1sg

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
yo
Meaning Portuguese
eu

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim nŭ-ge' 223; nögi (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ny inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla ne' inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok ka:n inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi nyy, nyyni inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno no7 (indep. pro) loan Ono 1996:21, 96 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno no7o loan JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno no7 loan A 7 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno mitYy inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno no, ne7e (indep pronoun), k- loan Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
Cocopa subject nya:c (and various prefixes) inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche ny7 inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño ne' [nəɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen eni unknown Shaul 1995:209 Jane Hill
Gabrielino no:- inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'enyaach [Ɂəˈɲaˑtʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu ny7y inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa nya7-(p) inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk ny7 inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ka/nni, ka/ni inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño no:7 inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7inyech inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun ka:n inheritance O77:104, 165 Jane Hill
Nisenan ni inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute ny inheritance Thornes? Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kan:i- (etc.) inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok kan:i-, inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A he:'kh (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M kHe' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) he unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ny:7 inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute ny7, ny-, =ni inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok kan:i, kan: inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute ny7 inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ki (it's a clitic) loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone ny, nyy inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo 7a/h loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Washo Le/ unknown J87, 402, K 268 Jane Hill
Western Mono nyy/ inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu ni inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ?nya/- inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami na7 (genitive is ken) inheritance Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi naa-, -na inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne na: N 229 inheritance N1944:229 Jane Hill
Yuki 7a,p (agent) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Arabana antha semantic shift Claire Bowern
Bardi ngay(u) ngay(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari nganhi inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU ngani inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu ŋarra Claire Bowern
Djapu ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang irr inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng genya inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi nganyi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi ngi ngi inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri ngaju kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija ngayin inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa upa unique Claire Bowern
Mangala jipangu inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung ngayoo inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka nganyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini nganyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma ngayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl ngai, ngaia ngay(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi nganyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru XXngl ngayu ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla ngayu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta ngaju pukurl inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina ngayu ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul ngay ngay inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ŋadu inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya nganawa inheritance Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta ngantya semantic shift Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ŋaya (I), nha:na (me) inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu ngarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru miraratha inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa ngaio ngayio inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha nganyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka nganji inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru ngayu ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua nuja nuja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Piapoco núa núa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yukuna nuká nuká inheritance no/nu forms cognate in Arawak; but compare quechuan nuka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tariana nuha nuha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Baniwa nhóa nhóa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Resígaro ó ó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kabiyari nhú, nu- nhú, nu- See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Warekena nu-ya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yavitero nuya-ha nuja-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Bare nuni nuni See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Wapishana ũgar-ɨ ũgar-ɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Mandawaka nújaha, nu- nú-jaha See Language page Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Paresi natyo natyo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Baure ni-; n-ti ni-; n-ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Waurá na-tu na-tu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Arutani maykate/ ma- / tsa- maykate/ ma- / tsa- See Language page John Blaha For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Sape See Language page John Blaha For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Bora inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Muinane úú-xóʔo úú-xóʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Akawaio uurö urö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect urɤ urɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Apalai ywy ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Wayana ïwu ɨwu inheritance See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Carijona əwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tiriyó wi[:] wi: inheritance See Language page Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Eñepa yu ju inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Makiritare ɨwɨ (IDS); üwü (KH) (also means 'me') ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Makushi u-rɨ u-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Mapoyo wïhï (wï') wʊhʊ (wʊ') See Language page Melody Ann Ross For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Pemon yuurö (E1980); yuurö (E1980) yuurö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Wai Wai owɨ owɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Waimiri Atroari awy, aa, kara~kra awi, aː, kara~kra See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yukpa abe, au a'wi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kalapalo uge uge inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Muisca hycha hɨʂa See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Northern Emberá mʉ̃ mʉ̃ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Macaguan kan kan inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Sikuani xanü (2) xánɨ inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Cofán ña ɲa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Candoshi-Shapra nova nowa unique See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Taushiro uyo, u ujo, u See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Páez andy, ũ´cue See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tikuna chamax [5, 4] tʃamaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Urarina kanï kanʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Camsa átz ats See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Andoke o'ə oʔə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Waorani bo-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Hodï ye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Pumé kɔdɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tinigua hikwa See Language page Zach Burnett For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Puinave am am unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Máku te:ne te:ne See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Warao ine ine See Language page John Blaha For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Ashuar wi, wíka wi, wíka See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Huambisa wi wi See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Aguaruna wi wi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Hup ʔã́h ~ʔáh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yuhup ʔãh ~ʔah See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Dâw ãr ʔãh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Matses ë ɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Chácobo ɨ; ɨa ɨ; ɨa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yagua day daj unique See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Southern Pastaza Quechua ñuca ɲuka See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Ingá nuka nuka See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Napo Lowland Quichua ñuca ɲuka See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Quechua Ayacuchano ñoqa ɲoqa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Piaroa tjü thɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Sáliva jĩsi hĩsi unknown See Language page Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Barasano See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Cubeo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Carapana See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Desano yʉhʉ jɨ ʔɨ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kotiria yʉ'ʉ/ jʉ jʉʔʉ/ jʉ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Makuna inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yuruti jɨ́ jɨ́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Waikhana jɨ'ʔɨ jɨ'ʔɨ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Siriano yʉʉ́ jɨɨ́ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tanimuca dyiʔ'i ʎiʔ'i inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tatuyo jɨɨ jɨɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tukano yʉ'ʉ́ jɨ'ɨ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Tuyuka yɨ'ɨ jɨʔɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B. For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Waimaja dyɨ́ djɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Maihiki yi ji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Koreguaje chʉ'ʉ dʒʉʔʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Siona yɨʔɨ jɨʔɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Secoya yë'ë jɨʔ'ɨ See Language page Amanda N For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Karitiana y, ỹn, ỹnỹ ɨ, ɨ̃n, ɨ̃nɨ̃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Nheengatu ixé iʃé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kokama etse etse inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Wayampi a-; iyɛ a-; ijɛ inheritance See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Sirionó se se inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kamayurá ije ije inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Ocaina xo, xoun xo, xõɯ̃ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Nɨpode Witoto kúe kúɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Minica Witoto kúe kúɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Murui Witoto kue, ku.e kuɛ, ku.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Ninam kami-ye; ya, kamatša (EM72) kami-je; ja inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yanomam kamiyə (EM72) kamije inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Yanomami ya, kamiyə (EM72) ja, kamije inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Sanumá kamitʃa kamitʃa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Iquito qui-, cu- (before verbs beginning with /a/, quíija (stand-alone pronominal form) ki-, ku- (before verbs beginning with /a/, kíiha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Záparo ku. ku See Language page Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Wari wataʔ wataʔ See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-ya; e-ya-ya e-ya; e-ya-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Cavineña i-ke; e-ra (former is absolutive form, latter is ergative form) i-ke; e-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Central Aymara naya naya See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kwazá si si See Language page Joyce McCormick For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Movima inɬa inɬa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Trumai ha; hai; hai-ts ha; hai; hai-ts unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Kaingang inh ʔiɲ See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Suyá See Language page Rebekah Evans For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms
Djeoromitxi hü See Language page PLE For pronouns: include bound/cliticized pronominal forms where significantly different from the free forms