Yukpa

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yup
Location
9.68°, -73.06°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. (1992). Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist. Robayo, Camilo 2000a. Introducción al estudio de la lengua yupo o yukpa. In María Stella González de Pérez & María Emilia Montes Rodríguez (eds.), Lenguas indígenas de Colombia: una visión descriptiva: 709-717. Santafé de Bogotá: ICC. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo Vegamian, Félix María de 1978. Diccionario ilustrado yupa-español, español-yupa, con onomástica y apuntaciones gramaticales. Guarenas/Caracas: Formateca.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location otanasa´yapo, e´payo, epayi, yona, yopaí, yopaye, kitkayuna See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
and y e grammar ech, e´tpara, e´tparat, e´tpari See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
at en, a em, a location akcho, akcho´mako, in, ina, nach, ojcho See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
back espalda costas body kujto, müka, mueka, muekacho, oka, onka, yinka, yüka, yümoja, yümosa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bad mal mal quality waye (SM) waye (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
belly barriga barriga body See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
below abajo, debajo abaixo location pepena, yotpayi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
big grande grande quality sorpe pʂki'to (human) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
black negro preto colour korocha, korochi ko'ts̺ots̺a See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
blood sangre sangue body mino dʒu'muts̺u See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body karakane, kara´kane See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bone hueso osso body ejbu dʒadʒiwu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
breast pecho, seno peito body yubántare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
child niño, niña criança human kajcha, kampsi maʂukapa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cold frío frio quality koye kodʒepe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ayinopnecha, jetáhera, jetájeraya, muej, namoraska, ochore, ochuru, senar, setáseranye, sénar, sévar, yai, yaye, yayempe, yayino, yayonopo, yupuke, yupunkanap See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
day día dia time anova anowa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dirty sucio sujo quality kemama, kuku, küma See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dry seco seco quality sansan (SM) sansan (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality pöjtenkano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dust polvo poeira environment véramsa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
ear oreja orelha body apana dʒipana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
earth/soil tierra terra environment kúsunche nono See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
egg huevo ovo fauna márbamüre dʒi'neᵖts̺in See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
eye ojo olho body yanu dʒanu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
far lejos longe quality isotubüprecha, näpa, naipa, náipaj, náipara, nápatro, naspa, naspámako, panape, panapö, taroma, taromapra See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fat/grease grasa gordura body somuka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
father padre, papá pai kinship epmo dʒi'mo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
feather pluma pena fauna yabükü dʒupu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fire fuego fogo environment étav weta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
flower flor flor environment pejoya, pesoso, rore, uepejojo, vipisoso, yepeso, yupejo, yupeso, yupiso See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kamurpe, kamúrope, virasku See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fruit fruta fruta flora uepüri, viüpüre, yopüre, epürö See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
good bueno bom quality patuma ku'ts̺e See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kupko, meje dʒunse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hand mano mão body oma dʒoma See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ake, aki, márak ots̺ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
head cabeza cabeça body ábara, abásaret dʒiwasa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
heavy pesado pesado quality komójera, komóijira, komosi, kómosi, komoské, tomós, tomosi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
how? como como grammar maisi, ot, otask, otaska, otatka, otasere, otna, otnái See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
1sg yo eu grammar abe, au a'wi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
if si se grammar pip See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location yantaya, yota, yotano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
intestines intestinos intestinos body yubi, yupeje, ipójet See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
lake lago lago environment kunayuatpö, kunayubatpöpö See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
leaf hoja folha environment dʒats̺e See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body maicho See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
leg/foot pierna perna body jauna, pitchi, sako, uaunuj, yusi, yuse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tapana, tükara See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
liver hígado figado body ítore dʒi'wats̺uts̺o See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
long largo comprido, longo quality busane, misene, misine, muenere, mujen, müjénera, vivisene See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kuaye See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
man/male hombre homem human atene, küpa kipa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kupuko dʒipu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
moon luna lua environment kuno See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship icha dʒiʂa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
mouth boca boca body meyaka dʒintana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
name nombre nome human eje dʒose See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
near/close cerca de perto quality mana, manaran, manara See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body yöpöme, yöpömö, yujure, yujaka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
neck cuello pescoço body pɨmɨ (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
new nuevo novo quality kus̺pa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
night noche noite time koko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
no/not no não grammar esma, open, mu, oteya, per, pera, pi, prac, praya, pü, sra, taré, ua, uané, uanek, va, vampermak, vánek See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
nose nariz nariz body ínapsa, ona dʒona See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
old viejo velho quality atüne pe'nano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
one uno um number etobe ku'mats̺ko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
other otro outro grammar eteri See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ensermó, etuch, etuche, etucha, etué, etuncha, itoche, ituche, neispo, uekpo, vainech, vaye, yase See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
person/human being persona pessoa human yukpa (SM) yukpa (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
rain lluvia chuva environment kiopo, kiyopo, kiyopio See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
red rojo vermelho colour isuncha pa'tuma See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kicho See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
road/path camino caminho manufacture ejéneri o'sema See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
root raíz raiz flora isírapre, uéichit dʒi:ʂe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
rotten podrido podre quality tekói, tikói, tikope, tueme See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sand arena areia environment jájare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jiyit, peneyipta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
short corto curto quality také See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
shoulder hombro ombro body omoto, yimoto, mota, yumota, jüjka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental piripmako See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
skin piel pele body pichoro dʒuʂts̺u See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sky cielo céu environment kabo, masitematpo, obata, obayauicho See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
small pequeño pequeno quality kika kʂenʂe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
smoke humo fumaça environment eraku we'ts̺asku See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
star estrella estrela environment siku s̺eku See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ué, vean, vi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
stone piedra pedra environment to See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tail cola, rabo rabo body yabuke dʒawi'ki See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
that ese/esa esse grammar aksha (SM) aksha (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar o'ka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
thin delgado fino quality tän, entane, enti, tenn, tön, tukano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
this este/esta este grammar mais, márak maʂ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
2sg xx xx grammar am, amo, ejpue amo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
throat garganta garganta body uoro, boro, yubotoko, yüboro, yüpömö, yupomo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
three tres tres number kóer ko'sets̺a See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
thunder truenos trovão environment kuruk, noskrota, okato, tapana, tampana, toin, tukruyi, toyi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bite morder morder body ja´skapo, jejeka, naksa, ocheska´t, osiskata, sakte, seseka, sesika, soko, tesika, tisaí, yeska, yeskapmak See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
blow soplar soprar body somma, iso´mapo, iso´mapok, tisoma See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
breathe respirar respirar body eramsi, irampsi´taop, oramse, samako´, yorampsi, yoransi, yoranse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
burn quemar queimar environment ja´pomak, sapoma, sapuma, suchkata, tana, teka, toreka, turiyi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body satpu, soko, sostopa, tisai See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
climb subir subir motion kivana, nonako, nonoke, ono´kepo, onoko, onokpo, suksa, yüponok, yuponoko, yüponotko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
come venir vir motion antka, chaktama, chatama, ekaptama, anespa, kaktama, meta, mutata, nampa, namtama, nupenta, nüpenta, nupe´ntato, oyi, oyaranma, penta, pentase, pe´ntasen, sar, sata, satama, satan, sa´tasa, sayitakma, sayitata, sayitatme, senatupemta, tam, tama, tasen, ta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
count contar contar mental ɨpɨte (SM) ɨpɨte (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cry llorar chorar mental chinímako, chiti, mamona, osini, misukme, sena, sepme, simepome, simpürecho, sin, sine, sinebra, sini, sinokna, sinmak, sisne See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cut/hack cortar cortar impact junko, jujko, jütkapo, kámpsimak, kántimak, narek, nariksi, pensusku, punku, sujti, sujtipi, sukté, sukti, tetke, tukje, tukte, tarik, tukesi, utitpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
die/be dead morir morrer state ekatpo, nekká tuweka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dig cavar cavar impact jünkak, suka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dream soñar sonhar mental nosekatma, ojékatmapo, okáperta, okáperat, tükremá, vüsempe, yübosetpe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
drink beber, tomar beber body sénak tensase See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
eat comer comer body énape tu'wes̺epa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fall caer cair motion antapoma, atana, atapo, nata, na See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fear miedo medo mental jame, kore, öpönsi, piripe, piripi, sasme See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fly volar voar motion ti'wanse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
grow crecer crescer state natüpi, samaya, atone, atüne See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hear oír ouvir mental pémetak te'ta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hide esconder esconder motion jómak, seprarko, soma, tépsera, yeprarko, yiprarko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hit golpear, pegar bater impact jünkacha, kichkoyuna, kuyúbira, maipo, matape, osikosa, sebo, sökocha, tichoka, tinkrucha, tésispa, urutka, yipsuraka, yubu, yúbura, yúkachara See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other japucha, yepapo, yupakö See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
kill matar matar impact etoka, nechókata ts̺ts̺oka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental oratka, vau See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
laugh reír rir mental auare, ojente, osénikepo, nosenke, sinki, yuáprono See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion töuinje See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ochne See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
open/uncover abrir abrir other echo, etapka, satapka, sékaipo, sestatka, setapka, setápkak, sütapka, tetapka, tötaptka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact néveksa, núvesta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
say decir dizer mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
scratch rascar rasgar impact ojekárapo, serie See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
see ver ver mental ésare, kóyene tense See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact titáyaje, tubiri, tubiriri, tubirirmo, yiposeseremo, yüpjejmpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sit sentar(se) sentar state etötasa, etekta, etétapo, etöta, neteta, etétasa, itateta, ratatka, rata, urata, tueteta, tuítita, tustas, tuta, tutare, tüta, untütak, yeteta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sleep dormir dormir body atunka, näse nikse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body jümujke, sumuske, turakie, türakümak See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
spit escupir cuspir body etasta, íntaku, tintájere, ótakta, úntatapo, tujentakta, ütata See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact maijuku, echásmak See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jerempku, säterma, serenka, serenko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sutipo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
steal robar roubar other aschkuri, askurisie, askurma, achkorpa, askore, achkore, amotkamabaramómak, mekaktu, momak, nojka, noma, nomatá, oranaut, sekase, sikarsi, yünekaro See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
suck chupar chupar body saipómako, saisie, saisiye, suipak, suvine, suvini, éinata, emata, noporano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
swell hincharse inchar body abrópamak, aurópepok See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
swim nadar nadar motion kunípayi dʒo'popadʒe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
think pensar pensar mental ayáinata, otoaya, otobaya, sémase, vasastama, yubayátapo, yobayen átapok See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact járkaj, nai, naya, nayának, saijpo, samuiku, sasia, saya, sáyapo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact jincho, kürü, oyemsa, sapucha, tinji, tinsi, tisi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other atabrémapo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
vomit vomitar vomitar body sákapo, setaka, tubénara, tubinari, tuena, uéntapok, véntapo, yubenare, tubénare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
walk caminar, andar andar motion nai See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
work trabajar trabalhar other kanepa, tomare, temare, tarajuar, tomakare, tomákare, tosera, seposa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
yawn bostezar bocejar body supre See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tongue lengua lingua body jökónatre, kunetriko dʒipota See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tooth diente dente body kiyi dʒiʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
two dos dois number koja, kósar kosa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
water agua agua environment ku'na See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ejpe epi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
wet mojado molhado quality patan pa'taka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
what? que, qué que grammar o'ta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
when? cuando quando grammar totpe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
where? donde onde grammar oyépak, oyipa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
white blanco branco colour prampa kests̺e See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
who? quien, quién quem grammar no noʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
wife esposa esposa kinship enespa, epairo, ícharse dʒi'tawno See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
wind viento vento environment koi, koyis, koyira, poschu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
wing ala asa body yapo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
woman/female mujer mulher human aminchatuna, borépape wo'ts̺epa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
yellow amarillo amarelo colour arábompa, arábopa, arábupi ta'kupa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amora a'mots̺a See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
foot pie body ninse dʒuse See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar chotpi´n, ep, epe, etpa, etpe, yakavno, isarpa, narpa, nasirik, ochorpa, sa´kar, sarpa, yepe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
all todo todos other kontutu, tuara, oropka, osestaorko, povo, tome, tuane´, tubara, tubaraespa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
ankle tobillo tornozelo body mikiri See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
armpit axila, sobaco axila body au´ta, ya´buta, yabutata, yabustata See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ueka, uékapo, vika, vikasa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
lung pulmón pulmão body yobapku, yobapkuku, yuorérampsi, tatpoyubasare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sweat sudar suor, suar body pravichoyupo, vichobaspo, vichoa, vichoyüpo, uichómpera, yupusintatpo, teraki See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bark corteza casca environment okóchare wepʂo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fingernail uña unha body emásuru See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
heart corazón coração body ókano dʒi'wats̺ts̺uts̺u See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sun sol sol time uicho wets̺u See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment dʒowa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
green verde verde quality chape, sipe s̺epa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hot caliente quente quality oúatpo tu'mes̺ne See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. pichikacha pʃékaracha(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna peshu (SM) peshu (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. karúka, koméra (H&R) See Language page Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. koajka ʃáʔtre (+kowáʃkɨ, kũráʔrɨ, kowáskɨ, H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae kojatia See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae kuijna kúʃimo (H&R) See Language page Widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kotre kórʃe, jan ʃɨ́tɨne ('owl', H&R) See Language page Widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. sareya (SM) sareya (SM), saréja (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica vaucha wápʃe (H&R) See Language page Widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae arame (SM) arame (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kurumachu (SM) kurumachu (SM) okósja (H&R) See Language page Widespread South America Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pato (Spanish loan) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba sabre See Language page Widespread South America Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sakurare (SM) sakurare (SM) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris peru pets̺u See Language page Not native; widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ársimo arókamɨ (large), arókaʃe (small) (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kamájiru kamáʃru(H&R) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. uaí See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariye aréje ('cayman', H&R) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Phon only in source Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna poshe (SM) po'ʂe; póʃe (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ayujpa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kupetchu (SM) kupetchu (SM), pókwo, kopéstʃo (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ayamaka ajámaka (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata kunájiri kunáhiri See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. maschi mastʃi See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura bayáramo bajáramo See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes samámu (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kiripo ko'nena See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox tɨ-máraka (=tu-máraka, H&R) See Language page Widespread South America Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria morokü, morokuo morókwe (H&R) See Language page Widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis jape hape See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page Phon only in source prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon Phon only in source may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps Phon only in source trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kuamo, kubamo, karana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests Phon only in source palm Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea teua See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source palm Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua koruba See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia Phon only in source may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca áji(H&R) áji(H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mabu mabu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation Phon only in source plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas Phon only in source tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens jari káka(‘chili pepper’, H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus pita pita See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum weshra (SM) weshra (SM); wéʃeʃ (‘cane’, H&R) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. kuratana (SM) kuratana (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) pawa (SM) pawa (SM); wóʃe (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ipistapó, míʃk( r) meʔ (H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tápak tápa(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ve wepsa; we ('tree, stick', H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana onóto(H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens Phon only in source shrub Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens Phon only in source tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil Phon only in source tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. Phon only in source tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens Phon only in source tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana mamón mamón See Language page widespread lowland SA Phon only in source shrub Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page Phon only in source large tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Phon only in source tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions Phon only in source other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times Phon only in source a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta po po ('general', H&R) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Phon only in source Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated b Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere Phon only in source No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum chak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation Phon only in source compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas sak ʃaʔkrúwa(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ɲáme See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kui, pʃáʃk kuná-ka-to-po ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens Phon only in source plant; tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. chiminia See Language page secondary forest, floodplain Phon only in source vine Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. wɨsa ( r) wɨsa ( r) See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation Phon only in source shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW Phon only in source vine Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ʃɨtáko, krótota (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata kɨshasha (SM) kɨshasha (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. keyabu kejabu See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis apúchare mɨ̃káma (‘large, yellow species, H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kérasu kérasu See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kanashwe (SM) kanashwe (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kánachue See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones akúrichi, akúriti/e See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea áname, tebre See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kẽʃépo(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera kɨyaku (fly) (SM) kɨyaku (fly) (SM); kɨjã́ku, eréji (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pusuna pusuna See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. korükü korɨkɨ See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. kasapana (SM) kasápana (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kumeshu (SM) koméʃu(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea jaja haha See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita masaya (SM) masaya (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda suru (SM) suru (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae araya arája(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca esho (SM) esho (SM); éʃo(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arishav (R95) aréʃawo (’howler monkey’, H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons sürürü; shirdë (R95) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus poroto (R95) poróto (‘spider monkey’, H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae yare (SM) yare (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis petara petara See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis sarora sarora See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kapo (SM); páranshánpásha (R95) kapo (SM) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kúsara See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. kasare (SM) kasare (SM), kasáre (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris matoya (R95) matoja (R95) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ójtutrí (R95) ójtutrí (R95) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus atusa atusa See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kírikri kírikri See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris arare (SM) arare (SM); aráre(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus amusa amúʔʃa(H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material menure (SM), pitaka menure (SM), pitaka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material pitaka pitaka See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mokɨ (SM) mokɨ (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bed cama cama culture-material nesko nesko See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material nöjpo nɔhpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ititakpo, ötétapo, sátatpo ititakpo, ötétapo, sátatpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
canoe canoa canoa transport kanova kanova See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tampora tampora See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tuwano (SM) tuwano (SM) In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
broom escoba vassoura culture-material obayometpo obayometpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology aropa (SM) aropa (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fence, palisade cerco cerca other masísetupre masísetupre may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
firewood leña lenha other ueta ueta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology terepko, yorampsi terepko, jorampsi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Máipor 'God' Máipor 'God' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology timi timi multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology anuene, ichpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
knife cuchillo faca culture-material panaku (SM) panaku (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
machete machete facão culture-material masete masete See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ascho, vasa, uacha astʃo, vasa, uaʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mikuirsi mikuirsi hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mayara jiyákepö (mayara 'long stick'+jiyákepö 'ready' majara hijákepɔ (mayara 'long stick'+jiyákepö 'ready' See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bow arco arco subsistence tool bákara bákara arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
plate plato prato culture-material pɨratu (SM) pɨratu (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool paschik, pasi pastʃik, pasi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material pisa ('taza') pisa ('taza') See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kuscha kustʃa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
wax cera cera other vanomapúchare (vano 'honey') βanomapúʃare (vano 'honey') See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
honey miel mel food uano uano only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mejena, mekate, misine mehena, mekate, misine See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kuamo, kubamo, karana kuamo, kubamo, karana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology sokɨ (SM) sokɨ (SM) a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
school escuela escola acculturation otuámpapo, papirtana otuámpapo, papirtana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kaneka, tötüria kaneka, tɔtɨria See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
paper papel papel acculturation papiru papiru See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tükremá See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
chicken gallina galinha acculturation karén, orisa, tókropa karén, orisa, tókropa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology jünkapo, súkape, tonare jɨnkapo, súkape, tonare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other túsuki See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation anisi, asuka, jen, sésare anisi, asuka, hen, sésare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material aropakano aropakano See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
policeman polícia policía acculturation kurip sené, porihia, porisia See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
cat gato gato acculturation kato (domesticate) kato (domesticate) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation chupeta ʃupeta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hat sombero chapéu dress pejoba, pesoba pehoba, pesoba See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology yubatpue jubatpue See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool némak némak See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
salt sal sal food pam pam See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology yomaikö jomaikɔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pɨhp (SM) pɨhp (SM) esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kiristaese kiristaese See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
hunt cazar caçar food mabatókane, peʂaese (Robayo) mabatókane, peʂaese (Robayo) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food yeki ('animal') jeki ('animal') Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool piche, kuná-ka-to-po ('gourd', H&R) piʃe, kuná-ka-to-po ('gourd', H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool characha ʃaraʃa esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool arapa [?] arapa [?] See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture oárinta, kusara oárinta, kusara prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food yetatka ('bread') jetatka ('bread') usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool kome, uesárake, yínosar ('veneno') kome, uesárake, jínosar ('veneno') hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
house other nöjpo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross