bat

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
murciélago
Meaning Portuguese
morcego

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Chiroptera spp chim'-chim bat loan Yokuts Yowlumne tsim-tsim; chim'-chim (Merriam); Wikchamni chim'-chim' same underived obvious reduplication but in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 0 1 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Chiroptera spp hono-ppiccih Bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008:58), western & Central Numic narrower (a species of bat, probably) other complex has -piccih ABS Crapo 1976:109 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla Chiroptera spp pálil ˈpalil bat (the animal) inheritance *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat”; *pata “fly” Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009:56-57 derives from *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat” (S124). But Numic and Cora all have pa[c/ch]a, which should reflect *paCtsV. -Cts- regularly yields Cahuilla /s/, not /l/. A problematic set. Note *pata “fly” S902, p. 153. same other complex pali (simplex root)-l (non-possessed noun suffix) -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 Seiler&Hioki 1979:140 no info 0 Bats are often associated with mediation with underworld, but I find no information for Cahuilla. Bat was defeated by Coyote in a gambling game (Seiler 1970:58) 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Ubiquitous, since species is not known all habitats no
Central Sierra Miwok Chiroptera spp Tipí:sis:i- bat inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi Chiroptera spp pahts'-ats pá·tsaɂatsI JPH Bat (Molossus type) inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008:56) narrower (kind of bat) other complex pá·tsaɂa-tsI bat-ABSolutive (non-possessed noun) Merriam 59:521 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno Chiroptera spp makal bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68 WW %tamakala underived Beeler 1978:179 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno Chiroptera spp mak al bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash WW %tamakala underived Klar 1977:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno Chiroptera spp mitʸala bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash WW %tamakala underived Klar 1977:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno Chiroptera spp makaL bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:88 WW %tamakala underived Merriam 55:37; JPH III:91:0391 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cocopa Chiroptera spp kwalynyaɂí· Western pipistrelle bat unique narrower (one kind of bat) underived must be complex but no analysis in source, complexity not synchronic? Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
Comanche Chiroptera spp hɨnɨbi pokaa? bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008;58), Western & Central Numic; what is pokaa? narrower (a kind of bat) phrase bat X Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cupeño Chiroptera spp machi$at ˈmaʧişat bat unique same other complex machi$a-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn); root may have derivation -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info Hill & Nolasquez 1973:161 no info 0 bats are usually significant but I find no mention 1 I doubt they were eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Esselen Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino Chiroptera spp po-vah-kaht poˈva:kat (?) bat inheritance *pɨvakaC- Takic Kitanemuk pɨvakat; “Takic” should be taken with caution because consultant was the same for Kitanemuk and Gabrielino (Mrs. Rosenmyre). But correspondence looks good. same other complex poˈva:ka-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn); root may be derived -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals at http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 0 usually significant but no information 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Iipay 'Aa Chiroptera spp milyaapan bat unique narrower (a kind of bat; another kind is milywaaw; neither identified) underived Dictionary and grammar have insufficient information to do much analysis Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu Chiroptera spp paacaɁaa-zi bat inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008):56 same other complex paacaɁaa-zi bat-ABSolutive (non-possessed noun) Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa Chiroptera spp xmcaw bat (Eptesicus fucus); large, brown unique narrower (a kind of bat) underived Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk Chiroptera spp pɨvakat ˈpɨvakat bat inheritance *pɨvakaC- Takic “Takic” should be taken with caution because consultant was the same for Kitanemuk and Gabrielino (Mrs. Rosenmyre). But correspondence w/ Gab. po-vah-kaht looks good. same other complex ˈpɨvaka-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:478 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Lake Miwok Chiroptera spp wáali bat inheritance *wirE:s Utian Callaghan 1962:102 underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Luiseño Chiroptera spp taválalakmay taʹvalalakmaj bat loan Chumash may contain vala <*patiʔa, but note also Tepiman *nakamɨri “ear-run” WW %tamakala same derived ta-válalak-ma-l; note the reduplication. Given Tepiman forms, ma-y, ma-l diminutive may be false etymology -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:920 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Maidu Chiroptera spp pótc'ode bat unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mojave Chiroptera spp qampanyq bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai qà(·)păɲqa; Yuma kwampa/nyq Halpern 1:28 same (as per source, but I'll bet it's a kind of bat) underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mutsun Chiroptera spp wireskan; shim'-te-klah bat inheritance *wirE:s ? Utian Callagan 1962:102 other complex 3-syllable stems vanishingly rare, but morphology unknown Mason 1916:427; Merriam 55:403 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nisenan Chiroptera spp aw-lel-lel, aw-lă-lĕh'; o'-le-lā; bat loan Sierra Miwok direction unknown; Note Mins 7ul:el:e- reduplicated Merriam 57:229 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute Chiroptera spp pedahana'a Bat unique unknown Yerington Dictionary 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Chiroptera spp 7ul:el:e- bat loan Yokutsan Direction unknown; Note Nisenan o'-le-lā reduplicated Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok Chiroptera spp simsi- bat inheritance *$im... Utian Callaghan 1997:30 reduplicated Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan A Chiroptera spp stamakála, stamká(:)l bat (Merriam 55:367 has first form) loan Chumash not in M; Turner 1983:225 compares Southern Chumash *makal; Note Wappo t'áka:la WW %tamakala other complex s- animal prefix; note that word structures in this very poorly-known language must be provisional at best s- animal Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan M Chiroptera spp tc'émtcem bat loan Yokuts reduplicated This is a loan, but surely the sense of reduplication carries over! Mason 1918:122 0 1 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) Chiroptera spp senelcsét c is /k/ bat unique same phrase senel- cset butterfly- frigatebird (meaning “frigatebird like a butterfly” Comcaac Dictionary 557 0 1 0 0 0 no
Serrano Chiroptera spp walu:lu-T bat unique other complex -T non-possessed noun suffix (NPN) KCHill ms 2001:62 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute Chiroptera spp pa:tcatsI Sapir's tc is ch bat inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008):56 narrower (I'm sure this is a species of bat) other complex pa:tca-tsi bat-ABS (non-possessed noun) Sapir 1930:608 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Chiroptera spp tipi:sisi- bat inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute Chiroptera spp páacą-cI bat inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008):56 same other complex has -ci ABS (non-possessed noun) Givon 1979 0 1 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal Chiroptera spp pattsāwal paʦa:ˈwal bat inheritance *paCtsV- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009:56-57 *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat” (S124). But Numic and Cora all have pa[c/ch]a, which should reflect *paCtsV. That works for this Tub set too, so I have changed Stubbs' reconstruction/. A problematic set. Note *pata “fly” S902, p. 153. same other complex paʦaˈwa-l bat-non.possessed.non (npn) (root perhaps derived, cf. paʦa- ground pine nuts) Hill 2010:66 no info 0 a story character 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
Tümpisa Shoshone Chiroptera spp honnopi large bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008:58); western & central numic narrower (one kind of bat only) other complex honno-p bat-CLi -pi Dayley 1989:26 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wappo Chiroptera spp t'áka:la bat unique Note Wintun *dehe:la (?); Salinan s-tamka:l; southern Chumash makal WW %tamakala underived Sawyer gives all nouns in object forms, which may involve deletion of root material but is the citation form prefered by his consultant Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Washo Chiroptera spp bá:gumt'álŋiɁ Bat unique phrase must be phrase, morphology unknown; note that t'álŋiɁ also appears in “eagle” Merriam 55:297; Washo Project Dict. (WPD) 0 1 0 0 0 no
Western Mono Chiroptera spp ho'nobi bat (mammal) inheritance *ho'napi Western + Central Numic Stubbs 2008:58) (126) same other complex ho'no-pi bat-CL -pi -pi, -pɨ classifiers are "individuating"; I speculate that nouns with no classifier sometimes indicate simply "substance" (as seeds-0 vs. plant -pi/-pɨ Bethel et al.:33 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
Wintu Chiroptera spp tehe:lah bat (Merriam confirms 56:3) inheritance *dehe:la (?) Wintun Shepherd 2005 relative clause deh “wings outstretched”; perhaps from *damhal “bat” with folk etymology Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yavapai Chiroptera spp qà(·)păɲqa bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave qampanyq unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami Chiroptera spp chim'-chim bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan only in Homet, Pal, Yawe in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU *şim ... same reduplicated Merriam 58:517 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Chiroptera spp tc'imtc'im bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan only in Homet, Pal, Yaw in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU * *şim ... same reduplicated Kroeber 1907:196 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Chiroptera spp chim-chim, tsim-tsim bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan onlyin Homet, Pal, Yawe in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU *şim ... same reduplicated Merriam 58:549 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuki Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuma Chiroptera spp kwampa/nyq Bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai qà(·)păɲqa unknown Merriam 61:451, Halpern 1:28 0 1 0 0 0 no
Akawaio Chiroptera spp. marbak marbak unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Chiroptera spp. píittiri, wayáamani, waaróda píit̪iɻi, wajáamani, waaɻóda inheritance Central North Arawak Also wajáamani, waaɻóda uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Chiroptera spp. rere (SM) re’re(H&R) inheritance Guyana and Makiritari/Mapoyo branches See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Chiroptera spp. oðorʉ (término genérico), cũioðorʉ, meaoðorʉ o'jó-rɨ, oðolʉ (término genérico), kũioðolʉ, mɛaoðolʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also cũioðorʉ, meaoðorʉ, o'jó-rɨ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw Chiroptera spp. bʉx bʉx inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Chiroptera spp. oyo o'jó, oyo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Chiroptera spp. ɲinke ɲinke doubtful loan, direction unknown Northern Emberá ĩŋká Emberá ĩŋká See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Chiroptera spp. hɨ́awa-t hɨ́awa-t doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami hɨwɨ, hewesi Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Chiroptera spp. ʰkʷayuwã ʰkʷayuwã doubtful loan, direction unknown Salivan, see Saliva kʷãĩxuga compare Piapoco "iwàju", Yavitero "waju" uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani Chiroptera spp. toõdæ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup Chiroptera spp. cɨb'ɨ́h cɨb'ɨ́h inheritance other complex lexicalized cV- prefix? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua Chiroptera spp. ~dʉwˀ nɨwʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Ocaina nõõɯ̃ nõõï̃, nõã́ã́ʔɸiʔtʸa underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Chiroptera spp. kamíjawat kamíhawat doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Nheengatu Chiroptera spp. andirá andirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Chiroptera spp. hewesi, hewesi, doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Nukak Chiroptera spp. nɨ̃ũʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Ocaina nõõï̃, nõã́ã́ʔɸiʔtʸa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
Maihiki Chiroptera spp. oyo aguɨ, mai oyo aguɨ ojo, ojo agɨ, mai ojo agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also mai ojo uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon Chiroptera spp. maripak (A1981); marpak (E1980) maɾipak (A1981); marpak (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Chiroptera spp. pitshíigí pitsʰíigí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Chiroptera spp. hɨwɨ bɨ (general "bats") hɨwɨ bɨ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban generic 'bat' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Chiroptera spp. jawasiri (2), jawaü [loan Piapoco?] hawasíri-to doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana Chiroptera spp. písiɾi písiɾi inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano Chiroptera spp. osó (h&r) osó (h&r) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria Chiroptera spp. so pocanairo (Waltz) so, so pokanaiɾo (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Chiroptera spp. tʰamarɨu tʰamarɨu unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomami Chiroptera spp. hewë, washo hewə (small), waʃo (large; similar to waʃə "wound") doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban hewə (small), waʃo (large; similar to waʃə "wound") underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Chiroptera spp. pijirí pihiɾí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup Chiroptera spp. wɤ̌b wɤ̌b inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Bardi Chiroptera spp lirinbiny lirinbin unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Bunuba Chiroptera spp bangali parnkali loan Jarragan loan into various; Worrorra parnkalya - source? WW %parnkal underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Burarra Chiroptera spp missing garnapinybiny unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhangu Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi Chiroptera spp missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Djinang Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng Chiroptera spp barnkalng parnkalng, inheritance parnkal Jarragan borrowed into Bu, Walm etc; also binytyirripiny WW %parnkal underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi Chiroptera spp nyumbul̠‑ nyumpurl inheritance nyumpurl Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gumatj Chiroptera spp lämbiny la:mbiny unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu Chiroptera spp wiñiwiñi gurrnyinyi unique cognate with the YNhangu word for ‘yellow’? simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gurindji Chiroptera spp parnkal parnkal loan Jarragan WW %parnkal underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr Chiroptera spp thibuul thiibuul unique underived 0 1 0 0 0
Jaminjung Chiroptera spp tyiniminy tyiniminy unknown doubtful connection to etymaset WW %tyimpirriminy underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Jaru Chiroptera spp binjirrmi pintyirrmi loan Kajirrabeng Kaj. pinytyirripiny WW %pinytyirrminy uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Jingulu Chiroptera spp marrangkutyki marrangkutyki unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Karajarri Chiroptera spp ŋariminjaminja ŋarriminyaminya unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kija Chiroptera spp pankalji pankaltyi inheritance parnkal Jarragan other complex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera Chiroptera spp MEL, MI- MI-MEL BAT inheritance *mali simplex
Kuku-Thaypan Chiroptera spp andorr andorr unique underived anhye 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji Chiroptera spp mali & jibul mali & jibul inheritance *mali pPaman Possibly, w semantic shifts, a PNy distribution underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar Chiroptera spp nthorgh nhthorgh unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre Chiroptera spp mal; minh- & nhhungk; minh- minh-mal & minh-nhungk inheritance *mali pPaman Poss. more widely distributed than Paman underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mangala Chiroptera spp cati cati loan Pilbara WW 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram Chiroptera spp adir adir unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Miriwung Chiroptera spp ban.gal pankal inheritance parnkal Jarragan WW %pankal underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngandi Chiroptera spp walgawalga walan7 unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin Chiroptera spp aman aman unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl Chiroptera spp minnaminna minyaminya loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru Chiroptera spp minje minj minye miny loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta Chiroptera spp jarti carti loan Pilbara WW underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nyikina Chiroptera spp ngaraminyaminya ngaraminyaminya loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya compound 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul Chiroptera spp minyaminy minyaminy loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Pakanh Chiroptera spp maali; minha minha-maali inheritance *mali pPaman Vowel length in /maali/ is anomalous; etymon (as 'spirit') is attested as far south as Gamilaraay. underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga Chiroptera spp warrinju warrintyu bat unknown cf “warrikku” “quickly” 0 1 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay Chiroptera spp mundji mun.ci insect-eating bat unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol Chiroptera spp albhaymal; inh- inh-albhaymal king bat unique All large species of insect-eating bats; smaller spp. are inh-othowayoway. underived underived? 0 1 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand Chiroptera spp alphaymal; inh- inh-alphaymal king bat unique All large species of insect-eating bats; smaller spp. are inh-odhowayoway. underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri Chiroptera spp pinyjirrmyi pinytyirrmiyi loan Kajirrabeng WW %pinytyirrminy underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wardaman Chiroptera spp warlang warlang unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Worrorra Chiroptera spp barn.galya barn.galya inheritance *parnkal proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu Chiroptera spp warrnyu warrnyu doubtful loan Rembarrnga simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yawuru Chiroptera spp lanbalanba XXgl northern bat lanbalanba unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yidiny Chiroptera spp munyin (TC) muñin unique Resembles Tjaap /mundji/ 'bat' underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront Chiroptera spp mal; minh- & manglh; minh- & thorn(t); minh- minh-mal & minh-manglh & minh-thornt inheritance *mali pPaman Poss. wider than Paman minh-mal: a small (as yet undentified) insectivorous bat but also poss. generic for bats (poss. incl. fruit-bats); minh-mal is also a gigantic mythic bat-creature; minh-manglh is colloquially identified as a flying fox and is possibly misidentified here. underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Achagua Chiroptera spp. híʃiri híʃiri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Chiroptera spp. iwàyu iwàju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Chiroptera spp. pít̪iri pít̪iɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena Chiroptera spp. pitʃíli (R01) pitʃíli (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Chiroptera spp. wayu waju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Mandawaka Chiroptera spp. hiʒíːri hiʒíːɾi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi Chiroptera spp. mahiye mahije unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Chiroptera spp. βi'te-ṛ̌ βi'te-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Chiroptera spp. aluwa aluwa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Chiroptera spp. kʰíkʰiíxye, kikiíye (FS) kʰíkʰiíxjɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Chiroptera spp. kíkíxe kíkíxe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Chiroptera spp. rere rere inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana Chiroptera spp. lele, lanoko lele, lanoko inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó Chiroptera spp. nere (plural) nere inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare Chiroptera spp. adu:du (small flying animal, like a bat) (KH) adu:du (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo Chiroptera spp. rere rere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Chiroptera spp. rere rere inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari Chiroptera spp. inaxixi inaʃiʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa Chiroptera spp. pichikacha pʃékaracha(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Muisca Chiroptera spp. supqua supkua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Chiroptera spp. ĩŋká ĩŋká; ĩkʰá(H&R) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cuiva Chiroptera spp. jahuatsi-to, jahuʉ-to [;oan Piapoco?] hawatsí-to, hautsí-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Cofán Chiroptera spp. quitsa kitsa See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Chiroptera spp. llómira, zoopi ntʃómiɾa, ʂoopi doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan xi:ntʃam See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro Chiroptera spp. a´cante´ aʔkantɨʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez Chiroptera spp. quize kize; khĩtse(H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna Chiroptera spp. chü4ri1 (A58) tʃɨri loan, direction unknown Aymara tʃiɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Chiroptera spp. anisihe anisihe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa Chiroptera spp. tʃimbiláko tʃimbiláko See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke Chiroptera spp. noe noe loan, direction unknown Ocaina nõõɯ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Chiroptera spp. pʰʊ̃dičʰičʰi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Chiroptera spp. tin tin unique cf. Aymara tʃiɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao Chiroptera spp. saha (kind of bat) saha (kind of bat) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar Chiroptera spp. nungkáim, jeéncham, jíncham, warásham, anchúmir, wajéng nuŋkaim, xɯ:nʧam, xinʧam, waraʃam, antʃumir, waxɯŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa Chiroptera spp. jeencham xɨ:ntʃam See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Chiroptera spp. jiíncham xi:ntʃam doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Candoshi See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses Chiroptera spp. kuesban kwesbán unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Chiroptera spp. kaši kaši inheritance cf. Paez khĩtse See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua Chiroptera spp. dichatu ditʃatu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Chiroptera spp. tuta pishcu (pishcu=ave; tuta?) tuta piʃku See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá Chiroptera spp. chimbilaku túta síki(H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Chiroptera spp. tupapishcu tupapiʃku See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Chiroptera spp. masu masu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa Chiroptera spp. kohuæ kohuæ inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Chiroptera spp. cuãĩxuga kʷãĩxuga inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano Chiroptera spp. osó osó See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana Chiroptera spp. oso ósó, ɔsɔ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna Chiroptera spp. oso oso inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti Chiroptera spp. óso óso See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana Chiroptera spp. o'so o'so See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano Chiroptera spp. oyo o'jó, o'djó, ojo See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca Chiroptera spp. odyóa oʎóa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo Chiroptera spp. ó'hó ó'hó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka Chiroptera spp. oso o'só, oso See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja Chiroptera spp. ohó ohó See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje Chiroptera spp. ocho odʒo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona Chiroptera spp. oyo ojo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Karitiana Chiroptera spp. asori asoɾi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi Chiroptera spp. anɨla anɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó Chiroptera spp. mui̯; mui̯ rusu (the latter is "vampire bat") mui̯; mui̯ rusu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina Chiroptera spp. nooun nõõɯ̃ loan, direction unknown Andoke, Kakua-Nukak See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Chiroptera spp. ǰḯni dʒɯ́ni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Chiroptera spp. ǰḯni dʒɯ́ni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Chiroptera spp. ǰïni(θï), hïdokuiño dʒɯni(θɯ), hɯdokuiɲo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Chiroptera spp. jaáti haáti inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Chiroptera spp. atari atari See Language page Becky Walker
Wari Chiroptera spp. nao' (E&K97) naoʔ (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Chiroptera spp. biɲa biɲa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Chiroptera spp. bina; maka-bina (latter is "vampire bat") bina; maka-bina See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara Chiroptera spp. chiñi čiɲi See Language page PLE
Kwazá Chiroptera spp. hoi hoi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima Chiroptera spp. ɓosin̉ ɓosin̉ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai Chiroptera spp. koioš koioš See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang Chiroptera spp. krygfèj krɨŋΦɛy See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi Chiroptera spp. beretxe beretʃe See Language page PLE