bow

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
arco
Meaning Portuguese
arco

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla hul bow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:58 Jane Hill
Cupeño kutapish bow inheritance *kuCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 278, from 'wood'? derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño kutapish bow, ash tree inheritance *kuCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 278, from 'wood'? derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino pi-tro-ar, H. paytxot 'arco en general' common bow inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
Serrano ă-part'k bow, gun inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk pačukt bow, collarbone inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ālitt bow, gun inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim ah'-le bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7edy-(ci) bow, rifle inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 7atsY Y is voiceless schwa bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute atcy-S bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute 7aa-cI bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone (huu)7etyn bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 compound Dayley 1998 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone aiti, aitikko bow and arrow, gun inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche eetY bow for shooting arrows inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Western Mono Edy bow, gun, weapon inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pongosa adu bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok jaw:e bow (for shooting) unique 7ungli- Yosemite simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok šól:oku- bow (for shooting) unique maybe same as Mins sol:ok:u 'hazel tree, Corylus californica, is this used for bows? simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kyc:a- bow inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok këc:a-, kyc:a- bow; counters in gambling game? inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kóono bow, gun inheritance *kó:no Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:40 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu pándak' bow, rifle inheritance *pandak Proto-Maiduan Shipley 1961:50; Callaghan 2001:330 says 'may be a kenning term' (from *pan 'roll string on leg" and *dak' 'stick or glue something' simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan pandak bow inheritance *pandak Proto-Maiduan Shipley 1961:50 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani ne:k'i to draw a bow inheritance *nek'- Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami keTngal' bow unknown also in Hometwoli, Tulamni; getsñ-il, gatsiñ-il Kroeber 1907:341 simplex Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
Washo ba7lóhat, balóhot bow, gun unknown has the /pa/ element derived BE- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu k'ulu:l bow, gun, rifle, pistol unknown simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki lu7waT (Elmendorf form) bow. Gun inheritance *li7wëht Proto-North Yukian also hitmo7 S&S p. 33 derived from 'kill' Schlichter 1985:48 Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo lúk'a bow, gun (in Sawyer) unknown somewhat resemblant to Yuki forms, but only in CV simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
Mutsun lawan bow inheritance Proto-Southern Costanoan perhaps ProtoC; Soledad has tawa (Henshaw in Heizer 1955); Rumsen has lawan 'gun' simplex Okrand notes has no corresponding verb Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen paxu-nax bow loan Salinan M Harrington copies as payunay other complex ncs -nax Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
Salinan A xak'e/I', xak' bow unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M paxuwe/ bow unknown note Esselen simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno 7aqa arco, bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:65;also ič-kuyan 'bow, weapon' p. 197 simplex Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7ax hyphen on left bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:65;also ič-kuyan 'bow, weapon' p. 197 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ax bow, gun inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7ax bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7aatim bow inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH, looks weirdly like the UA word but that is an accident, see Kiliwa -tim simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa 7i:cim(ayá:) bow (and arrow) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex 7ayá: 'willow' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7utis bow, gun unique simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai tβču:ña ñ is turned ŋ arc-shaped ->bow unique hpùčñâ(:)kva p. 374, hpùtβču:ña p. 436 derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa h+tim rifle, bow inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) haacni bow for arrows unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua ɲɨ̌p-at-tɨh ɲɨ̌p-at-tɨh unique Other complex throw.arrow-nmlz-hunt arco See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu mirapara mirapara inheritance *ɨßɨrapar Proto-Tupi-Guarani Loan TG > Yucuna wiɾaʔapaɾa arco See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani too piyæ̃ka-ĩ-wæ̃ unique Compound too piyæ̃ka-ĩ=arrow; a-wæ̃=tree/wood arco See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï lĩbẽlã ho lĩbẽlã ho bow, arrow? unique arco See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami hatõ nahi, tisho hi, nahi (EM72) hatõ nahi, tiʃo hi (ceremonial) unique Alternate: tiʃo hi (ceremonial) Other complex No info arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam šarak nafi ʃaɾak nafi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Compound ʃaɾak, “arrow” arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam šaknahi, šakaonahi (EM72) ʃ̌aknahi, ʃakaonahi inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria bʉe~dete bʉe~dete inheritance from bʉe 'shoot'? Compound arco See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo tẽ́mutarabʉ tɛ̃́mutara-bɨ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Classifier -bɨ arco See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano biɨê'ka tẽhe biɨêʔka tẽhe inheritance from bui 'shoot'? Other complex biɨê'ka, unclear; tẽhe “arc-shaped” arco See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano buiribero buiribero inheritance from bui 'shoot'? Compound buiri-bero; shoot-? arco See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki toe aqu ja tõẽ aku xã inheritance aku could be loan from Spanish arco arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup g'ǐg b'ah g'ǐg b'ah inheritance Proto-DYH Derived shoot.arrow= CL:split/flat.thing arco See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw çok cɔk inheritance; unknown Proto-DYH Yagua kãnũ; Matses kanti; Cocama kanuti Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani bi-sabi (Rivet 1948) bisabi (Rivet 1948) inheritance North Arawak Also occurs in Cuiva; may be loan into proto-language arco See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan pitsá-ne pitsá-ne inheritance Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero fadoit, woijta; lut (R18) ɸadói-t unknown (Also: wohita) Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon rapa (A1981); uurapa (E1980); urapa (M2000) rapa (A1981); urapa (E1980); uɻa:pa' (M2000) inheritance Proto-Carib Alternate: rapa, uɻa:pa' arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio uuraba uraba inheritance Proto-Carib arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi uraapa (SM) uraapa (SM) inheritance Proto-Carib arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa kaʔka kaʔka unique arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna wira'apara wiɾaʔapaɾa loan TG *ɨβɨrapa Compare also Carib, e,g, Akawaio uuraba arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana (yawi) [tia]pu (dp91), yawithépu (aa01) (jawi) [tia]pu (dp91), jawitʰépu (aa01) inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Derived -itʰépu "bow" noun classifier arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana sumara sumara inheritance *sumeca Proto-Arawak cf. Tupi-Guarani sumara 'enemy'; Payne91 reconstructs Wap 'bow' Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa dzawithíapo dzawithíapo inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Derived dzawíta “to shoot” arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro -jawi[thíapu] (hr01) -jawi[tʰíapu] (hɾ01) inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua tʃáawidauʃi tʃáawidauʃi unique arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco demápu demápu arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena tsawitureʃi tsawitureʃi arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero [ta]po; c̷a'wituľeľ̥i [ta]po; ts̷aʔwituľeľ̥i arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi ˈhito ˈhitu unknown arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure tipo'pok; -tipo tipo'pok; -tipo inheritance arco See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ɨ̃ɨtai ɨ̃ɨtai inheritance arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora tubóówa; tubo (bow & arrows) tɯpoo-kwa inheritance cf. Proto-Arawak *[ta]po arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane tɨɨbú-ga tɨɨbú-ga arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai taky takɨ unique arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana paila paila unknown cf. 'arrow' arco See Language page PLE
Carijona cihamata, wakaca (SM) unique arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó (wï)raapa (wɨ)raapa inheritance arco See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare šimāda ehɨ̄dɨ (IDS); shima:da ehu:du (KH) ʃima:da ehɨ:dɨ (IDS); ʃima:da ehu:du (KH) unique built from loan, see 'arrow' arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo aka'ra aka'ra arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai kraΦa kraΦa inheritance arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari warypa warɨpa arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa bákara bákara arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca hacapa hakapa arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá enẽ́ndrʉma enẽ́ndrʉma arco See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán battittianccu βathithi̡ãkhɯ phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez taty arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna würa wɨɾa unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina batohwi batohwi unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke pã́hã́sé pã́hã́sé unique arco See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé tʰiba-to arco See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave hə́k hə́k unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Warao hatabuɾu (bow and aɾɾows?) hataburu (bow and arrows?) arco See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar tíshimuk, balista (Spanish loan) tiʃimuk, balista arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa tumag tumag arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna numi 'apun-bau (IDS); tumág (bow used as musical instrument) numi 'apun-bau; tumág (bow used as musical instrument) unique; inheritance arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses canti kanti inheritance arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo kanati kanati inheritance arco See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua kãnũ kãnũ doubtful loan Panoan *kan(u/a)ti (Shell) arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá árku (Sp., H&R) árku (Sp., H&R) arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua lapun lapun arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa p'o'obü p'o'o'bɨ unique arco See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llipah, llupaha ʤipaʔ, ʤupaʔa unique arco See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano tẽbṹ-bedo tẽbṹ-bedo arco See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana wẽrĩcã beto, yeru beto wẽrĩkã betɔ, jɛɾu bɛtɔ arco See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna jatura jãi, jaturijĩ xatuɾa xãi, xatulixĩ unknown arco See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti te'pútu te'pútu arco See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bɨ'e-ri thẽ bɨ'e-ri thẽ arco See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano sĩĩríturo sĩĩɾítuɾo arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca tẽbũ pã'ĩã tẽbũ pã'ĩã inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo tẽ́'bɨ̃́-'bé'tó tẽ́'bɨ̃́-'bé'tó arco See Language page
Tuyuka bɨ'e-ri-pĩ bɨʔe-ri-pĩ arco See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bɨɛ́řikʰábɛtʰò bɨɛ́rikʰábɛtʰò arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje saocucupʉ saokukupʉ inheritance arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ga'hua gaʔwa inheritance; inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ca'hua, ca'huanoa kaʔwa, kaʔwanɔa arco See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana or´ep oɾʔep unknown arco See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama kanuti kanuti loan Panoan arco See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi wɨlapa-ma wɨlapa-ma inheritance arco See Language page PLE
Sirionó ŋiraa; eraa (P85); pisa-c̷oe ŋiraa; eraa (P85); pisa-c̷oe inheritance arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨwɨrapat ɨwɨrapat inheritance arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina tsipóxatya tsipóxatʲa loan Bora arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto tïkúi-ña tɯkúi-ña arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto θïkui-raï θɯkui-raɯ arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto θïkui-ra θɯkui-ra inheritance/Witoto arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá silaka nahi (EM72) silaka nahi (EM72) inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito rim+'+taja rimɨ'ɨtaha unknown arco See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo rihwana rihwana arco See Language page Becky Walker
Wari temem' (E&K97) tememʔ (E&K97) arco See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-koi-xi; e-ko-wixi (Girard 1971) e-koi-xi; e-ko-wixi (Girard 1971) arco See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña etonono etonono semantic shift from 'round/curved'? arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara arku (Spanish loan) aɾku arco See Language page PLE
Kwazá bilo bilo arco See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ta-ni-lo ta-ni-lo arco See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai paŋe, tāhaŋa; šɨšlaxma paŋe, tāhaŋa; šɨšlaxma unique arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang vyj wɨy arco See Language page PLE
Suyá krwá krwá arco See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi tewä tewǝ arco See Language page PLE