Taushiro

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
trr
Location
-3.22°, -75.56°
Notes
Proposals of relationship to Candoshi (Ruhlen); Zaparoan (Pozzi-Escot, Solis F., and García R.)
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Alicea Ortiz, Neftalí. 1975. Vocabulario taushiro. Datos etnolinguisticos no. 22. ILV, Lima.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location {-cane} kanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar u'ja uʔxa See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tu'ca tuʔka See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body a'jonte'na'cu aʔxondɨʔnaʔku See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality ya'cantu (worthless) jaʔkantu See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location je'ane xɨʔanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality ho´hua hoʔhua See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour ayo ontu´ ajo ontuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body a´ta´ aʔtaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body que'eva kɨʔɨwa See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body {-hu} hu See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body a´icha tantu´ aʔiʃa tantuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human iva´ iwaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality ju´unhene xuʔunhene See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time ichi´curo iʃiʔkuɾo See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality ayo ontu' ajo onduʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality i´ta´antaro iʔtaʔantaɾo See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment iva iwa See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body a´oo aʔoo See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment u´untu uʔuntu See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna a´tuva que´tu (a´tuva=gallina; que´tu=surface) aʔtuwa kɨʔtu See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body a´chivihi´ aʔʃiwihiʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality e'ivan eʔiwan See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body i´jah iʔxah See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship iya´ iyaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna ñahan, chiyu´han ɲahan, ʃijuʔhan See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment honto´ hontoʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment avane'que awanɨʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality ya´tu´a jaʔtuʔa See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body anu´huen anuʔhuɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body yava (hands) yawa See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar na´i naʔi See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body nu´(hi´) nuʔ{hiʔ} See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar entehan ɨndɨhan See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar uyo, u ujo, u See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body nu'vu a'van nuʔwu aʔwan See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment ava´ya awaʔja See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body ana'hu' anaʔhuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment canante' canandɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body a´ju aʔxu See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality ahanta'que; a'ca'ta'que ahandaʔkɨ; aʔkaʔtaʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna a´vicha aʔwiʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human ava´vu awaʔwu See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna a´ya´ta aʔjaʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment a´tova aʔtowa See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship iño iɲo See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body a´ñanta´cu aʔñantaʔku See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human nu´ju nuʔxu See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body ayiva´hu´ ajiwaʔhuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality hi´na na´que hiʔna naʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time i´chia iʔʃia See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body tantan tantan See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality yeiyu´ jeijuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number vachi´canto (vachi=saltar) waʃiʔkanto See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human ite´chi (people) itɨʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment i´cho iʔtʃo See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour achiya aʃija See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture a´tu aʔtu See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora o´tintih oʔtintih See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment heiñuntu´, hañuntu´ hɨiɲuntuʔ, haɲuntuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body ava´vu awaʔwu See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body chi ʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment a´can aʔkan See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment a´chivi aʔʃiwi See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment a´jentu´ aʔxɨntuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body jue xuɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar na´ne in naʔnɨ in See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar iyo ijo See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body entin entin See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment je´jovu xɨʔxowu See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body a'jo aʔxo See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body a'jone aʔxonɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment i'chu' iʔʃuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion ha' haʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion inte indɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact onto' ondoʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental anu'jua anuʔhua See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental ti'nonto'jene (~ in pain); tine'juayo tiʔnontoʔhene; tineʔhuajo See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact avanta' quei'co awandaʔ qɨiʔko See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state va´ waʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact o'cue oʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body unti´ untiʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body untu´ untuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion o'ce oʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental i'ja iʔxa See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion a'cuntu' aʔcunduʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion a´tu´ti´ aʔtuʔtiʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state i'yu hunta iʔju hunda See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental a´cona aʔkona See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion te'nene ti'yu tɨʔnɨnɨ tiʔju See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a'cu'cuene aʔkuʔkɨnɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ti' tiʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nu´chi nuʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ine inɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental o´ts oʔts See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body o´ya oʔja See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body a´tohon aʔtohon See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body tuhusne tuhusnɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state i´nane iʔnanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other anha´ anhaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion jo´que no´cuane´ne (to dive) xoʔkɨ noʔkuanɨʔnɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental nu´chi nuʔtʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body a´ja´a aʔxaʔa See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion a´tune aʔtunɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body hoho hoho See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body a´quehe´ aʔkɨhɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body a´ñune aʔñunɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number achini aʃini See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment vei wɨi See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ayo ajo See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality ichuntuna´ iʃuntunaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar antu´han antuʔhan See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour ha´anta haʔanta See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar cu´hen kuʔhɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship ño´onva ɲoʔonwa See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human iyi iji See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar inte intɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body to (feet) to (feet) See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other achintu-toa aʃinduʔtoa See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body a'to ontu'chi'hu' aʔto onduʔʃiʔhuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body a'jan aʔxan See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body tananta tananta See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment ye´chi jɨʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body a´to´chi (of the feet), a´yava ichi (of the hands) aʔtoʔʃi, aʔyawa iʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body a´tantu aʔtantu See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time a´cu´ aʔkuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality a´cu´ aʔkuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. a´cante´ aʔkantɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ahuan ahuan See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. va´jeno waʔxɨno See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae unve´ unwɨʔ See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tu´cu tu´cu tuʔku tuʔku See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. eivi ɨiwi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica tu´chonto tuʔʃonto See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae i´tova iʔtowa See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae uchiyu uʃiju See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris onanta onanta See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) antechiyo anteʃiyo See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri taiyin taijin See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. hu´unta huʔunta See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hunta hunta See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus ei´tu´ ɨiʔtuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ei´na ɨiʔna See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae antiva antiwa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. uvenchinti uwɨnʃinti See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura honto´ hontoʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ava´cuntu´ awaʔkuntuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura cueha´ kuɨhaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria anti´vi antiʔvi See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis unva´ja unwaʔxa See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. cunevah kunɨwah See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa onanta´ onantaʔ See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ahan ahan See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea inta´ intaʔ See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes avante awantɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ayo´janva ajoʔxanwa See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ano´ anoʔ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens aehin (Spanish loan?) aɨhin See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea vañi (Spanish or other loan) wañi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus vants wants See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. antah antah See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ho´antu´ hoʔantuʔ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tayacu (Spanish loan) tajaku See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna avah awah See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ava'a hi' awaʔa hiʔ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. jei´jon xeiʔxon See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. "jonvane "jonwanɨ See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui canani kanani See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ha´ava haʔawa See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta shie (not specified as sweet or bitter) ʃiɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas unuchi´tu unuʃiʔtu See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. hae´u haɨʔu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) a´jonti aʔxonti See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. a´jonti aʔxonti See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. he´icha hɨʔiʃa See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi anu´vu´ anuʔwuʔ See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata acha´cus aʃaʔkus See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis u´tantan (in plural) uʔtantan See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae a´chivi´hi´ aʔʃiwiʔhiʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora año año See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ta´ha´ taʔhaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera cuento vicha (cuento=dog) kuɨnto wiʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chi´inti ʃiʔnti See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. a´tono aʔtono See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera a´chi´chi aʔʃiʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ina´ inaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca he´i hɨʔi See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha shuntu ʃuntu See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] va´na´ waʔnaʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella ayo´na ajoʔna See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons va´naha waʔnaha See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus sehu´ sɨhuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis vayo wajo See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu oñonto, tahino (loan?) aɲonto, tahino See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari taya taja See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae ae´uh aɨʔuh See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua a´chiva aʔʃiwa See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. vinti winti See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris vei taya (vei=river, water; taya=white lipped peccari) wɨi taja See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti unti´chi untiʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ei´ta ɨiʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae huven huwɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris je´hi xɨʔhi See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus hu´vevu huʔwewu See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material chae´hu´ ʃaɨʔhuʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material a'cavan (bed, mosquito net) aʔkawan See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material u´ne uʔnɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ava´ta awaʔta See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport tenente tɨnɨntɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ava´-nu´va-´ti´-nu´vu i´chi (lit. the piece of leather which is on the stick) awaʔ-nuʔwa-ʔti-nuʔwu iʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yachova jaʃowa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology a´nova aʔnowa See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other honto´ hontoʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yei´tus, a'ta'ca'tua jɨiʔtus, aʔtaʔkaʔtua See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material jo´jua´ca xoʔxuaʔka See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material ho´hua hoʔhua See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool a´je aʔxɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool anivi aniwi See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport vei va´ha wɨi waʔha See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material cu´tahane kuʔtahanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool vaya (Spanish loan?) waja See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tachon (Spanish loan) taʃon See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ava´a, inante´ awaʔa, inantɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food tuntun unton tuntun unton only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture o o See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ahan ahan See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation antu' tovan antuʔtovan See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation avah (stick, tree, paper, book) awah (stick, tree, paper, book) See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation a'tuva aʔtuwa See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress a'to'ha aʔtoʔha See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation chontanto ʃontanto See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation he'ica hɨʔika See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ane'ta anɨʔta (also blowgun) See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food chane ʃanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ane´ta (also gun) anɨʔta (also gun) currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool aco'vahan akoʔwahan esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food eina ɨina See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food cu´cua kuʔkua See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool a´jonti aʔxonti See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool a´queivan aʔkɨiwan See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture ahian ne'jonque ahian ne'xonkɨ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ahian taha' ahian tahaʔ agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ahian nu´ja ahian nuʔxa See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tiño tiño agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ava'to awaʔto See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture a´jentu´ aʔjɨntuʔ if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other añi aɲi See Language page Daniel Valle