Carijona

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbd
Location
1.22°, -72.07°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Durbin, Marshall and Haydee Seijas. 1973. Proto Hianacoto: Guaque-Carijona-Hianacoto Umaua. International Journal of American Linguistics 39(1):22–31. Landaburu, Jon (Comp). 1996. Documentos sobre lenguas aborígenes de Colombia del archivo de Paul Rivet. Vol I: Lenguas de la Amazonia Colombiana, Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes, Centro colombiano de estudios de lenguas aborígenes. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist. Meira, Sérgio. 2000. Proto-Taranoan. Munich: Lincom Europa. Robayo Moreno, Camilo Alberto 2000. Avance sobre morfología carijona. In: María Stella González de Pérez & María Emilia Montes Rodríguez (eds.), 171-180. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ha (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
all todo todos other tɨdʒahoro unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
and y e grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body manini (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ejáta (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment werenə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
at en, a em, a location tərə (en); dʒa (a) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
back espalda costas body igarɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
belly barriga barriga body wakuru inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
big grande grande quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bite morder morder body esekarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
black negro preto colour sukutuməmɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
blood sangre sangue body muɲu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
blow soplar soprar body ihukarɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bone hueso osso body dʒerɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body susu (SM) doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body esetrenarɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment nɨdʒatu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
child niño, niña criança human mure inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment kahu weti {sky excrement) (M2000) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cold frío frio quality kətʃi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
come venir vir motion ehɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ye (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality aere (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental etehamɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact akotərɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
day día dia time ekadʒakarɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state ahehɨrɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality tukuise inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental esenetɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body enɨrɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dry seco seco quality taurune inheritance Bora See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment werenə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ear oreja orelha body hana inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
eat comer comer body eserehatə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna imo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
eye ojo olho body enuru inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body weti, watɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fall caer cair motion anotarɨ (refl.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
far lejos longe quality mɨha (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ikatɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship hayre unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fear miedo medo mental narídʒi (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna ɨhotɨbə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment mahoto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish xx xx fauna ikuca unique See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion ahətunu unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
flower flor flor environment ehɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fly volar voar motion kawədəketɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kamereito inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
foot pie body hunu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora eheru (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
good bueno bom quality kure, kurano (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
grow crecer crescer state anɨta (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body hutuarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hand mano mão body ɲaɽö unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body hutuhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental etarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality amətʃisaka inheritance cf. Apalai See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion onamɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ihahakətə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other awonɨhɨrɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
how? como como grammar ətɨke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
if si se grammar ehihə doubtful loan Bora /-ʔaxčʰííxʸï, -kʰa/ and Muiname /-atʃtʃixɨ/ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tawǝ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body wakuhə inheritance; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
kill matar matar impact ihɨnəhɨrɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
lake lago lago environment ikutuhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
laugh reír rir mental ehohimane unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment wewarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wəwədʒae unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion etonemarɨ (lying down) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mana (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nai (alive, adj.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
liver hígado figado body ererɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality mɨhano unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna dʒahamɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body eresosobə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tənəemɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
moon luna lua environment nuna (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama loan Span? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mouth boca boca body mɨda inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
name nombre nome human eseti inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body taya (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality mɨhake inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body ihɨmɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
new nuevo novo quality kaenano inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
night noche noite time koko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
no/not no não grammar uwa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
nose nariz nariz body onarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
old viejo velho quality tamutuhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
one uno um number teɲi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other ahumaka (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
other otro outro grammar akorono inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kutusaka (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human karihona (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment konoho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour tamiremɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ənətunu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture esema inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
root raíz raiz flora imitɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality ikətarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sand arena areia environment samutu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
say decir dizer mental ka (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact itʃitʃinənə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
see ver ver mental enerɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aesaka (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
short corto curto quality dɨdɨca (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body mota (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ebai (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
skin piel pele body hitihə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sky cielo céu environment kahu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body onɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality hica (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ərətʃitə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hoci (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body etaku (saliva; M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact toreka (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state etunutənə (be standing) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
star estrella estrela environment tʃirikə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
steal robar roubar other aminəhə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tikuetɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment təhu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
suck chupar chupar body isusukarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body eramuku (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body awonə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ekətərɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body arokɨhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar mǝki, mǝrǝ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tɨkɨme inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
thin delgado fino quality akɨime unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
think pensar pensar mental etehunə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
this este/esta este grammar enɨ inheritance but compare Arawak: Warekena /eni/ and Yavitero /íni/ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar əmərə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
three tres tres number serawərə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
throat garganta garganta body ese (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ema (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment kahu (thunder, sky) (M2000) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact imɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body iɲiko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tooth diente dente body dʒerɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other notoɲoganə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
two dos dois number səkənərə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body nɨwenatarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion itərɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
water agua agua environment tuna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality tahisuke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ətɨ (interr.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar ətɨtawə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
where? donde onde grammar əsa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
white blanco branco colour tamutune inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ənəkɨ (interr.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship hətə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wind viento vento environment hehetʃi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wing ala asa body aherirɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human wəritʃi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other həka (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body etáho (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kananamano inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bad mal mal quality kurake unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nərə (he) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar əwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body hətɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
man/male hombre homem human gɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar makamoro (masc.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental iwarə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar aɲa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar aɲamoro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bark corteza casca environment hitihə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fingernail uña unha body amosai (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
heart corazón coração body eremorohə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sun sol sol time wei inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment hɨbɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
green verde verde quality tɨwanahikemɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hot caliente quente quality atusaka inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ihu’se(H&R) ihu’se(H&R) inheritance See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. karáu (M2000) karáu (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuri (SM) a'kuri (H&R) loan into protolg, direction unknown Northern Carib? Tupi-Guarani Mello (2000) reconstructs for Proto-TG. Occurs widely in Carib; but loan into (?) Piaroa /æk'uri/; Nheengatu /akuti/; Achuar agutí WW %akuti See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariwe aribei'mɯ ('cayman', H&R) cayman' inheritance Possible cognate Yukpa aréje See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mu’nʲuhɯ (H&R) mu’nʲuhɯ (H&R) rat' inheritance Broader (rat in general?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ikoi-mǝ (snake-Augm) 'boa constrictor', 'anaconda' (M2000) inheritance snake-big' See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora moto (worm) (SM) worm' inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemongan group, Carijona) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae jaka'u (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? Also kokoyo (SM)?? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) həremu (SM) hɯrɯu (large), wari’tʃi (small) (H&R) doubtful loan; inheritance Yucuna haru Also hɯrɯu (large), wari’tʃi (small) (H&R) Narrower (may mean 'large anteater') See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tik (SM) ɯti’kɯ(H&R) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup? (shared Makiritari and Carijona) Also tik (SM) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum susu’mɯ(‘cane’, H&R) cane' unknown Broader? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana kahai (SM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. haru (Meira2000) haru (Meira2000) inheritance? Wanderwort: likely Sp/Pt origin (platano); paru and similar variants found in Tanimuca, Yucuna, Makushi, Carijona (in other Carib lgs as 'bastard plantain); other variants of platano also widespread. Also ha’ru (H&R) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. rere (SM) re’re(H&R) inheritance Guyana and Makiritari/Mapoyo branches See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis arama (M2000) arama (M2000) inheritance Unknown Similar forms attested Eñepa-Carijona See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna torono inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba kumu (M2000) missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae ʔa’kaima, akɯi’ma (H&R) inheritance snake-big' Complex snake + ? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kariwa (SM) kari'ba ('gourd', H&R) gourd' unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha arimime (R95) unknown prob. loan into Nheengatu aimore See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata iráki 'tocandira' (M2000) iráki 'tocandira' (M2000) inheritance See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris capiouara, hiwiri (R95) iwɯ’rɯ (H&R) loan; inheritance Northern Carib? Tupi-Guarani Also? capiouara (Rodriguez 95) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum oródʒi (M2000) oródʒi (M2000) inheritance - WW %eroi See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ciminatǝ (M2000) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca ihatu (SM) iiha’tu (H&R) loan - WW %patu Probably loan into Carib (not used in other regions?). Wanderwort: Arawak, e.g. Yucuna: ipatu; see also Nheengatu ipadu, etc. WW %patu See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu hakira (small peccary) (SM); koto (generic term) hakira (small peccary) (SM); koto (generic term) small peccary inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan Carib > Wapishana bakɨɽ; see also Piaroa maquíra, Cofan saquira. Also koto (generic peccary) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua cheu (R95) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mauruim (SM) mau’ru (H&R) inheritance Guyana subgroup (shared Wai Wai) See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae virichi (M2000) virichi (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. iko'imo inheritance Guyana and N Amazonian branches? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kayak (SM) kaha’o(H&R) inheritance Also kaha’o (H&R) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kaikutʃi (also jaguar) kai’kutʃi e’kɯnɯ(H&R) dog, jaguar' semantic shift from jaguar Original meaning was presumably 'jaguar'. Also kai’kutʃi e’kɯnɯ (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae waramici (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family sahasaha (SM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ərukə ərukə inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ikuca (SM) iku’tʃa (H&R) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ineku (M2000) inheritance Carib cure is reportedly source of Sp/Pt curare. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera cik (SM) ‘kutʃika’hamo(H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? But compare Secoya sɨk̃ɨ. Also ‘kutʃika’hamo (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera werewere (fly) (SM) βere'βere (?, H&R) fly' inheritance Northern Carib? cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana ménu (M2000) ménu (M2000) inheritance See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis saro (SM); yavi (R95) sa’ro (‘otter’, H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Carijona, Yukpa, Eñepa) Rodriguez 1995 has yavi (under 'small otter' in Meira notes); see also sa’ro (‘otter’, H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) woyi (SM) woji (SM), ‘hamɯ’tɯkɯ (H&R) inheritance Unknown (shared Yukpa) Also hamɯ’tɯkɯ (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans ma:mi (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wará (M2000) loan - WW %wakara See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti jachi (R95) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. maráti (M2000) ma'ratti (H&R) loan - WW %mare e.g. Bare hmáɻadi; see also Yanomami mãɾãʃi (also likely Arawak loan) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ja'he (H&R) loan - WW %jahe Wanderwort: W Tukanoan; Cofan, Aguaruna WW %jahe See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae hiyana (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens həməi (SM) hɯma’i’ H&R) inheritance Unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] alawata; garabata (R95); arawata (R95) inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan Carib > Arawak: Piapoco, Achagua àlawàta; see also Guayabero /árow-at/. Also garabata See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukucí (M2000) tuku’tʃi (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? Loan Carib > Hodï: tu'kudi See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. iwana (SM) loan direction unknown - WW %iwana Wanderwort: Similar forms in other Carib languages; Sp. iguana is reported to come from Arawak. Compare Yavitero iwána; see also Hodï uana (probably an Arawak loan), others WW %jiwana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca kaykuči (also dog); kaikuchi enetonó (R95) kai’kutʃi, ano’tona(H&R) dog, jaguar' inheritance Unknown (shared Carijona and Makushi) Also kai’kutʃi ano’tona (H&R, Rodriguez) Broader (dog, jaguar) See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wahu (SM) inheritance North Arawak Wapishana: wabu See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. nahíki (M2000) nahíki (M2000) inheritance rel. to 'potato' terms? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae uatú:ra (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kokoyo (SM) kokojo (SM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. caheta (yellow macaw); kinoro (red macaw) unique See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays anaci (SM) a’natʃi (H&R) inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta wɨi (SM) hara ('general', H&R) unknown cf. Yukuna pari Also hara ('manioc' H&R) Broader (manioc in general) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta wɨi missing Also hara ('manioc' H&R) Broader (manioc in general) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mahiri (SM) ma’sakɯ (H&R) inheritance Also ma’sakɯ (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yawi (SM); sará (R95) loan; inheritance North Arawak e.g. Achagua yewi. Rodriguez 1995 has sará (under 'giant otter' in Meira notes) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae aware (SM) inheritance - WW Northern Carib? %jawari Likely loan Carib > Wapishana /jawari/; Hodï /yowale/; Yanomami /awaɾe/, Piaroa yäväre See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes suko'suko ('owl', H&R) owl' inheritance May be onomatopoeic Broader (owl in general?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kurimau (SM) kuri'mao (H&R) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. háku (M2000) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kinoro' lo'ro (H&R) loan Northern Carib? Arawak or Span Also lo'ro (H&R) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes harejo (M2000); hɯrɯwai’mɯ hɯrɯ’wa ha’ru (‘chonta palm’, H&R) chonta palm' doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %pipiri See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nureimə (SM) bereiva (M2000) inheritance cognate Mapoyo, Makiritare? May be cognate Mapoyo See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae hǝni hɯɯ’ne (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? (Eñepa, Carijona, Mapoyo) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae wirika (R95) inheritance Unknown (attested Carijona, Eñepa) e.g. Desano /wáru/ See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum nahí (M2000) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones mína:ti (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. uarékore (M2000) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata moyoci (SM) joci (M2000) doubtful loan, direction unknown Cubeo bʉyoco See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna əkəi aka'i (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? H&R aka'i See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yoci (SM) tawa’tʃi (H&R) inheritance; unique Unknown (attested Carijona, Wai Wai, Yabarana) Also tawa’tʃi (H&R) No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae meri (SM) meri (SM) inheritance North Arawak Yucuna mele See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. dziha:ri (M2000) doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas nahí (M2000) nahí (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris mačihuri matʃi’huri (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemongan, Carijona, Waimiri-Atroari) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ‘nuukɯ (H&R) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. hatakadzi (M2000) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae hutuni (M2000) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura hɯrɯ’ru (H&R) doubtful loan TG kururu, also present in Arawak See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tamwinto ta’mɯ (H&R) inheritance Proto-Carib Compare Arawak, possibly early loan. Also tamwinto (D&S1973) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kurisa 'tortuga tracaja' (M2000) wotokaura'ri (H&R) unknown See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tʃaha’ko (H&R) inheritance Unknown (attested Eñepa and Carijona) Doubtful loan into Hodi chejko See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wewe (SM) ‘βeβe (‘forest’, H&R) inheritance Guyana branch, Yabarana, Waimiri-Atroari See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella meekú (R95) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae corucarase (M2000) kuru'go (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan into Warekena (Arawak): kuɺuwitu See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita okómũ (M2000) okómũ (M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons tawachi (R95) loan North Arawak, e.g. Yavitero huatsĩ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus maakú (R95) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari woto (white-lipped peccary; goto, wetá (R95) woto (white-lipped peccary; goto, wetá (R95) unique Also goto, wetá (R95) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kue:tú (we:tú? M2000) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. nahake naha’kɯ yam' (generic) doubtful loan, direction unknown North Arawak Possible loan Yucuna ɲaʔakú. May be cognate Pemon/Akawaio napöi. See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kaikutʃi semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kayak unknown See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material sajaro (M2000) loan Quechua? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mereguai (M2000) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material onǝ-thoho (sleep-NMZ) (M2000) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material etate inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material əhəi (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology taburu (SM) loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hiyaci (SM) inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology juruji (cloth) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
firewood leña lenha other wewe (wood, tree) M2000 inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology amorehə (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology rioso (SM) loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology taregua (M2000) inheriance multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology kaewane (a kind of song) (SM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material chano (small knife) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material iguasa' (big machete), u munguri' (small machete) doubtful loan; unknown Tupi-Guarani iguaçu 'big' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wɨwɨ (generic ax) inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool wɨraha (SM) inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool cihamata, wakaca (SM) unique arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport hura (SM) loan, direction unknown Wapishana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material wahiha (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool erina inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maraká loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
wax cera cera other akira (M2000) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
honey miel mel food weɲi (SM) inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ewarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology eseneti (M2000) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cageli (M2000), kapri/kaheri, korotoro (Nordenskiold1922) loan - WW %kara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material sayá (petticoat - M2000) loan Port/Span saia See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mici (M2000) loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation koheto (from Span escopeta; M2000) loan Spanish 'escopeta' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kwe:jó (M2000) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
salt sal sal food hame inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool raca (SM) inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool aru (? M2000) hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool hədi (SM) inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food eciwa (M2000) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food woto (M2000) inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kariwa (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool chimari (M2000) inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool akə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture bokiri' doubtful loan Bora, paaxɯ́ri-, pʰɨ́ɨ́kʰa 'manioc', paaxɯ́ripa 'manioc beer' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food y-uru 'food'; M2000 doubtful loan (into protolg), direction unknown Arawak usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food matahi (SM) loan Tupi-Guarani? matapi word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool kurari (SM) inheritance - WW %wirari hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool manári (M2000) inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool tikuetɨ (stick) (SM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
house other hakoro (SM) doubtful loan into protolanguage Arawak; cf. Piro-Apurinã *poko See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
300 medium AG medium sedentary