3sg

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
el/ella
Meaning Portuguese
ele/ela

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim ĕh 223 kān 223 unknown Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ma inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla pe' inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7is:ak-, his:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi mang(a)/ (vis) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno s- unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno tuwu unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno kay (independent pronoun) unknown A 168 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno t- unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno c- unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
Cocopa animate subj: a:-, aw-, u-, u:-, 7aw-, 7u-; non-subject p- unknown Jane Hill
Comanche ma7 inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño pe' [pɨɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen aniki “that one” unknown Shaul 1995:213 Jane Hill
Gabrielino po:7 inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa puuch/puu [puˑ˅tʃ] loan Jane Hill
Kawaiisu sa-ma- “neutral definite” unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7ama7 inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7i/Ti inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño po:7 inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu my/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave vidach inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun wa:k unknown O77:106, 307 Jane Hill
Nisenan my inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute u-su inheritance SAA82 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7is:ak-y inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7isy-, 7is:y- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A heyo/7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M heo' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ee unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ama-7 that, the one, he, she, it inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute manga- he, that one (an.vis.) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7is:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute maas inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ts, tsa (clitics loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone matyn inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo he/phi (nearby); he/, ce/7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo Suffixed glottal stop unknown J ? Jane Hill
Western Mono ihu, inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu pi inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai nytha^ch inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne ama:/ “third person” inheritance N1944:229 Jane Hill
Yuki ki-, ki(7), ki:, kih unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Arabana uka loan Claire Bowern
Bardi ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu nhän inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari nauja inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang nyani inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng nawoo inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi niyi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji nyantu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru nyandu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi nyoru; ginyingg nyoru; kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri kinyangka loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Kija nhawu inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala -na inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung nawoo inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka nhanhi inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra nyani inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini najia inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma balu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl ginying kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta paliny inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta paliny inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina kinya kinya inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi -(a)thu unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu ŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri nyantu inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Warrwa kinya kinya inheritance Claire Bowern
Worrorra nyangga, nyingge (FM), nyungga (C&C) nyangga, nyingge (FM), nyungga (C&C) loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu nhaniḻa inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha nuniji unknown Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thana semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka nuniji unknown Claire Bowern
Yawuru ginyangga kinyangka inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua lija/ ruja lija/ ruja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco úa úa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna riká, ruká ɾiká (m), ɾuká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana diha, dihya (non-feminine), duha, duhua (f) diha, dihja (non-feminine), duha, duhua (f) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa lhía, rhóa ɺhía, ɻhóa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro migí ' él, ese', eégí, tsó 'she, her', tsú 'he' migí ' él, ese', eégí, tsó 'she, heɾ', tsú 'he' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warekena epaɺu epaɺu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ani-hi ani-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare kuhu/ kuhũ kuhu/ kuhũ See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ɨrɨɨ; uruu ɨrɨɨ; uruu inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi exe (close); hatyo (farther away) eʃe (close); hatyo (farther away) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure ṛ̌o-'ti; ṛ̌i-'ti ṛ̌o-'ti; ṛ̌i-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá nežɨ nežɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora he: áá-nïḯ, aá-pʸe, aá-pe, aá-ti, tií-pʸe; she: áá-mʸeé, aá-če, tií-če; it: aá-pʸe hɛ: áá-nɯɯ́, aá-pʲɛ, aá-pɛ, aá-ti, tií-pʲɛ; shɛ: áá-mʲɛέ, aá-tʃɛ, tií-tʃɛ; it: aá-pʲɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane he: díi-bo, áxáa-nɨ; she: díi-go, áxáa-mo; it: xáá-no he: díi-bo, áxáa-nɨ; she: díi-go, áxáa-mo; it: xáá-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kɨrörö kɨrörö inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect kɯrɤ, mɯkɤ kɯrɤ, mɯkɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai ynoro, ynororo ɨnoro, ɨnororo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana inëlë inǝlǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona nərə (he) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó nai (3rd person form of the copula) nai inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa mək; mukuh mək; mukuh inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makiritare tɨwɨ (IDS); tüwü (KH) (also means 'him/her') tɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Makushi mɨ́-kɨ-rɨ́ mɨ́-kɨ-rɨ́ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Mapoyo tëi tɛi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon muere, mesere, michinek (just mean 'esto, esto, aquel' but not he or she) (A1981); mkrörö (E1980); mü'rörö (el) (M2000) mueɾe, meseɾe, mitʃinek (A1981); mkrörö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai noro; noro; ero noro; noro; ero inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari anaphoric (he, she, they, it) mykyky, mykyka'a, ka, iry proximal (h)anji, kanji, anjinji, byby, by medial myry distal mo'o,mymo',myky anaphoric (he, she, they, it) mɨkɨkɨ, mɨkɨka'a, ka, irɨ proximal (h)anji, kanji, anjinji, bɨbɨ, bɨ medial mɨrɨ distal mo'o,mɨmo',mɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ake, aki, márak ots̺ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca asy asɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá idyí, ãndyí idʒí, ãndʒí See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán jova, tsa hoβa, tsa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra ocha otʃa unknown cf. Cofan, Camsa See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro na´i naʔi See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez quiná kina See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ngimax (feminine) [5, 4] ŋimaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina aka aka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tʃá tʃá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke žakská unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani tõbẽ-gã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï che/kje - he yu/chu - she unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Pumé ɔdɛ; inɛ̃ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave na'a; o'o naʔa; oʔo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao aru, tai (he) aɾu, tai (he) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar ni (ausent) / áu (present) ni / au See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nii ni: See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna áu áu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup tɨ́h tɨ́h inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Yuhup tɨh tɨh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Dâw tir tih inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses a a inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo ha-a ha-a inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua nini nı̃nı̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua pay paj See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá pai pai See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua pai pai See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano pay paj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa jwau hwãũ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llojoh/jixuh ʤohoʔ/hixuʔ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ~i (m.); so, ~so (YM) (f).; ti (n.) ~i (m.); so, ~so (YM) (f).; ti (n.) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo ʉ̃ (masc.), õ (fem.) ɨ̃,õ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana cʉ̃/cõ/to kɨ̃/kɔ̃/tɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano ĩgʉ̃, igo (she) ĩgɨ̃, igo (she) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria tiro (he); ticoro (she) (Waltz) tíɾo; tikoɾo inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Makuna ~i (m.); iso (f.); iti (n.) ~i (m.); iso (f.); iti (n.) inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti kɨ̃́, 'kṍ kɨ̃́, 'kṍ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana tiki-ro, 'tiko-ro, 'ti tiki-ro, 'tiko-ro, 'ti See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano igó igó See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca i'ki (he); i'ko (she) i'ki (he); i'ko (she) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo kɨ̃ɨ̃, kɨ̃ (he); kõ, 'kõõ (she); tó (it) kɨ̃ɨ̃, kɨ̃ (he); kõ, 'kõõ (she); tó (it) See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tukano cṹ, có (ella) kṹ/ kó inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka kɨ̃'ɨ̃ / ko'o / -- kɨ̃ʔɨ̃ / koʔo / -- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja kɨ̃́ɨ̃́ (masc.), 'kṍṍ (fem.), 'tóó (neuter) kɨ̃́ɨ̃́ (masc.), 'kṍṍ (fem.), 'tóó (neuter) See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki ñi aguɨ (male)/ñio ago (female) ɲi agɨ, ɲio ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Koreguaje ikʉ (male) / iko (female) ikʉ / iko inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona pˀa-kˀɨ; pˀakˀo; pˀakˀu pˀa-kˀɨ; pˀakˀo; pˀakˀu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya jaë/jao/jequë hã'ɨ̃/'hãõ/'hɛ'kɨ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana i i inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nheengatu u u inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Kokama ai ai inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɔ-; ãwĩ ɔ-; ãwĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ae ae inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɑˀe ɑˀe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina he: áʔii-m̵a, ïïm̵a, ĩĩhã, ha(ʔ)-; she: aʔiiko, ïïko, ĩĩhã, ña, ha- haʔ-; it: tʸã(hï̃), tʸa he: áʔii-m̵a, ɯɯm̵a, ĩĩhã, ha(ʔ)-; she: aʔiiko, ɯɯko, ĩĩhã, ɲa, ha- haʔ-; it: tʲã(hɯ̃), tʲa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto he: apέ-ma, da; she: apέŋo; it: dáge he: apέ-ma, da; she: apέŋo; it: dágɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto he: aɸé-mï.e; she: aɸéño; it: í.e he: aɸέ-mɯ.ɛ; she: aɸέŋo; it: í.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto he: imɯ.e; she: iñaiño, maiñaiño; it: i.e he: imɯ.ɛ; she: iɲaiɲo, maiɲaiɲo; it: i.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam kama (he/she), thə (it, inanimate EM72) kama (animate), tʰə (inanimate) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam kama (he/she, EM72), thə (it, inanimate EM72) kama, tʰə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami a, kama (he/she, EM72), thə (it, inanimate EM72) a, kama, tʰə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá ki (he she EM72), te (it inan. EM72) ki, te inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito nu-, nuu (stand-alone pronominal form), anúu, anúuja nu-, nuu (stand-alone pronominal form), anúu, anúuha inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo na na See Language page Becky Walker
Wari ko maʔ ko maʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo o-ya; o-ya-ya o-ya; o-ya-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña to-ke; to-ra (former is absolutive form, latter is ergative form) to-ke; to-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jupa xupa See Language page PLE
Kwazá -hata- -hata- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima us-ko; is-ne us-ko; is-ne See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai hine; -n/-e hine; -n/-e unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ti, -n ti; Φi See Language page PLE
Suyá anĩ (ele), tã anĩ (ele), tã See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi na na See Language page PLE