Yabarana

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yar
Location
5.33°, -66.28°
Notes
Nearly Extinct. Distinct from Yebarana (Guianan).
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Méndez Arocha, A. 1959. Un vocabulario yabarana con apuntes fonémicos. Antropológica 7: 63-84.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tɜppo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
and y e grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wastu,pɜɾɜmu-tunuspɜ, 'watsu pɨɾubu'tu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
at en, a em, a location See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
back espalda costas body 'ehnum 'paiɾi, 'ɜhnum 'paiɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bad mal mal quality no'pehera See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
belly barriga barriga body 'ehnɜ 'po,setti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tɜhnɜ(mo) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
big grande grande quality ta'potoi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
black negro preto colour kɨ'rɨkemu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
blood sangre sangue body ehnə 'mesuku See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bone hueso osso body iəspə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
breast pecho, seno peito body hero'pɨrɨ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
child niño, niña criança human mu:ku See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cold frío frio quality ánepe See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
day día dia time jatunu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dirty sucio sujo quality a'tçikipe, açiki'pe See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dry seco seco quality See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dust polvo poeira environment no:no, ʝes'tçini, te'çi'ne See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ear oreja orelha body pa'nari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
egg huevo ovo fauna ih'moi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
eye ojo olho body ja'nuru See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
far lejos longe quality taiçpo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fat/grease grasa gordura body ka'sori See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
father padre, papá pai kinship makə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
feather pluma pena fauna tipo'tihpə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fire fuego fogo environment wahto See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flower flor flor environment tɨ'pɨɾɨ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fruit fruta fruta flora te'pe:ɾu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
good bueno bom quality nope See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ti'poti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hand mano mão body jemeku,nu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tawɨ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
head cabeza cabeça body wais'teri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
heavy pesado pesado quality ta'mɨhnɜmɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
how? como como grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
1sg yo eu grammar wəre See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
if si se grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
lake lago lago environment 'kuhpɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
leaf hoja folha environment eta'reri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body paso'binɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
leg/foot pierna perna body ehne po'ɾeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment aɾabes'kaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
liver hígado figado body je'reri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
long largo comprido, longo quality 'teiçpo (no) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ka'jamə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
man/male hombre homem human wa'raisto'komo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pu'nuhpə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
moon luna lua environment nuna See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mouth boca boca body po'tari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
name nombre nome human ja'seti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
near/close cerca de perto quality teispoho'ɾama, koh'maŋsapɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
neck cuello pescoço body ehnɜ, waɾo'kɜɾɜni (same as throat) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
new nuevo novo quality ju'rari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
night noche noite time koh'paje See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
no/not no não grammar 'a:ma See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
nose nariz nariz body je'nari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
old viejo velho quality japis'tomo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
one uno um number enihpoto'nore See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
other otro outro grammar tako'noɾe See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body mo'ɾoɲe (pain) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
person/human being persona pessoa human See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
rain lluvia chuva environment 'kɜnapo'wɜ:peɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
red rojo vermelho colour ta'pirəmu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
road/path camino caminho manufacture a'tima See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
root raíz raiz flora miti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
rotten podrido podre quality tuhtuhta'sapo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sand arena areia environment ta'kaw See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
short corto curto quality tiç'pano See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
skin piel pele body picpe, pihpeh See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sky cielo céu environment kappu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
small pequeño pequeno quality in'towmuskə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
smoke humo fumaça environment tətini See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
star estrella estrela environment si'rika See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stone piedra pedra environment təpu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tail cola, rabo rabo body koteri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
that ese/esa esse grammar 'mənni See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tawsantomo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality piç'ʝemɜ (possibly morphologically complex? Compare with "thin") See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
thin delgado fino quality piç'ʝeheɾa (flaco) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
this este/esta este grammar eni See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
2sg xx xx grammar mərə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
throat garganta garganta body ehnɜ waɾo'kɜɾɜni (ehnɜ=i?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
three tres tres number petomiake'rema See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
thunder truenos trovão environment ɜttɨ'ɾikɜɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bite morder morder body wɜɾɜ tçi'kaɾi, 'ɜhnɜ tçi'kaɾi, 'ehnaʝa tçi'kaɾi (I bite) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
blow soplar soprar body iun'pakɜ, ehne ja'ta:maɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
breathe respirar respirar body 'ehnɜ sa'tamaɾi, ehne sa'tawmaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
burn quemar queimar environment 'watiɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
climb subir subir motion ɜnukuɾu (he climbs) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
come venir vir motion wɜ:'pɨɾi (he comes) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 'himiohkaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
count contar contar mental ehenaʝa'sesteɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cry llorar chorar mental tawa asa'moɾi (he cries) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 'wɜɾe ʝake'teɾi, ʝake'tɨɾi (I cut) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
die/be dead morir morrer state əsema'se (he died) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
drink beber, tomar beber body jə'nəri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
eat comer comer body əsə'remari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fall caer cair motion waska'sapɜ, ehnuwɜs'kaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fly volar voar motion təpəkə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
grow crecer crescer state pais'tɜɾi (creciente) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hear oír ouvir mental je'tari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ehnɜ ʝa'ta:paɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
kill matar matar impact ja'wari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental weɾiaŋpa'tawa, 'tɨmpatawe (I know) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
laugh reír rir mental ʝaɾu'waɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion weɾe:tasɜpɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kɨʝaɾima (either "I live" or alive?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
say decir dizer mental See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
scratch rascar rasgar impact ehenaka'ɾoiŋkaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
see ver ver mental rai'niri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sit sentar(se) sentar state ehne wɜ:ɾetasapɜ (sentado? I am seated?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sleep dormir dormir body wənəkɨri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body potihie See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ehne ʝɜsta'kaɾi (agujerear, I poke, prick, pierce, make a hole) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
steal robar roubar other 'tɜwɜ tunamaɾi, tatu'namɜɾɜ (he steals, él roba) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
suck chupar chupar body ehne ʝas'no:poli (yo chupo) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
swell hincharse inchar body 'wanɜsapɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact poɜŋ'sappɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
vomit vomitar vomitar body ehne we'nakaɾi (I vomit?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
walk caminar, andar andar motion maje See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
work trabajar trabalhar other wa'ɾotaɾi (trabajo) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tongue lengua lingua body nuru See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tooth diente dente body ehni'ʝeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
two dos dois number asa'əma See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
water agua agua environment tuna See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ehnə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wet mojado molhado quality ata'suhma'sapa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
what? que, qué que grammar ati See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
when? cuando quando grammar ekkwaɾi'ʝawa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
where? donde onde grammar ɜ'kɜttɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
white blanco branco colour kara'sakimu, susuh'pano See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
who? quien, quién quem grammar ah'nikə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wife esposa esposa kinship See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wind viento vento environment atapeneh'maɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wing ala asa body ta'pɨɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
woman/female mujer mulher human uri'hiamo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
yellow amarillo amarelo colour wo'restori, ta'piremu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mɨka See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
foot pie body ehnəsta'kunu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
all todo todos other suka'sere, 'sukase'nuspɜ, sukasi'mɜɾe See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ehne ʝas'taiɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body 'watɜ, ehnɜ 'wɜti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sweat sudar suor, suar body ehne ʝeɾu'mutu, ehne ʝeɾu'mukutu (I sweat?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bark corteza casca environment pihpə, pihpeh See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
heart corazón coração body ja'wani, jaiwa'nihpə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sun sol sol time jatunu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yutu, 'jutu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
green verde verde quality jaha'rari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hot caliente quente quality tatune See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. rere See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 'toɾono See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., John Blaha
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ku'jui See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., John Blaha
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., John Blaha
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica noro See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wa'rawa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., John Blaha
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family o'ro'pono See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakara See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., John Blaha
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris weroro See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mohko See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., John Blaha
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kai'mana See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., John Blaha
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae sampu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pəru See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ju'wana See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., John Blaha
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ma'kkai See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. su'pari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kaja'kani See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ə'kəi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria tur'tuka, 'kani See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis muna See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., John Blaha
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., John Blaha
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., John Blaha
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., John Blaha
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., John Blaha
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea kupa [shared Arawak] See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., John Blaha
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., John Blaha
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., John Blaha
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra máca See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɨ'məi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jore See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paru(ru) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., John Blaha
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays nati, natiapə See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum ka'wai See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., John Blaha
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., John Blaha
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., John Blaha
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., John Blaha
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. kuma See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., John Blaha
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta sere, ma'juko See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., John Blaha
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ámaka See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., John Blaha
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., John Blaha
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ah'naw See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wənə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tçiwipihpa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tiwipihpa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera sápuhmo, səuh'pəmə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera 'ɜɮeweɾɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. sájua See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. pɨɾɨ'tɨkkɨ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera moremə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda memu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae a'raja, mua'josti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons pittʃa See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wajari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wa'jari See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus jaka See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawajo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ma'piri See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
canoe canoa canoa transport ku'jara See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology amore In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
firewood leña lenha other wah'to See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nopehera See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology əhtə See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ma'ria See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
machete machete facão culture-material supara See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool patta especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pakuri hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karan'tita See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bow arco arco subsistence tool a'kahara arco See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ǝrinǝ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maraka See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
wax cera cera other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
honey miel mel food 'wanɜ only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ta:seti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bottle botella garrafa acculturation puttia See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
chicken gallina galinha acculturation mapararu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asuka 'sugar'; karana 'sugar cane' See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapato See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hat sombero chapéu dress sompereru See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kampara, koŋtomo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kaicta (c symbol unclear) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
salt sal sal food sa:jo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool raita currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pepeti esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
hunt cazar caçar food kaimo'tase See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wanatta See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture óki, 'okə prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ʝaba'kiçpɜ (masa de yuca) agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food sere usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food kaimani See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tǝnǝkotʃi, tǝnǝkuʃi word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
house other e'hawate See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha