Wai Wai

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
waw
Location
1.51°, -59.14°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Hawkins, Robert. 2007. Wai Wai. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location eΦoyi; kahsɨ en-ko eΦoyi; kahsɨ en-ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
and y e grammar marha marha See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wemronho ~ wermonho wemronho ~ wermonho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
at en, a em, a location See Language page Melody Ann Ross
back espalda costas body ∅-maši-rɨ ∅-maši-rɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bad mal mal quality kičičme kičičme unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
belly barriga barriga body o-wetho-∅ o-wetho-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
below abajo, debajo abaixo location rooΦore ɲhe rooΦore ɲhe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
big grande grande quality Φorinme; Φorin Φorinme; Φorin unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
black negro preto colour či-čwi-ye či-čwi-ye unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blood sangre sangue body kamšuku kamšuku unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body erekɨ erekɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bone hueso osso body o-yočho-∅ o-yočho-∅ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breast pecho, seno peito body ∅-manatɨ-rɨ ∅-manatɨ-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
child niño, niña criança human rikomo rikomo unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cold frío frio quality t-wot-me t-wot-me inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality t-akɨh-so / yaaro t-akɨh-so / yaaro unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
day día dia time enmarɨ enmarɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dirty sucio sujo quality tu-smu-y tu-smu-y unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dry seco seco quality turΦe turΦe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ear oreja orelha body o-Φana-rɨ o-Φana-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
earth/soil tierra terra environment roowo, aΦačak-rɨ (mud) roowo, aΦačak-rɨ (mud) inheritance?; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
egg huevo ovo fauna yuhme yuhme inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eye ojo olho body oy-ew-ru oy-ew-ru inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
far lejos longe quality meye; mooše meye; mooše inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fat/grease grasa gordura body katɨ katɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
father padre, papá pai kinship yɨɨm; aa-mo yɨɨm; aa-mo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather pluma pena fauna yɨ-hΦo-či yɨ-hΦo-či unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fire fuego fogo environment wehto wehto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flower flor flor environment ∅-eΦermutu-n ∅-eΦermutu-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kaweresɨ kaweresɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fruit fruta fruta flora o-nah-rɨ o-nah-rɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
good bueno bom quality kir̃waɲhe kir̃waɲhe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body o-hΦo-či o-hΦo-či inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hand mano mão body oy-amo-rɨ oy-amo-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar noro; noro; ero noro; noro; ero inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
head cabeza cabeça body o-htɨΦɨ-rɨ o-htɨΦɨ-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heavy pesado pesado quality n-awsɨ-na-sɨ n-awsɨ-na-sɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
how? como como grammar ahče wa ahče wa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1sg yo eu grammar owɨ owɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
if si se grammar tan aw-eši-taw tan aw-eši-taw See Language page Melody Ann Ross
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ero yaw ero yaw inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
intestines intestinos intestinos body ∅-weškiriri-n ∅-weškiriri-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lake lago lago environment ɲikitho ɲikitho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leaf hoja folha environment ∅-yaa-rɨ ∅-yaa-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body Φowame Φowame inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leg/foot pierna perna body hrefu (SM) hrefu (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ΦeΦe ka-ɲe ΦeΦe ka-ɲe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
liver hígado figado body oy-ere-rɨ oy-ere-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
long largo comprido, longo quality kaw; ehyatkaw kaw; ehyatkaw unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna oyomo oyomo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
man/male hombre homem human kɨɨrɨ kɨɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
meat/flesh carne carne fauna yu-Φu-n yu-Φu-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
moon luna lua environment nuuɲi nuuɲi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship yɨ-son; noro yon yɨ-son; noro yon inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mouth boca boca body o-mta-rɨ o-mta-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
name nombre nome human oy-osotɨ oy-osotɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
near/close cerca de perto quality meye-hra meye-hra unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
neck cuello pescoço body o-Φɨmɨ-rɨ o-Φɨmɨ-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
new nuevo novo quality yašan yašan inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
night noche noite time kosope kosope inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
no/not no não grammar Φɨra Φɨra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nose nariz nariz body oy-ewna-rɨ oy-ewna-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
old viejo velho quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
one uno um number čewɲe čewɲe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
other otro outro grammar anarɨ (SM) anarɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body n-amoto-ya-∅ n-amoto-ya-∅ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
person/human being persona pessoa human tooto tooto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rain lluvia chuva environment tuuna tuuna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
red rojo vermelho colour ču-ču-re ču-ču-re inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kar̃me kar̃me unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
road/path camino caminho manufacture esama esama inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
root raíz raiz flora yi-miči-n yi-miči-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rotten podrido podre quality t-mata-ši t-mata-ši loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sand arena areia environment ašawa ašawa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality t-Φot-ke t-Φot-ke unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
short corto curto quality kaw-ra kaw-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoulder hombro ombro body o-mota-rɨ o-mota-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental yɨ-hyaΦam-ra yɨ-hyaΦam-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skin piel pele body o-hčɨΦɨ-rɨ; Φičho o-hčɨΦɨ-rɨ; Φičho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sky cielo céu environment kaaΦu kaaΦu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
small pequeño pequeno quality wahra; wahray wahra; wahray unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
smoke humo fumaça environment yɨ-sɨn yɨ-sɨn inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
star estrella estrela environment šir̃ko šir̃ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora weewe weewe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone piedra pedra environment tooΦu tooΦu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tail cola, rabo rabo body ∅-matkɨ-rɨ ∅-matkɨ-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar mošam (near); ɲešamro (distant) mošam (near); ɲešamro (distant) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality yahčo-me yahčo-me unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thin delgado fino quality pana-pe pana-pe unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
this este/esta este grammar see (SM) see (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2sg xx xx grammar amoro amoro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throat garganta garganta body ∅-eeše-∅ ∅-eeše-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
three tres tres number loan From 'two' on, the numbers are borrowed from Portuguese, English, Dutch, according to which nation the group is dwelling in. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thunder truenos trovão environment tarayi tarayi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bite morder morder body eska-kɨ eska-kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blow soplar soprar body Φuu kas-ko Φuu kas-ko unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breathe respirar respirar body oy-aΦeΦe-n oy-aΦeΦe-n unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
burn quemar queimar environment transitive: akɲi-ko, intransitive: ečakɨ-ra transitive: akɲi-ko, intransitive: ečakɨ-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body amčikɨ-ra amčikɨ-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
climb subir subir motion kayi-na-sɨ kayi-na-sɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
come venir vir motion k-mok-∅ k-mok-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cook cocinar cozinhar impact yo (SM) yo (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
count contar contar mental yu-kukno-ma-kɨ yu-kukno-ma-kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cry llorar chorar mental yɨ-wrata-ra yɨ-wrata-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cut/hack cortar cortar impact wɨ-hkoto-∅,w-aama-∅ wɨ-hkoto-∅,w-aama-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
die/be dead morir morrer state t-wayh-so t-wayh-so unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dig cavar cavar impact ahto-ko ahto-ko inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dream soñar sonhar mental o-woso-to wenwo o-woso-to wenwo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drink beber, tomar beber body erɨ-hra erɨ-hra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eat comer comer body tono-hra; aΦu-hra tono-hra; aΦu-hra unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fall caer cair motion eΦɨrka-ra eΦɨrka-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fear miedo medo mental erasɨ (SM) erasɨ (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flow fluir fluir motion nɨ-hč-e-sɨ nɨ-hč-e-sɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fly volar voar motion ari-m-ra ari-m-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grow crecer crescer state ∅-Φor̃mam-∅ ∅-Φor̃mam-∅ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hear oír ouvir mental w-enta-∅ w-enta-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hide esconder esconder motion eyam-ko eyam-ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hit golpear, pegar bater impact w-etaΦa-∅ w-etaΦa-∅ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ahsɨ-ko ahsɨ-ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
kill matar matar impact ∅-wayh-ka-kɨ ∅-wayh-ka-kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental w-eeɲa-sɨ w-eeɲa-sɨ doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
laugh reír rir mental ewre-ra ewre-ra unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion etɨ-raΦo-ko etɨ-raΦo-ko unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body wayΦɨ-ra wayΦɨ-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
open/uncover abrir abrir other ahru-nka-kɨ ahru-nka-kɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact wetaΦa oyamorɨ ke wetaΦa oyamorɨ ke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
scratch rascar rasgar impact furiki (SM) furiki (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
see ver ver mental enɨ-hra enɨ-hra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wɨ-two wɨ-two inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sit sentar(se) sentar state erema-kɨ erema-kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sleep dormir dormir body yɨ-wɨnkɨ-ra yɨ-wɨnkɨ-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body w-esunku-∅ / ∅-koto-wa-sɨ w-esunku-∅ / ∅-koto-wa-sɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spit escupir cuspir body kučΦi kasko kučΦi kasko loan Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wɨ-raka-∅ wɨ-raka-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact w-atmunk-o w-atmunk-o See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ∅-Φaraška-∅ ∅-Φaraška-∅ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state Φiiri awom-ko Φiiri awom-ko unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
steal robar roubar other ɲeɲeΦana ɲeɲeΦana inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swell hincharse inchar body tu-Φuruk-ye tu-Φuruk-ye unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swim nadar nadar motion Φere-na-sɨ Φere-na-sɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
think pensar pensar mental k-es-ehtɨno-toΦo k-es-ehtɨno-toΦo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ar̃ma-kɨ ar̃ma-kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wi-mi-u wi-mi-u inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other aknama-kɨ aknama-kɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
vomit vomitar vomitar body wenarɨ wenarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
walk caminar, andar andar motion etar̃-ko etar̃-ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
work trabajar trabalhar other et-aΦička-ra et-aΦička-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yawn bostezar bocejar body emčaΦɨ-ra emčaΦɨ-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tongue lengua lingua body ∅-ɲu-ru ∅-ɲu-ru inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tooth diente dente body o-yo-rɨ o-yo-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
two dos dois number From 'two' on, the numbers are borrowed from Portuguese, English, Dutch, according to which nation the group is dwelling in. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
water agua agua environment tuuna tuuna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kɨɨwɨ; kɨwyam kɨɨwɨ; kɨwyam inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar amna amna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wet mojado molhado quality tukre tukre inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
what? que, qué que grammar ahče ahče inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
when? cuando quando grammar ahče-maw ahče-maw unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
where? donde onde grammar ahto ahto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white blanco branco colour tu-mut-we tu-mut-we inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
who? quien, quién quem grammar onoke onoke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wife esposa esposa kinship yi-Φi-či yi-Φi-či inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wind viento vento environment očowo očowo unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wing ala asa body ∅-aΦo-rɨ ∅-aΦo-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woman/female mujer mulher human woošam woošam inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tɨ-šewe-ke tɨ-šewe-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amyamro amyamro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
foot pie body o-hta-rɨ o-hta-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ša hara ša hara unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
all todo todos other ahnoro ahnoro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ankle tobillo tornozelo body o-hrak-nu o-hrak-nu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
armpit axila, sobaco axila body oy-eyata-rɨ oy-eyata-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lung pulmón pulmão body soso soso inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sweat sudar suor, suar body k-Φeramk-wa-sɨ k-Φeramk-wa-sɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body o-skɨ-skɨ-m-e-sɨ o-skɨ-skɨ-m-e-sɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bark corteza casca environment weewe Φičho weewe Φičho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fingernail uña unha body oy-amo-šošo-n oy-amo-šošo-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heart corazón coração body čoro čoro unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sun sol sol time kaamo kaamo loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨɨΦɨ; matɨwɨ-n ɨɨΦɨ; matɨwɨ-n inheritance; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
green verde verde quality tu-škukuyu-re tu-škukuyu-re inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hot caliente quente quality očoro očoro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. rere rere inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna torowo torowo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. fawxi (SM) fawxi (SM) inheritance See Language page Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. yawke (SM) yawke (SM) doubtful loan Arawak, esp. Yavitero jukúwe See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Melody Ann Ross
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Melody Ann Ross
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukusu (SM) tukusu (SM) inheritance See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae yatura (SM) yatura (SM) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wayakuku (SM) wayakuku (SM) doubtful loan - WW? %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. xaafi (SM) xaafi (SM) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica fanacakay (SM) fanacakay (SM) unknown See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae Φotkuku Φotkuku loan - WW %motkuku See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wikoko wikoko doubtful loan, direction unknown see Sanuma kokoi; also Huambisa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kurume (SM) kurumu (SM) inheritance cf. TG urubu See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family yuruma yuruma inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba onowa (heron) onowa (heron) inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris šaΦari šaΦari unique See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis šaΦari šaΦari See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) waaxi (SM) waaxi (SM) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Melody Ann Ross
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kafayo (SM) kafayo (SM) inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wayma (SM) wayma (SM) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. watwa watwa unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus freshwater eel: kašmi freshwater eel: kašmi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna generic fish: ootɨ generic fish: ootɨ unique cf. similar form in Makiritare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pororɨ; kuuto (frog) pororɨ; kuuto (frog) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kwana (SM) kwana (SM) loan direction unknown - WW %iwana See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata šukurwa; kwaana šukurwa; kwaana inheritance cognate Makiritare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. šΦari šΦari doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura xakawa (SM) xakawa (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes okoymo (SM) okoymo (SM) inheritance snake-big' See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae fotwoymo (SM) fotwoymo (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna okoyi okoyi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox okoyi See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria wayam, kwači wajam, kwači inheritance See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Melody Ann Ross
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ašΦi ašΦi unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Melody Ann Ross
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Melody Ann Ross
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Melody Ann Ross
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mawrɨ mawrɨ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Melody Ann Ross
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens asɨsɨ (SM) asɨsɨ (SM) loan Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Melody Ann Ross
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea tɨtkoymo (SM) tɨtkoymo (SM) See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus afara (SM) afara (SM) unique See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum waywɨ (SM) waywɨ (SM) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Melody Ann Ross
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. tušma y-eΦu-∅ tušma y-eΦu-∅ unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumasa kumasa loan - WW %kumana See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) čuuΦu čuuΦu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays nasɨ-nasɨ nasɨ-nasɨ inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kamahšu kamahšu unknown See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna weewe weewe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana onomto (SM) onomto (SM) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Melody Ann Ross
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Melody Ann Ross
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Melody Ann Ross
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Melody Ann Ross
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tɨtko (SM) tɨtko (SM) See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Melody Ann Ross
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum orosɨ (SM) orosɨ (SM) inheritance - WW %eroi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Melody Ann Ross
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Melody Ann Ross
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Melody Ann Ross
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia uufa (SM) uufa (SM) loan Portuguese See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta šeere; saraΦu šeere; saraΦu inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta šeere; saraΦu šeere; saraΦu missing generic? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum faari (SM) faari (SM) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas Φaari Φaari loan cf. Yucuna pari 'sweet manioc', other Arawak terms relating to manioc See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. naaΦi naaΦi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Melody Ann Ross
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tutum (loan Sp 'tutuma'?) tutum See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Melody Ann Ross
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. awayama (SM) awayama (SM) inheritance See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Melody Ann Ross
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. umawa umawa unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae yawko (ant) (SM) yawko (ant) (SM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. yawko (ant) (SM) yawko (ant) (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis weenu weenu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria mahčaru mahčaru inheritance possible link? Carib (*)masarawa, TG *taraBe See Language page Melody Ann Ross
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tama-tama tama-tama unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera minirmomoso (SM) minirmomoso (SM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora kar̃wa (worm) kar̃wa (worm) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda maΦeΦe maΦeΦe See Language page Melody Ann Ross
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones čikiri čikiri unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea farawako (SM) farawako (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kuΦama; sɨɨko kuΦama; sɨɨko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera were-were were-were inheritance cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae makaka (grasshopper) makaka (grasshopper) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. orko (SM) orko (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. masakɨ masakɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera xemeku (SM) xemeku (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kamuxfa (SM) kamuxfa (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita okomo okomo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda Φooto Φooto unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae moyosɨ moyosɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca kamarači (cat) kamarači (cat) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. ootɨymo (SM) ootɨymo (SM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae yawari yawari inheritance - WW %jawari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis wayawaya (SM) wayawaya (SM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis saroro (SM) saroro (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu fakla (small peccary) fakla (small peccary) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari foɲko (big peccary) (SM) foɲko (big peccary) (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae waaro (SM) waaro (SM) doubtful loan, direction unknown cf. Yukuna, ET walo; possibly related to aru forms in other Carib, but 'w~ø' does not appear regular See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akri (SM) akri (SM) loan into protolg, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Melody Ann Ross
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris yɨwɨrɨ (SM) yɨwɨrɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) wiila (SM) wiila (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mukuku; čawa mukuku; čawa unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae awalku (SM) awalku (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris yayfɨ (SM) yayfɨ (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kooso; Φiškaru kooso; Φiškaru doubtful loan; unique Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaru kawaru See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material foxoro, manari (SM) foxoro, manari (SM) doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW; inheritance %panaku See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material foxoro, manari (SM) foxoro, manari (SM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kɨričiči kɨričiči unknown cf. %tulikiʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bed cama cama culture-material kuywa kujwa unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kuywa kujwa unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material aaΦo aaΦo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology samaΦora samaΦora loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology physician: k-ehčema-ɲe phjsician: k-ehčema-ɲe unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
broom escoba vassoura culture-material seʔse (SM) seʔse (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology Φoono Φoono inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fence, palisade cerco cerca other waača waača unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
firewood leña lenha other o-wehto-rɨ o-wehto-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology spirit: ekatɨ spirit: ekatɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kaan kaan inheritance In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology raatɨ raatɨ unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
knife cuchillo faca culture-material mariya marija loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page Melody Ann Ross
machete machete facão culture-material kacifara (SM) kacifara (SM) loan - WW %sipara/sapere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool yawaka jawaka inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool waywɨ wajwɨ inheritance? hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spear lanza lança subsistence tool raaΦu raaΦu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bow arco arco subsistence tool kraΦa kraΦa inheritance arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paddle/oar remo remo transport wayaΦu wajaΦu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
plate plato prato culture-material paayu paaju loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tahrem, er̃Φoči tahrem, er̃Φoči inheritance?; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tutum tutum unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool inheritance agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maraka maraka loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Melody Ann Ross
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maaɲi (SM) maaɲi (SM) loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
honey miel mel food weenu weenu inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ruuΦu ruuΦu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material mɨɨmo Φo-či mɨɨmo Φo-či unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology aroko aroko missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology yɨ-sΦo-ma-čho jɨ-sΦo-ma-čho See Language page Melody Ann Ross
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
school escuela escola acculturation eskora eskora unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paper papel papel acculturation karita karita loan Span/Port 'carta' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology woso (vb.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kapikara kapikara loan - WW %kara See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology iyočho y-ewta-rɨ ijočho j-ewta-rɨ missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation Φaranči Φaranči inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saaya saaya loan Port/Span saia See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoes zapatos sapatos dress kɨ-hta-rɨ kɨ-hta-rɨ loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [sowtatu]; [soča]; [surati] [sowtatu]; [soča]; [surati] loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cat gato gato acculturation kamarači kamarači unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation uhre 'weapon' uhre 'weapon' semantic shift from 'weapon' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hat sombero chapéu dress šaΦika šaΦika loan? Port chapeu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kayaritomo kajaritomo unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool watma watma missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool xapopo ʃapopo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
salt sal sal food yɨmɨtɨ jɨmɨtɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology waano waano inheritance shared Eñepa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wayaΦamsɨ wajaΦamsɨ unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food anɨmɨ (SM) anɨmɨ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hunt cazar caçar food k-es-etak-e-sɨ k-es-etak-e-sɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wooto (SM) wooto (SM) inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tutum tutum unknown Carib source of Spanish totuma? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool xmaari (SM) xmaari (SM) inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool aaku aaku inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ak ɲiyo ak ɲijo missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture Φučukwa, kawaši-ye-m Φučukwa, kawaši-je-m unknown; inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kwašarɨ kwašarɨ unique agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food čuure čuure semantic shift cf. 'manioc' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food šeere; saraΦu šeere; saraΦu semantic shift cf. 'manioc' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food kwahsɨ kwahsɨ inheritance? shared Eñepa word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool manari; tuuwa manari; tuuwa inheritance; unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool karaΦa karaΦa inheritance can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool kamina; šiika kamina; šiika inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
house other mɨɨmo mɨɨmo inheritance cf. Makiritare See Language page Melody Ann Ross