scratch

Semantic Field
impact
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
rascar
Meaning Portuguese
rasgar

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone -kittuih, unknown Jane Hill
Cahuilla -saluk-H149 inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi coo/n7a unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno e7e, 7ixwa B78 unknown Mithun 1997:232 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno aqulu A 238 inheritance A 238 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno stYi unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno tiqul unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa Lyqshaq; Sxwany (an itch) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Comanche tsakwo7nery “scratch an itch” unique Jane Hill
Cupeño salakw-in [səˈlakʷ] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen hasho/wi- loan direction unknown Shaul 1995:217 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa hesak [xəˈsaq] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu ca-we7e “scratch an itch” unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa s-7+xwal, xwaal “scratch at”, maat p-c+khip, /maat p-s+min “scratch body (dog)”, p+khil-t waa waqu “scratch (arse)”, x_kwiiyr-p “w/ claws” unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk shym inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok Se/eka inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño $okapa~i inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu c'y/wak inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave saqwaq= (as cat) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun haska, hassa “scratch an itch” loan direction unknown O77:121 Jane Hill
Nisenan syk'yj inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute wongi unknown Nichols 1974:343 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok Tisy:j-y- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok cu:ju-, unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A (k)uptun (S), (k)uptinil “scratch”; unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cota/xim , unknown Jane Hill
Serrano waTu-7 unknown Jane Hill
Southern Paiute -ung7wai- to scratch (needs inst pref) unique Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok we:T- (a person), inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute chaa7na unique Jane Hill
Tübatulabal owookin unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone -siiwah inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ch'ath-i7 loan E1993 Jane Hill
Washo 7EbE i/c'ush unknown J532 Jane Hill
Western Mono tsabo7i- unknown Jane Hill
Wintu luka: unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai tmo/: unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi k'uyuk 249 unknown K07:249 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne xosop unknown N1944 Jane Hill
Yuki k'o:t-, k'ot'- inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa tshawa tshawa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona itʃitʃinənə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo ãcʉricʉ ãkɨɾikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw xâák [xep – scrape e.g. manioc] xə̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ñahguiriñe jajguiɾije inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa rë'ka, ërë'ka rǝʔka, ǝrǝʔka inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hup kokoj-, hæp- kokoɟ-, hæp- unknown; inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi kaʔnama (SM) kaʔnama (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu çuruka (~torn) suɾuka (~torn) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tikoka (EM72) tikoka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki sasuyi sasuji unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon kararika (A1981); ikoriripütü (M2000) kaɾaɾika (A1981); iko:ɻoɻi:pɨ'tɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro khová?-khú kʰováʔ-kʰú missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá tikoko (EM72) tikoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani iriba (2), irita (2), kasiba (2), katita (2) unknown; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana sáwa sáwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano jãʔké, bɨá jãʔke jãʔké, bɨá jãʔke inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria ñacana; waquĩ nina (all Waltz) jakana; wakĩ nina (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam kikoka (EM72) kikoka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami (si) hukëkaɨ, hukëkëaɨ, (si) tikokaɨ, tikokoaɨ (si) hukəkaɨ, hukəkəaɨ, (si) tikokaɨ, tikokoaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna jarípa'akaje, sarípa'akaje harípaʔakahe, sarípaʔakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup cæ̃w' ~cæw' semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana mirra- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi wirr -joo- (tr) wirr -ju- (dr) inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba warirr- unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra wirrka loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
Dhangu dhe'thiyun unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal wirrk Claire Bowern
Dhuwala wirrk unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari murruwa inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU miranta inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu wirrk Claire Bowern
Djapu wirrk unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang yirrachi-gi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng yigarr unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi wirrij- loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu wirrk inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji yikarrp ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr -gand- [magandan] -kand- [makandan] inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru bangi- inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri wer-ēdj inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija kirrkirr unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: mira- loan Karnic Claire Bowern
Mangala rlacu Claire Bowern
Miriwung yigarr unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra warra Claire Bowern
Mudburra karal loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini mirapana inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi rdey'-dhu loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma yirrba(-gu) unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl tchabboo-tchabboo <tchabboo-tchabboo> unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi mirra inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru wer-djon wer-jon inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla rlacu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta wirirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina laboorr laburr unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul kede kede nanareo kede kede nanarreo unique Claire Bowern
Paakantyi maṛa-maṛa- loan Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta nyinta inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu wirryun inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri karlala- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru nhinta- inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa waarru ngambanyjina XXngl scratch I did to myself. waarru ngambanyjina unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy arla, lhirrida unknown Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu galŋa-waṉpuma unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha mirra, mirramirra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi mirra- inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka mirari inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru dyaddyad + jajad + inheritance Claire Bowern
Piapoco íwíaca íwíaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana kɨzɨt kɨzɨt unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi halalaka halalaka unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure torič- toritʃ- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Bora dójórɨúcu (T98) tóxórɨɯkʰɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane dúnucɨhi (W97) dúnukɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio chiichiikma, ekkanöbang (oneself) tʃi'tʃiʔma, ɛʔ'kanöbaŋ (oneself) inheritance; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai ixihkãko ixihkãko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana puklët puklǝt unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó wai wai unique See Language page Becky Walker
Wai Wai furiki (SM) furiki (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari -kaka- -kaka- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ojekárapo, serie See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca bcoiquesuca βkoikesuka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá kuruí kuruí See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan kachín inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán dequiañe dɛkyiaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Páez yose yose See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nangáo (Alv44) nangáo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hwaʉitu, hjʉsi hwaʉitu, hjʉsi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke fə́ʌ́ ɸə́ʌ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé tüká kǫarí kǫarí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-het] (scrape) het unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar méejatrin mɨ:xatrin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa naunchikiatsa nauntʃikiatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna nanchikít nantʃikit inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses shuan ʃuan unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua jmuniyẽ xmunijẽ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua aspina aspina See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá aspii aspii See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua aspina aspina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano achipiy, aspiy atʃipij, aspij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ka'rEuh kaɁræuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva tõãhñajaha tõãʔɲahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Makuna waje-re waxe-ɾe unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Koreguaje ko'rʉmʉ koʔrʉmʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Secoya co'rë kɔʔrɨ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana sik sik unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi amokekei (O78) amokekei (O78) unknown See Language page PLE
Sirionó quiareɨ~, iʃã (aɨʃã) (P85) kiareɨ~, iʃã (aɨʃã) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá torok (M2000) torok (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina caayi kaaji unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto jiiruite, jiitade hiiruitɛ, hiitadɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito arisiini arisiini inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo arishunu aɾiʃunu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari pixac (E&K97) piʃak (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Cavineña arañar (C&L89) araɲar loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ch´iyjana tʃʔijxana See Language page PLE
Kwazá erewe-, kakanĩ-, kay-, wiri- erewe-, kakanĩ-, kay-, wiri- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima huaɨna (to scratch somethinɡ) (J62) huaɨna See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha) ɨen (ha) ɨen unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang jarn ke yaɾn ke See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi piriri piriri See Language page PLE