Carapana

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbc
Location
0.06°, -69.65°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Metzger, Ronald G., compiler. 2000. Marĩ yaye mena Carapana, yaia yaye mena Español macãrĩcã tuti = Carapana-Español, diccionario de 1000 palabras. Bogotá: Editorial Alberta Lleras Camargo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location bia(pᵾ) bia(pɨ) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
and y e grammar See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 'ṍwã́ 'ṍwã́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
at en, a em, a location -pɨ -pɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
back espalda costas body hõ'kɨ̃́ hõ'kɨ̃́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bad mal mal quality ñuetaje, cañueto (inanimate) ɲuɛtaxɛ, kaɲuɛtɔ (inanimate) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
belly barriga barriga body paaro paaɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
below abajo, debajo abaixo location caroca(pᵾ), roca(pᵾ) kaɾoka(pɨ), ɾoka(pɨ) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
big grande grande quality pacarije (to be big - unit), pairique (to be big existence or mass); 'ká-paí (H&R) pakaɾixɛ, paiɾikɛ; 'ká-paí (H&R) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
black negro preto colour ñiirĩjẽ ɲiiɾĩxɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
blood sangre sangue body riĩ ɾií See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body jĩ'kã́ã 'õwã-rõ jĩ'kã́ã 'õwã-rõ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bone hueso osso body õwãrõ ɔ̃wãɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
breast pecho, seno peito body cotia, õpẽã (nipple), ũpẽã (nipple) kɔtia, ɔ̃pɛ̃ã, ũpɛ̃ã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
child niño, niña criança human cawĩmaʉ(acã), cawĩmao(acã) kaʋĩmaɨ(akã), kaʋĩmaɔ(akã) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cloud nube nuvem environment óko buserí óko buserí See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cold frío frio quality yʉsʉarije, yisiarije jɨsɨaɾixɛ,jisiaɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 'ká-ríape, -ríta 'ká-ríape, -ríta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
day día dia time rʉ̃mʉ ɾɨ̃mɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dirty sucio sujo quality ɨ'gé-rí ɨ'gé-rí See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dry seco seco quality bo'pó- bo'pó- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality 'ká-ó-é-to 'ká-ó-é-to See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dust polvo poeira environment ɨ'gérí ɨ'gérí See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
ear oreja orelha body ãmoorõ ãmɔɔɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
earth/soil tierra terra environment ñerĩ, yepa ɲɛɾĩ, jɛpa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
egg huevo ovo fauna riá ɾiá See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
eye ojo olho body caapea kaapɛa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
far lejos longe quality jo'á- jo'á- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fat/grease grasa gordura body ʉse ɨsɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
father padre, papá pai kinship caacʉ (voc.), pacʉ (pos.); -pa-kɨ́, 'ká-a-kɨ (Huber & Reed) kaacʉ, pakʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
feather pluma pena fauna poa pɔa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fire fuego fogo environment peero pɛɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
flower flor flor environment o'ó-ro o'ó-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment 'óko buse-'rí 'óko buse-'rí See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fruit fruta fruta flora 'ka-rika 'ka-rika See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
good bueno bom quality ñurĩjẽ (inanimate), animates: caroʉ́, caroao, caruʉ́, caruao ɲuɾĩxɛ̃ (inanimate), animates: kaɾɔɨ́, kaɾɔaɔ, kaɾuɨ́, kaɾuaɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body poa pɔa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hand mano mão body wãmo wãmɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar cʉ̃/cõ/to kɨ̃/kɔ̃/tɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
head cabeza cabeça body rʉpoa ɾɨpɔa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
heavy pesado pesado quality dɨ̃kɨ̃́- dɨ̃kɨ̃́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
how? como como grammar 'dópe 'dópe See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
1sg yo eu grammar See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
if si se grammar -áta -áta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -púpéá-pɨ -púpéá-pɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
intestines intestinos intestinos body 'ɨta 'bĩ́sĩ́ 'ɨta 'bĩ́sĩ́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
lake lago lago environment ɨta-biki-'rá ɨta-biki-'rá See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
leaf hoja folha environment pũrõ, pũũrõ pũɾɔ̃, pũũɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kã́ãkṹ-dɨ̃́gõã kã́ãkṹ-dɨ̃́gõã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
leg/foot pierna perna body jĩ'kã́ã jĩ'kã́ã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨ'pó 'kɨ̃ ka-ja'bé-rí-je bɨ'pó 'kɨ̃ ka-ja'bé-rí-je See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
liver hígado figado body ñemeriti ɲɛmɛɾiti See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
long largo comprido, longo quality jo'á- jo'á- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna 'íja-bɨ̃ 'íja-bɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
man/male hombre homem human caʉ̃mʉ kaɨ̃mɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
meat/flesh carne carne fauna rii ɾii See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
moon luna lua environment moipʉ, muipʉ mɔipɨ, muipɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -pa-kó, 'ká-a-ko -pa-kó, 'ká-a-ko See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
mouth boca boca body risero ɾisɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
name nombre nome human wãme wãmɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
near/close cerca de perto quality 'ká-tɨ́-áka 'ká-tɨ́-áka See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
neck cuello pescoço body 'wã́bɨ̃́ã 'wã́bɨ̃́ã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
new nuevo novo quality cawãma kawãmã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
night noche noite time ñami ɲami See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
no/not no não grammar bã́-dĩ bã́-dĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
nose nariz nariz body ĩqũẽã, iqũĩã ĩkɛ̃ã, ĩkĩã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
old viejo velho quality 'ká-bɨkɨ́-ro 'ká-bɨkɨ́-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
one uno um number 'hĩ́kã́ 'hĩ́kã́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
other otro outro grammar 'ápe- 'ápe- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
person/human being persona pessoa human kã-bãsã́ 'people' kã-bãsã́ 'people' See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
rain lluvia chuva environment 'óko 'óko See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
red rojo vermelho colour jõãrĩqũẽ, jũãrĩqũẽ xɔ̃ãɾĩxɛ̃, xũãɾĩxɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
right/right hand derecha direita location/body 'ká-ríape-dɨ̃́gõã 'ká-ríape-dɨ̃́gõã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
road/path camino caminho manufacture maa maa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
root raíz raiz flora nʉcõ nɨkɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
rotten podrido podre quality bóá- bóá- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sand arena areia environment paa paa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ká-ó-ro ká-ó-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
short corto curto quality je'pá-, joa-eti- je'pá-, joa-eti- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoulder hombro ombro body ri'ká-pɨ́to ri'ká-pɨ́to See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental boborique, boboorique boboɾike, bobooɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
skin piel pele body asero asɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sky cielo céu environment ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'kó ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'kó See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
small pequeño pequeno quality õ'kã́-ɨ̃-ãkã õ'kã́-ɨ̃-ãkã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
smoke humo fumaça environment buseri busɛɾi See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
star estrella estrela environment ñocõ ɲɔkɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 'júkɨ́ 'júkɨ́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
stone piedra pedra environment ʉ̃tã ɨ̃tã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩcõrõ pĩkɔ̃ɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
that ese/esa esse grammar jĩĩ/jico (anim.), ti + clas. (inan.), to (manner or quantity, inan.) yĩĩ/yicɔ, ti, to See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar na, to (inan.) nã, tɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ése-bɨ́tí- ése-bɨ́tí- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
thin delgado fino quality 'ése-bẽ́dĩ́- 'ése-bẽ́dĩ́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
this este/esta este grammar ãni/atio (anim.), ati +clas. (inan.), ato (manner or quanitity, inan.) ãni/atiɔ, ati, atɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
2sg xx xx grammar mɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
three tres tres number 'ítía 'ítía See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨ'pó bɨ'pó See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bite morder morder body 'báka- 'báka- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
blow soplar soprar body 'púti-, pa'pú- 'púti-, pa'pú- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
breathe respirar respirar body yeri jĩnijãrĩqũẽ jeri xĩnixãrĩkẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
burn quemar queimar environment 'hoe-, 'ɨ̃́ɨ̃́- 'hoe-, 'ɨ̃́ɨ̃́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body bacurique bakuɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
climb subir subir motion wãmᵾrĩqũẽ wãmɨɾĩkẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
come venir vir motion a'tí- a'tí- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cook cocinar cozinhar impact roarique ɾoaɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
count contar contar mental See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cry llorar chorar mental otirique otiɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ji'sé ji'sé See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
die/be dead morir morrer state riacoátáje ɾiakɔátáxɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dig cavar cavar impact 'jéséa- 'jéséa- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dream soñar sonhar mental qũẽguerique kẽgweɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
drink beber, tomar beber body etirique ɛtiɾikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
eat comer comer body ʉgapacarije ɨgaɾikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fall caer cair motion 'jã́ã- 'jã́ã- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fear miedo medo mental u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fly volar voar motion wʉrique wɨɾikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
grow crecer crescer state bᵾtirique, putarije (river) bɨtiɾike, putaɾixe (river) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hear oír ouvir mental 'tɨ̃́gó- 'tɨ̃́gó- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hide esconder esconder motion yasiorique jasioɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 'pá-, bápe- 'pá-, bápe- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨ̃'gó- kɨ̃'gó- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
kill matar matar impact pajĩãrĩqũẽ, jĩãrĩqũẽ paxĩãɾĩkɛ̃, xĩãɾĩkɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental masĩrĩqũẽ masĩɾĩkɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
laugh reír rir mental boyetirique bojetiɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jo'sá- jo'sá- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ãnajẽ ãnaxẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
open/uncover abrir abrir other pããrĩqũẽ pããɾĩkẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tãnirĩqũẽ tãniɾĩkẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
say decir dizer mental jĩ́ĩ́- jĩ́ĩ́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
see ver ver mental ĩñarĩqũẽ ĩɲaɾĩkɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bupurique (cerbatana), peturique (escopeta) bupuɾike (cerbatana), petuɾike (escopeta) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sit sentar(se) sentar state ru'í- ru'í- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sleep dormir dormir body cãnĩrqũẽ kãniɾĩkɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body 'wĩ́dĩ́- 'wĩ́dĩ́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
spit escupir cuspir body eyoturique ejotuɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bo'pé bo'pé See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bi'jó- bi'jó- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tu'ápuá- tu'ápuá- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state 'dũkũ- 'dũkũ- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
steal robar roubar other nerutirique (an inanimate thing), jerutirique, jeerutirique neɾutiɾike (an inanimate thing), xeɾutiɾike, xeeɾutiɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
suck chupar chupar body 'ṹpṹ-, 'ṹpṹ- 'ṹpṹ-, 'ṹpṹ- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
swell hincharse inchar body 'bípí- 'bípí- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
swim nadar nadar motion baarique baaɾikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
think pensar pensar mental 'tɨ̃́gó-jã- 'tɨ̃́gó-jã- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 'wẽ́-hõ, 'róká- 'wẽ́-hõ, 'róká- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact 'híja- 'híja- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
vomit vomitar vomitar body bɨ̃'jṍ- bɨ̃'jṍ- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
walk caminar, andar andar motion áñestẽãtaje áɲɛstɛ̃ãtayɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
work trabajar trabalhar other paarique paaɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tongue lengua lingua body ñemerõ ɲɛmɛɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tooth diente dente body opi ɔpia See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
two dos dois number 'pɨ́ga 'pɨ́ga See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
water agua agua environment oco ɔkɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar marĩ mãɾĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar jãã xãã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
wet mojado molhado quality we'já we'já See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
what? que, qué que grammar ñe ɲɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
when? cuando quando grammar 'dṍṍ-kã́rõ, di-wa'tóa 'dṍṍ-kã́rõ, di-wa'tóa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
where? donde onde grammar 'dṍ-pɨ 'dṍ-pɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
white blanco branco colour botirije bɔtiɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
who? quien, quién quem grammar ñamʉ (masc., anim.) ɲãmɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
wife esposa esposa kinship manapʉ̃; -dɨ̃bõ (Huber & Reed) mãnãpɨ̃, -dɨ̃bõ (Huber & Reed) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
wind viento vento environment wĩ'dṍ wĩ'dṍ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
wing ala asa body 'kérɨpɨ 'kérɨpɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
woman/female mujer mulher human carõmio kaɾɔ̃miɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
yellow amarillo amarelo colour eqarije ɛwaɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mʉjãã mɨyãã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
foot pie body rʉpo ɾɨpɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
all todo todos other 'dĩ́-peti-rã 'dĩ́-peti-rã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ãña dobea, ãña jᵾra ãja dobea, ãja xɨɾa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ᵾta ɨta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
lung pulmón pulmão body je'rí 'hóríkáro je'rí 'hóríkáro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sweat sudar suor, suar body asipuarique asipuaɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bark corteza casca environment yukʉ asero jukɨ asɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fingernail uña unha body wãmo jõã wãmɔ xɔ̃ã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
heart corazón coração body yeri, yerrka jɛɾi, jɛrɾka See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sun sol sol time moipʉ, muipʉ mɔipɨ, muipɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment buuro (hill), ʉ̃tã (mountain) ɨ̃tãɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
green verde verde quality jʉ̃merĩjẽ xɨ̃mɛɾĩxɛ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hot caliente quente quality asirije (heat) asiɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. oso ósó, ɔsɔ See Language page Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 'bɨ̃́dĩ 'bɨ̃́dĩ, mini (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wãnopĩ́ wãnɔ̃pĩ́, wãdõ'pĩ́ (H&R) See Language page Amazonia Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. rase ɾasɛ, ra'sé (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. 'káata 'káata See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mimi mĩmĩ, bĩbĩ See Language page Widespread Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae ñasã ɲãsã See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bʉpʉpoco bɨpɨpɔkɔ, bɨpɨ'pókó (H&R), bʉpʉpoco (FS) See Language page Widespread Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. 'bãã 'bãã See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica weco wɛkɔ, 'wéko (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae bua bua See Language page Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae yuca juka See Language page Widespread South America Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family riapotaca ɾiapɔtaka See Language page Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae cõne kõnɛ̃ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wii yai, yai wíi 'jai, 'jai See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bʉco bɨ'kó, bɨkɔ See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pãmo pãmɔ̃, 'pãbõ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wʉ̃nʉ wɨ̃nɨ̃ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ʉso ɨsɔ, ʉso (FS) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus bue (generic eel) buɛ See Language page Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wai wai See Language page Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ñimi ɲĩmĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bʉʉ bɨ́ɨ́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mʉcã (armoured catfish?), pawa (siluro - wels catfish?), waijero? m̃ɨcã, pawa, waixɛrɔ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura tʉbʉro tɨbɨɾɔ, 'tɨbɨro See Language page Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. 'júwɨ́hóo 'júwɨ́hóo See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ãpĩ ãpĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pĩno pĩnɔ̃, 'pĩdõ (H&R), boa (FS); güío (FS) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae piño piɲɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ãña ãɲã, 'ãjã (H&R), pĩno (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ãña asero (rattlesnake), eri (crótalo), apoawo (taya equis) ãɲã asɛɾɔ, 'érí (H&R), ɛɾi, apawɔ See Language page Widespread South America Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ujerica, uu (aquatic and edible) uxɛɾika, uu (aquatic and edible) See Language page Widespread Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) waperiti wapɛɾiti See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nee nɛɛ, neea (FS) See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana mui mũi See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ʉ̃ne, 'ɨ̃dẽ-jõ '(H&R) ɨ̃nɛ̃; 'ɨ̃dẽ-jõ '(H&R), ʉ̃ nea (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca 'pátu 'pátu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) jita (H&R) jita (H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra busa (FS) busa (FS) See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bia bia See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jẽna xẽnã See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum wãsõ (for fishing) wãsɔ̃ (for fishing), 'jṹkã́-bẽdẽ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. opũ ɔpũ See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. cũmana kũmãnã See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) 'taa 'taa See Language page Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays orica ɔɾika, 'ó-ríka See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum mʉno mɨ̃nõ, bɨ̃dṍ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yucʉ jukɨ, yucʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana musã mũsã See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ʉnu ɨnũ, ʉñua (FS) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum jõna xɔ̃nã See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Amanda Meeks
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ʉse ɨsɛ See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta quii kii See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas capo, ñapĩ, rutu kapɔ, ɲãpĩ, ɾutu, jã'pĩ́ See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. 'jã́bṍ 'jã́bṍ See Language page Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) waaro ('calabaza', Metzger) waaɾɔ; wáa-ro ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. misĩ (wẽẽ) mĩsĩ (wɛ̃ɛ̃) See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Amanda Meeks
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. esu ɛsu See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kápi kápi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola oco baarique ɔkɔ baarikɛ See Language page Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata peta pɛta See Language page Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. bia puña, bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ (H&R) bia puɲã; bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ (H&R) See Language page Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis momia (honey-making), beroa, bero'a-bɨ̃ (H&R) m̃ɔma, bɛɾɔa; bero'a-bɨ̃ (H&R), beroamʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria asearo asɛaɾɔ, asearo (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae cutupe kutupe See Language page Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera momorõ mõmõɾõ See Language page Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora wãsĩ wãsĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda muni mũnĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones cotapa kɔtapa See Language page Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea yesero (FS) jesero (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera nurĩqũẽ, 'dṹkẽ́-ã (H&R) nurĩkɛ̃; 'dṹkẽ́-ã (H&R) See Language page Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera be'kóá-bɨ̃ be'kóá-bɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae yesero yɛsɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae yucʉ ñama jukɨ ɲãmã See Language page Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bɨ̃́tẽ́ã́-bɨ̃ bɨ̃́tẽ́ã́-bɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bútúá-bɨ̃ bútúá-bɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea base basɛ See Language page Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita utia (pl.) utia (pl.), utiamʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda jʉ̃ʉ xɨ̃ɨ, jʉ̃ ʉ̃ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bʉpʉ bɨpɨ, bʉpʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca macãnʉcʉ̃ yai, yai mãkãnɨkɨ̃ jai, jai See Language page Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha jei (m.) xɛi (m.) See Language page Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ucʉ (masc.) úkɨ, ukɨ (masc.) See Language page Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella aque posaʉ (m.) aque (m.) a'ké, akɛ pɔsaɨ (m.) akɛ (m.) See Language page Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wa'ú (spider monkey) wa'ú (spider monkey) See Language page Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae owa ɔwa See Language page Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ria tĩmi ɾia tĩmĩ See Language page Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu 'jese 'jese See Language page Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari 'jese 'jese See Language page Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae wãtõ wãtɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. buu, wese buu buu, wɛsɛ buu See Language page Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris 'ria-jese 'ria-jese See Language page Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti buu (FS), wese buu (FS) buu (FS), wese buu (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) jẽme xẽmẽ, hẽbẽ See Language page Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus biipoto, bii biipɔtɔ, bii, bíípótó (H&R) See Language page Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wĩsõcã (red squirrel) wĩsɔ̃kã (red squirrel), wecʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wecʉ wɛkɨ, we'kɨ́ See Language page Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ñama cajõãʉ̃, 'jãbã (H&R) ɲãmã kaxɔ̃ãɨ̃; 'jãbã (H&R) See Language page Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Amanda Meeks


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material bupua bupua See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material eteje ɛtɛjɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bed cama cama culture-material jo'sá-rí-ka-ro jo'sá-rí-ka-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pṹɨ̃ pṹɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ru'í-rí-ka-ro ru'í-rí-ka-ro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
canoe canoa canoa transport wai puarique; 'kũbũ-ã (H&R) wai puaɾikɛ; 'kũbũ-ã (H&R) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ju'kɨ́ɨ-rika ju'kɨ́ɨ-rika See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 'kũbũ 'kũbũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology ataro; 'kũbũ (H&R) ataɾɔ; 'kũbũ (H&R) Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology jutiro xutiɾo See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
firewood leña lenha other naorõ, naurõ (tortoa de mandioca); 'pee (H&R) nãoɾɔ̃, nãuɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology waaro waaɾɔ malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jõcõrõrĩ xɔ̃k̃ɔɾ̃ɔɾĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology poca pɔka In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology besuʉ bɛsuɨ multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology weta wɛta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material casaa; ji-sé-rí-ka-pãĩ (H&R) kasaa; ji-sé-rí-ka-pãĩ (H&R) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool 'kõbẽ-ã 'kõbẽ-ã especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool yeruʉ jɛɾuʉ hunting, warfare See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool besuʉ bɛsuɨ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bow arco arco subsistence tool wẽrĩcã beto, yeru beto wẽrĩkã betɔ, jɛɾu bɛtɔ arco See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
paddle/oar remo remo transport 'wáa-ri-ka-pãĩ 'wáa-ri-ka-pãĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ho'tɨ́ ho'tɨ́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material wẽnirõ; yeruʉ wɛ̃niɾɔ̃; jɛɾuʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool ataro ataɾɔ agriculture? See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology jã'sã́ jã'sã́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ʉpe ɨpɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
wax cera cera other See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
honey miel mel food momia oco momia oko only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 'híjá-rí-ká-wẽ 'híjá-rí-ká-wẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material mui mũi See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
school escuela escola acculturation buerica wii buerika wii See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
paper papel papel acculturation papera papera See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wʉgoarique wʉgoarike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ãbocʉ ãbocʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ñucãmene ñukãmene See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress yʉ rʉpo yʉ rʉpo See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation soldau soldau See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
cat gato gato acculturation pisana pisana See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation peeruca peeruka See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hat sombero chapéu dress sapewa sapewa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology quetiupaʉ ketiupaʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wasoro wasoro See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
salt sal sal food moa moa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bupua bupua currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wẽnirõ wɛ̃niɾɔ̃ esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wai werique (fishing rod) wai wɛrikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food wai puarique wai puaɾikɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food waibʉcʉ (edible animal) waibɨkɨ Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool waaro waaɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool jõcõrõrĩ xɔ̃k̃ɔɾ̃ɔɾĩ esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture eteje ɛtɛjɛ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food poca pɔka agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food naorõ, naurõ (tortoa de mandioca) nãoɾɔ̃, nãuɾɔ̃ usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food weta wɛta See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food oco baarique ɔkɔ baarikɛ agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food pĩnowʉ pĩnowʉ word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool ñama ɲãmã agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool nima nima hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool jʉgarica (deep), jʉgoa (shallow) xɨgaɾika, xɨgɔa agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool wa-í 'wéérike, 'wéérike (fish hook) wa-í 'wéérike, 'wéérike (fish hook) can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool casaa; 'bápí (fish net; H&R) kasaa, 'bápí (fish net; H&R) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
house other jʉgarica (deep), jʉgoa (shallow), 'wíi (Huber & Reed) xɨgaɾika, xɨgɔa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
Linguistic exogamy