old

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
viejo
Meaning Portuguese
velho

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim mo'-hal-lo loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pyaittym-pyh (hum, anim, thing) inheritance Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok hoj:a-mu- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yity-pyw V; unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno pakuwash (note -wash suffix) inheritance Ono 1996:143 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno 7aquchu (and “old man”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno moloq “old, long-ago” loan A 225 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno Lmo7nosi “esta muy viejo” (of cat, person) unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno -iwach (on nouns "old", on vbs "past" unknown Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
Cocopa lu:lp, lu:l 7i, inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tsukuhpy7 “old object” inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño 'ayxa-t [Ɂayxat] unknown Jane Hill
Esselen lalihe “old man” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:204 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7era:xpo7; pl. 7ere:rxam, 7ere:rakpo7am; unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa wenuuy [wəˈn̯uˑ˅i] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7ii-ty- unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa ipaa=7-tay inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7uvihat “very old person” inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kila/a, kela/a unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño 7anxa inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu ke/ji (things) unknown Jane Hill
Mojave ilelv= (old, ragged), inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun mukyu-kniSY “old woman” inheritance O77:123 Jane Hill
Nisenan ne: inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute moa inheritance Thornes 03:127 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok hoj:a-; inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok hoj:a 72t2mci- “old man” inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A tce, ce, cte- “old, aged” p. 21 unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) queejim unknown Jane Hill
Serrano uvihpy-T inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute i:-G old, only in comp: i:-p:ungqu-ni my old horse; inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok pana:h-aH- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute wii-, wiitapY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal uulawy-t “get old” unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pyettympy, pyaittympy (of inanimates) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo na:-ch'e/w'-is unknown Jane Hill
Washo -e:Lu unknown J1958:202 Jane Hill
Western Mono muu7atsiyee- “to become old”; inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu ho:n unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai ni_kwa/yi, nykwa^yi “old, worn out” (WG) unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami mo-kal-ta inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi moxot-o “old person, man” inheritance K07:193, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne moxelo', mo:xol (Golla 1964) inheritance K 1963, N 1944 Jane Hill
Yuki 7olwis, 7o:lwis, 7olwi:s, inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7aku/c “to be old” H4:20 unknown Jane Hill
Baniwa pedália (person), opi- (thing) pedáɺia (person), opi- (thing) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona tamutuhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo bʉcʉco (f.), bʉcʉcʉ (m.), javecarõ (inan.), náro (inan.) bɨkɨko (f.), bɨkɨkɨ (m.), xavɛkarõ (inan.), náro (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw rân, war hǝn, wah inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano bʉgʉ, bʉro (person), mʉra bɨgɨ, bɨro (person), mɨra inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa yuwačon-pe juwatʃon-pe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï ta'wo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani pikæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tɨh-wǝhə́d (man), tɨh-wá (woman), bɨ̌g (inanimate), tɨh-wǝhə́d (man), tɨh-wá (woman), bɨ̌g (inanimate), inheritance; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi penaroʔ (IDS) penaroʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu tuyuwé tujuwé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam lepi, repɨ (EM72, old (inanimate)), hote (EM72, inanimate), pata (EM72, elderly, respected) lepi, ɾepɨ, hote, pata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki ai ai inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon pennato, pennato-pue, poyi-pue (A1981); penatoo (E1980); penato (M2000) penato, penatopue, podʒipue (A1981); pɛnato (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá ole (EM72, inanimate), pate tə (EM72, elderly, respected) ole, pate tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tariana upíte, pedália, pedálie (old people) upíte, pedália, pedálie (old people) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano bɨkɨ-(animate), mehá bɨkɨ-(animate), mehá inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria bʉcʉ; mʉna; panopʉ macari; for persons: bʉcʉro (m.), quiro bʉcoro (f.) (all Waltz) bʉkʉ; mʉna; panopʉ makaɾi; bʉkʉɾo (m.), kiɾo bʉkoɾo (f.) (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam repa (EM72, inanimate), hote (EM72, inanimate), pata (EM72, elderly, respected) ɾepa, hote, pata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami pata; wãrõ pata; suwə pata; hote pata; wãrõ pata; suwə pata; hote inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna jupichumi (algo), phíyu'uke (alguien) hupitʃumi (algo), pʰíjuʔuke (alguien) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup wah (animate) wah (animate) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana parnda unique Claire Bowern
Bardi djabolj jaboly inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba jiraliga unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra -maywa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu worruŋu unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋäthiliŋ Claire Bowern
Dhuwala norrutj unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari puria loan Wangkangurru Claire Bowern
DiyariREU puria loan Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu wuḻman Claire Bowern
Djapu wuḻman Claire Bowern
Djinang gaypingi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng gerlilebgi- unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi ngamoonhingi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu norrutj Claire Bowern
Gurindji larrpa-nginyi loan Jingulu Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr djabolj jaboly inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru ngamunyu unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri purrku Claire Bowern
Kija warnarra- unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa karrukarru loan Claire Bowern
Mangala bulga loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
Miriwung gerlilebtha unique Claire Bowern
Mithaka mutyutyu inheritance? Claire Bowern
Mudburra kamparra Claire Bowern
Mudburra larrba loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini kundru unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi yanatji unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma nhandirndi unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl tabboolyoo, tchabboolyoo <tabboolyoo, tchabboolyoo> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi karrukarrru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru djabolj jaboly inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yurlpurrartangka Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pija unknown Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta 4217 unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina kirwa kirwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul nyungurl nyungurl inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi wiḍu semantic shift Claire Bowern
Pirriya karrukarru inheritance Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kupakupa unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu worruŋu (old person),.djawuḻpa,. ḏilak (elder) Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu baman inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jarlu-jangka inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru manguwajiminya unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa n kirwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy bardag unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu galiŋu unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha maatja, matjanguda unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kakarru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka womala unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru mirdanya mirdanya unique Claire Bowern
Achagua salírani salírani inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco wasìeli wasìeli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari íipe-ri íipe-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena eteneri eteneri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero a'winesitami a'winesitami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare miyaɻi mijaɻi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ẓaam ẓaam doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Makiritare inʃomo 'old one' See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi ohiye ohije inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure či-n tʃi-n unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá autu-pa-žɨ; aripi autu-pa-žɨ; aripi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora tsʰḯḯkʰáane, kʰeéme tsʰɯɯ́ɯ́kʰáanɛ, kʰɛέmɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane sɨ́kɨ́xeʔɨ-no, kóomo-bo {old age} sɨ́kɨ́xɛʔɨ-no, kóomo-bo {old age} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio peenarok penarɔk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect aʔmɔkɔ aʔmɔkɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai pakato, tamuxi, tamuxime pakato, tamuxi, tamuxime inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana uhpakat uhpakat inheritance See Language page PLE
Makiritare henaʔdohə (IDS); inchomo (KH) (means 'old one'), de'mu (KH) (means 'white hair, elder person') henaʔdohə (IDS); inʃomo (KH), deʔmu (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo wërya wasonomo-ri (f), yapistomo (m) wɛrja wasonomo-ri (f), japistomo (m) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari txamyry tʃamɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa atüne pe'nano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca saca saka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá dadyinábẽmá, aseábi, drṍã, enéna dadʒinábẽmá, aseábi, drṍã, enéna See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan pertʉ́nʉ peɾtɨ́nɨ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán tssoru tshoɾɯ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra sirapchi siɾaptʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro yeiyu´ jeijuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez inxs inʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ɟakɯ (n.) ɟakɯ (n.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina siḍzi sitʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa bɨtsananá bɨtsananá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke džo(h)dü̃(h) 'old man' (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé ǫtȩmãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave kepa; bən-win kepa; bən-win unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar arút arut See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa arut arut See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna múuntuch mú:ntutʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses shëni ʃɨni inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo yosi yosi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua tarijevyu tãrixebjũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua mawca mawka See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá mauka mauka See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua mauka mauka See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano laqla, mawka laqla, mawka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa täbo isa tæbɤ ĩsɑ̃ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva sĩgwe sĩgʷe unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano bɨkɨ (m.); bɨkɨo (f.); bɨkɨa-se (n.) bɨkɨ (m.); bɨkɨo (f.); bɨkɨa-se (n.) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'ká-bɨkɨ́-ro 'ká-bɨkɨ́-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna bɨcɨgɨ (m.); bɨco (f.); bɨcɨa-rise (inanim.) bɨcɨgɨ (m.); bɨco (f.); bɨcɨa-rise (inanim.) inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti bɨ́kɨ bɨ́kɨ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bɨ̃dã bɨ̃dã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano bɨ- bɨ- See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca pakia 'ko (fem); 'pakia 'ki (masc); biki'haka (inan.) pakia 'ko (fem); 'pakia 'ki (masc); biki'haka (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo ká-bɨ'kɨ́-ro ká-bɨ'kɨ́-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka bɨ'kɨ bɨʔkɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bɨ'kɨ́-ro, ka bɨ́'kɨ́-ro bɨ'kɨ́-ro, ka bɨ́'kɨ́-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje aina aina inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ahuero awero inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya aihuano aiwa'nɔ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana hyk hɨk unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama wiju wixu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi kalakuwa kalakuwa unique See Language page PLE
Sirionó eimã; eai̯; esi̯ŋa eimã; eai̯; esi̯ŋa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá iwet (M2000) iwet (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina uroojun ɯroo-hɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto háka-ra háka-ra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto hái.ai.e, háka-ra hái.ai.ɛ, háka-ra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto hakaï.e hakaɯ.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito cumácu (also used as a noun for 'old person') kumáku (also used as a noun for 'old person') unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari maraʔ; horon maraʔ; horon See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-čii; e-tii (Girard 1971) e-čii; e-tii See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña e-siri-ke; bero; bero-siri-ke e-siri-ke; bero; bero-siri-ke inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara merq´e, thantha ačači See Language page PLE
Kwazá ereritay, ererixwa, kai, haka- ereritay, ererixwa, kai, haka- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ɓi-hau ɓi-hau See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai tɨuai (pike), tɨuai-ake tɨuai (pike), tɨuai-ake unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang si, kòfa kɔΦa; si; ŋuΦã See Language page PLE
Suyá ŋέr ŋέr See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi hanõtxi hanõtʃi See Language page PLE