Tinigua

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tit
Location
2.72°, -73.77°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Tobar Ortiz, N. 2000. La lengua tinigua: anotaciones fonológicas y morfológicas. En: María Stella González de Pérez & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes (eds.), Lenguas indígenas de Colombia. Una visión descriptiva: 669-679 . Santafé de Bogotá: ICC.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Zach Burnett
and y e grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page Zach Burnett
at en, a em, a location See Language page Zach Burnett
back espalda costas body See Language page Zach Burnett
bad mal mal quality See Language page Zach Burnett
belly barriga barriga body See Language page Zach Burnett
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Zach Burnett
big grande grande quality See Language page Zach Burnett
black negro preto colour See Language page Zach Burnett
blood sangre sangue body See Language page Zach Burnett
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Zach Burnett
bone hueso osso body See Language page Zach Burnett
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Zach Burnett
child niño, niña criança human nɨzɨ See Language page Zach Burnett
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Zach Burnett
cold frío frio quality See Language page Zach Burnett
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Zach Burnett
day día dia time See Language page Zach Burnett
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page Zach Burnett
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
dry seco seco quality See Language page Zach Burnett
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Zach Burnett
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Zach Burnett
ear oreja orelha body See Language page Zach Burnett
earth/soil tierra terra environment See Language page Zach Burnett
egg huevo ovo fauna kiʔtha See Language page Zach Burnett
eye ojo olho body tsɨtɨ See Language page Zach Burnett
far lejos longe quality See Language page Zach Burnett
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Zach Burnett
father padre, papá pai kinship See Language page Zach Burnett
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
fire fuego fogo environment See Language page Zach Burnett
flower flor flor environment See Language page Zach Burnett
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Zach Burnett
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page Zach Burnett
good bueno bom quality See Language page Zach Burnett
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Zach Burnett
hand mano mão body See Language page Zach Burnett
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
head cabeza cabeça body See Language page Zach Burnett
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page Zach Burnett
how? como como grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
1sg yo eu grammar hikwa See Language page Zach Burnett
if si se grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Zach Burnett
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Zach Burnett
lake lago lago environment See Language page Zach Burnett
leaf hoja folha environment See Language page Zach Burnett
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Zach Burnett
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Zach Burnett
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tiɣa See Language page Zach Burnett
liver hígado figado body mãʔnzɨnã See Language page Zach Burnett
long largo comprido, longo quality See Language page Zach Burnett
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
man/male hombre homem human tsɨtsia See Language page Zach Burnett
meat/flesh carne carne fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
moon luna lua environment ɲiɸo See Language page Zach Burnett
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Zach Burnett
mouth boca boca body kiga See Language page Zach Burnett
name nombre nome human See Language page Zach Burnett
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Zach Burnett
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Zach Burnett
neck cuello pescoço body pajtʃisajtʃa (neck) See Language page Zach Burnett
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Zach Burnett
night noche noite time See Language page Zach Burnett
no/not no não grammar hewa See Language page Zach Burnett
nose nariz nariz body See Language page Zach Burnett
old viejo velho quality See Language page Zach Burnett
one uno um number kiʔɟe See Language page Zach Burnett
other otro outro grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Zach Burnett
person/human being persona pessoa human See Language page Zach Burnett
rain lluvia chuva environment See Language page Zach Burnett
red rojo vermelho colour See Language page Zach Burnett
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Zach Burnett
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Zach Burnett
root raíz raiz flora See Language page Zach Burnett
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Zach Burnett
sand arena areia environment See Language page Zach Burnett
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Zach Burnett
short corto curto quality See Language page Zach Burnett
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Zach Burnett
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Zach Burnett
skin piel pele body ɟoʔkwa See Language page Zach Burnett
sky cielo céu environment hãɲiːnã See Language page Zach Burnett
small pequeño pequeno quality See Language page Zach Burnett
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Zach Burnett
star estrella estrela environment See Language page Zach Burnett
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Zach Burnett
stone piedra pedra environment See Language page Zach Burnett
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Zach Burnett
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Zach Burnett
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Zach Burnett
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
2sg xx xx grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Zach Burnett
three tres tres number See Language page Zach Burnett
thunder truenos trovão environment tihiːkhi See Language page Zach Burnett
bite morder morder body See Language page Zach Burnett
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Zach Burnett
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Zach Burnett
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page Zach Burnett
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Zach Burnett
climb subir subir motion See Language page Zach Burnett
come venir vir motion See Language page Zach Burnett
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
count contar contar mental See Language page Zach Burnett
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Zach Burnett
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Zach Burnett
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Zach Burnett
drink beber, tomar beber body See Language page Zach Burnett
eat comer comer body See Language page Zach Burnett
fall caer cair motion See Language page Zach Burnett
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Zach Burnett
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Zach Burnett
fly volar voar motion See Language page Zach Burnett
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Zach Burnett
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page Zach Burnett
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Zach Burnett
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page Zach Burnett
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Zach Burnett
kill matar matar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental See Language page Zach Burnett
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Zach Burnett
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Zach Burnett
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Zach Burnett
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Zach Burnett
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Zach Burnett
say decir dizer mental See Language page Zach Burnett
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
see ver ver mental See Language page Zach Burnett
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page Zach Burnett
sleep dormir dormir body See Language page Zach Burnett
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page Zach Burnett
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Zach Burnett
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Zach Burnett
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Zach Burnett
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Zach Burnett
steal robar roubar other See Language page Zach Burnett
suck chupar chupar body tsitsi (I suck) See Language page Zach Burnett
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Zach Burnett
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Zach Burnett
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Zach Burnett
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Zach Burnett
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Zach Burnett
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Zach Burnett
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Zach Burnett
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Zach Burnett
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Zach Burnett
tongue lengua lingua body tinutsa See Language page Zach Burnett
tooth diente dente body ɟoto See Language page Zach Burnett
two dos dois number See Language page Zach Burnett
water agua agua environment See Language page Zach Burnett
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Zach Burnett
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
white blanco branco colour See Language page Zach Burnett
who? quien, quién quem grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
wife esposa esposa kinship nɨko See Language page Zach Burnett
wind viento vento environment See Language page Zach Burnett
wing ala asa body See Language page Zach Burnett
woman/female mujer mulher human ɲiʔsa See Language page Zach Burnett
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kwanoti See Language page Zach Burnett
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
foot pie body tsɨʔkiena See Language page Zach Burnett
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Zach Burnett
all todo todos other See Language page Zach Burnett
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Zach Burnett
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Zach Burnett
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Zach Burnett
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Zach Burnett
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Zach Burnett
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Zach Burnett
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Zach Burnett
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Zach Burnett
heart corazón coração body See Language page Zach Burnett
sun sol sol time See Language page Zach Burnett
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment paːŋga See Language page Zach Burnett
green verde verde quality See Language page Zach Burnett
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Zach Burnett


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. See Language page Zach Burnett
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tsɨtsɨa See Language page Zach Burnett
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Zach Burnett
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Zach Burnett
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Zach Burnett
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Zach Burnett
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Zach Burnett
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Zach Burnett
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris See Language page Not native; widespread Zach Burnett
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Zach Burnett
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Zach Burnett
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Zach Burnett
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus mako (not electric) See Language page Zach Burnett
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Zach Burnett
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Zach Burnett
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kuɟoa See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Zach Burnett
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Zach Burnett
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Zach Burnett
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Zach Burnett
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Zach Burnett
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Zach Burnett
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Zach Burnett
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Zach Burnett
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Zach Burnett
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Zach Burnett
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Zach Burnett
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Zach Burnett
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Zach Burnett
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Zach Burnett
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Zach Burnett
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Zach Burnett
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Zach Burnett
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Zach Burnett
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Zach Burnett
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Zach Burnett
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Zach Burnett
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Zach Burnett
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Zach Burnett
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Zach Burnett
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Zach Burnett
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays coːxa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Zach Burnett
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant Zach Burnett
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna kihi See Language page Zach Burnett
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Zach Burnett
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Zach Burnett
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Zach Burnett
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Zach Burnett
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Zach Burnett
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Zach Burnett
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Zach Burnett
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Zach Burnett
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Zach Burnett
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Zach Burnett
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Zach Burnett
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Zach Burnett
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Zach Burnett
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Zach Burnett
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Zach Burnett
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Zach Burnett
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Zach Burnett
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Zach Burnett
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Zach Burnett
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Zach Burnett
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Zach Burnett
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Zach Burnett
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Zach Burnett
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Zach Burnett
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Zach Burnett
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Zach Burnett
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Zach Burnett
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis See Language page Zach Burnett
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Zach Burnett
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Zach Burnett
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Zach Burnett
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Zach Burnett
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Zach Burnett
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Zach Burnett
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Zach Burnett
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Zach Burnett
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Zach Burnett
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera hameːdosa See Language page Zach Burnett
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Zach Burnett
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Zach Burnett
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Zach Burnett
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. hihãʔtha See Language page Zach Burnett
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Zach Burnett
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Zach Burnett
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Zach Burnett
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Zach Burnett
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Zach Burnett
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Zach Burnett
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Zach Burnett
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Zach Burnett
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Zach Burnett
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Zach Burnett
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Zach Burnett
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Zach Burnett
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Zach Burnett
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Zach Burnett
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Zach Burnett
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Zach Burnett
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Zach Burnett
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Zach Burnett
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Zach Burnett
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Zach Burnett
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Zach Burnett
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Zach Burnett
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Zach Burnett
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Zach Burnett
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Zach Burnett
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Zach Burnett
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page Zach Burnett
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Zach Burnett


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page Zach Burnett
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Zach Burnett
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Zach Burnett
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Zach Burnett
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Zach Burnett
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Zach Burnett
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Zach Burnett
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Zach Burnett
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Zach Burnett
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Zach Burnett
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Zach Burnett
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool wanatʃa hunting, warfare See Language page Zach Burnett
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Zach Burnett
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Zach Burnett
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Zach Burnett
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
wax cera cera other See Language page Zach Burnett
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Zach Burnett
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page Zach Burnett
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Zach Burnett
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Zach Burnett
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Zach Burnett
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Zach Burnett
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Zach Burnett
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Zach Burnett
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
salt sal sal food See Language page Zach Burnett
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Zach Burnett
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Zach Burnett
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Zach Burnett
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Zach Burnett
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Zach Burnett
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Zach Burnett
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Zach Burnett
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Zach Burnett
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Zach Burnett
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Zach Burnett
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Zach Burnett
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Zach Burnett
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Zach Burnett
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Zach Burnett
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Zach Burnett
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Zach Burnett
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Zach Burnett
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett
house other See Language page Zach Burnett