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960
Northern Sierra Miwok how:oT-u-, ho:woT-u- beads loan into protolanguage Yok-Utian unknown WW %waku Callaghan 1997:58 other complex Callaghan 1987
Plains Miwok ho:wot beads inheritance Yok-Utian WW %waku Callaghan 1997:58 simplex Callaghan 1984
Lake Miwok húuja bead, beads loan Southeastern Pomo but note e.g. *ho:wot (Pmie) Callaghan 1997:58 simplex Callaghan 1965
Maidu wókkolò small sea shell punched with a hole, acquired by trading inheritance *…wók' Proto-Maiduan unknown WW %waku Ultan 1964:368; Merriam has boom-yi'-yah, Dentalium 41:271, boom-yo'-yo 41:349 derived Shipley 1963
Nisenan howwo, howo beads; wampum (in English index) loan Northern Sierra Miwok WW %waku Ultan 1964:368 (????); Ultan gives howoko and says this is PM *…wok'; but note the Miwokan forms! E.g. Mins how:oT-u-, ho:woT-u-, Mip ho:woT simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966
Yokuts Yawelmani lil-nah beads unknown Porterville simplex Merriam 44:449
Yokuts Yawdanchi pode, cuyut beads inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts xumana 'long beads' ; Merriam has po'-di' 44:181 simplex Kroeber 1907
Yokuts Palewyami gixa beads loan into protolanguage Proto-Yokutsan Takic WW %kys see Kroeber 1962 forms simplex Kroeber 1962
Washo mák'aw bead unknown unknown WW %waku simplex Washo Project Dictionary
Wintu topi beads, money loan simplex Schlichter 1981
Yuki hoşo clamshell bead unknown WW %kys PNY in Elmendorf 1993; also šip 'magnesite bead' simplex
Wappo Túpu:lu7 clamshell bead loan Coast Miwok form from Bodega Mi (Callaghan 1968:14) simplex Elmendorf 1993
Mutsun mah'-ahs (mas Mason 1916:433) beads inheritance Proto-Costanoan see 'necklace' derived suffix -s but see Okrand 245 Merriam 39:95
Esselen missing missing
Salinan A xα/nis beads unknown Proto-Salinan Takic WW %xene kišotel Pinart 76 simplex Mason 1918
Salinan M xe/nes beads unknown Takic WW %xene simplex Mason 1918
Chumash Obispeno te7le abalorio, cuentitas que ponen el el pescuezo inheritance *-el Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977 simplex this has borrowed the Salinan prefix but it's not a prefix in OC Harrington
Chumash Ineseno 7apï ï is barred i kind of bead unknown čiphï7 a kind of long bead p 249 -- I've passed 2 other kinds, FIND simplex Applegate 1972
Chumash Barbareno k'elk'ilïlï beads unknown reduplicated Beeler 1978
Chumash Ventureno si-ciyel'iku l' in Mamet 2008:82 a bead unknown al-taqaš Applegate 1973 Ch. 10:9 derived si is just definite article but the rest is obviously multimorphemic Harrington 1974
Iipay 'Aa sho-kōl' beads, necklace inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Merriam 38:209
Cocopa şak7ú:l beads inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Crawford 1989
Mojave saku7ul bead inheritance Proto-Yuman could be a loan but is in IA and C simplex Munro et al. 1992
Yavapai sk7û:la hnáqča bead inheritance Proto-Yuman WW k7úli round > beads 393; hnaq 'necklace'; same word for bead in IA, C, M phrase Shaterian 1983
Kiliwa missing missing
Seri (Comcaac) haapxij prehistoric bead made of shell unknown also ihaapxa, hapápi 'seeds, bons, and shells that have been strung on a necklace' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005
Nheengatu puira puira inheritance? Simplex See Language page
Waorani wa-bõ unique See Language page
Hodï ʰkʷã lãka ʰkʷã lãka bead, necklace unique Other complex ʰkʷã 'throat' See Language page
Yanomami topë topə inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page
Yanomam topə topə bead inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page
Ninam šĩtha- (ids) [prob actually means 'string'] ʃ̌ĩtha- (ids) [prob actually means 'string'] unknown IDS gives ʃ̌ĩtha-, but looks suspiciously like the words for string in the other languages, maybe a mistranslation? See Language page
Tukano yãkê jãkê inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page
Desano ñahguida ñahgida inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan See Language page
Hup g'ǎç g'ǎç doubtful loan - WW %kasiru WW %kasuru Wapishana (Arawak) kʰaʃuru; Carib (e.g. Akawaio kazuru); Matses (Pano) kasɨɾɯ Simplex See Language page
Dâw ked rẽè kæd hæ̃̂ unique See Language page
Sikuani tulíquisi tulíkisi (bead string) string of beads loan - WW %tulikiʃi, via Piapoco See Language page
Macaguan asúlap (necklace) necklace unknown See Language page
Pemon kasuuruu (E1980) kasuru (E1980) loan - WW Pemongan subgroup %kasiru See Language page
Akawaio kazuuruu kazuru loan - WW Pemongan subgroup %kasiru See Language page
Makushi kaʔsiru kaʔsiru loan - WW Pemongan subgroup %kasiru See Language page
Eñepa əʔnan əʔnan unique See Language page
Yukuna ijnejí ihnehí unique See Language page
Wapishana kʰašuru kʰaʃuru loan - WW %kasiru WW %kasuru Carib (e.g. Akawaio kazuru); Matses (Pano) kasɨɾɯ; Hup g'ǎç Simplex See Language page
Baniwa malóyo maɺójo inheritance shared Warekena Simplex See Language page
Resígaro hímíu hímíu unique Simplex See Language page
Achagua wabaíʃi wabaíʃi unique See Language page
Piapoco tùliquìchi tùlikìtʃi See Language page
Wayuu aüliijana aüliihana See Language page
Yine tɨwɨtɨ See Language page
Paresi haliyoloti halijuluti inheritance? See Language page
Ignaciano -taʔi See Language page
Waurá yulatɨžu julatɨžu inheritance? See Language page
Cha'palaa wi 'To thread (beads)' is 'šui-nu. See Language page
Bora ícyááveu íkhjaβeu unknown See Language page
Apalai kasuru kasuru loan - WW %kasiru See Language page
Wayana ono, hampele ono, hampele unique See Language page
Carijona mereguai (M2000) unique See Language page
Makiritare mayūdu (IDS): mayu:du (KH) maju:du loan Arawak, see Warekena majúlu See Language page
Wai Wai kɨričiči kɨričiči unknown cf. %tulikiʃi See Language page
Yukpa mokɨ (SM) mokɨ (SM) See Language page
Barí karahšī See Language page
Northern Emberá kɨ'r̃ɨ-hɨ̃-ma ('waist-tied; belt') (IDS) kɨ'r̃ɨ-hɨ̃-ma ('waist-tied; belt') (IDS) See Language page
Epena kʰɨ'r̃ɨma See Language page
Páez wãʔča wãʔča See Language page
Pumé tʊričʰi čo See Language page
Puinave yĩk-ot yĩk-ot unique See Language page
Aguaruna shaúk ʃaúk unknown See Language page
Matses casëdu kasɨdu loan - WW %kasiru See Language page
Kakataibo muru Beads, [kind of] seeds [strung for decoration]'. See Language page
Katukina βononi See Language page
Pacahuara 'kisi See Language page
Shipibo-Konibo moro See Language page
Yaminahua yõimã See Language page
Chácobo amɨ-čirotamɨšti amɨ-čirotamɨšti unknown See Language page
Yagua mučarãnũ; mučarãnũsi mutʃarãnũ; mutʃarãnũsi unique See Language page
Ingá wallka waʎka See Language page
Napo Lowland Quichua huallca waʎka See Language page
Quechua Ayacuchano wallqa (CP94) waʎqa See Language page
Piaroa pãhãntɨh pãhãntɨh unknown See Language page
Sáliva tuliguichi 'collar' tuliguitʃi 'collar' loan - WW %tulikiʃi See Language page
Tuyuka yãkẽ jãkẽ See Language page
Wayampi -p-ɔʔɨ -p-ɔʔɨ inheritance? See Language page
Chiriguano ᵐbae-r-apua unique See Language page
Paraguayan Guaraní kuru; ai; ᵐboʔɨ; poʔɨ See Language page
Sirionó tiqui je (P85) tiki he unknown See Language page
Ocaina llíoonji, ahtiiho (necklace) dʒíoonhi, aʔtiiʔo (necklace) unique See Language page
Murui Witoto sirio (woman's necklace) θirio (woman's necklace; B83) unique See Language page
Sanumá mazulu mazulu loan Arawak, cf. Warekena majúlu; see also Makiritare maju:du See Language page
Iquito taraásiija taraásiiha unknown See Language page
Central Aymara walʸḳa See Language page
Cayuvava nãβõkũ See Language page
Itonama pusore See Language page
Kwazá kanɛto kanɛto See Language page
Movima ɗiɗin-kʷa ɗiɗin-kʷa See Language page
Trumai mɨʔɨraw mɨʔɨraw unknown See Language page
Mocoví -- See Language page
Pilagá pelak-al-a Lit. 'pelak (kind of tree)-3pp-fruit'; means 'fruit of the pelak tree'. See Language page
Toba damegaʁa al-a Lit. '[a certain tree] 3p possessor-seed, fruit'. See Language page
Lengua lamum See Language page
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet lamom See Language page
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay -hʷc̷ak See Language page
Maca esixiyiniɬ (m. pl) See Language page
Nivaclé faklutax tiniš Beads of 'perlas' or 'mostacilla'. See Language page
Ayoreo 'araguu-a Refers to big, black seed-beads; small black seed-beads is pu'ru-i. See Language page
Mapudungun lʸaŋkatu See Language page
Tehuelche 'hemnkn See Language page
Kariña kasuru kasuru beads Yamada 2010:748