below

Semantic Field
location
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
abajo, debajo
Meaning Portuguese
abaixo

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim um-hul'-luk “down” 217 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tukku-nankwa”(-ttyn) inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla pe/-tuk (under) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7a:la- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi -ruka "under" (loc) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno mishup “down, below (in Wash 2001;71)” inheritance Ono 1996:44 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno kHtoton “low” (initial -) unknown Klar 1977:14, 129 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno hi mi-shup “down, under” inheritance A434 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ti-L-himu7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno -ma7am unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa maTk inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche -tuhka "under" inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño te- [tɨ] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen huhuwai “under” unknown T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
Gabrielino tongko, tongo:ko inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'eyaak [Ɂəˈjaˑq] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu -dukwa, rukwa inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa puq unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk py(y7)htuk inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok doka/awi unique Jane Hill
Luiseño to:-ngax inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu 7oby/nno unknown Jane Hill
Mojave 7amat inheritance etc. Jane Hill
Mutsun minmuy unknown O77:56 Jane Hill
Nisenan k'awnandi inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pitami “down, below” inheritance Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7olow:it inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok wanit unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A la:/ko (A), “down, below” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M lak' unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hant “down” (= “earth”) unknown Jane Hill
Serrano puhtk “below it”, nuhtk “below me” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tuq:wa-G “under” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute -tukwa "under" inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal omholok, omholokaa-n “under” inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tukkwan inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo 7oph ph is on same line unknown Jane Hill
Washo i/lm unknown J339 Jane Hill
Western Mono -duhe "under" inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu ken loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai ya:l “under” unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami huplew “down” unique JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi atit “down, low, below” inheritance K07:245, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne 7atil inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
Yuki ha.:hen, ha,:m, hahm unknown S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma maxa/k H3:211 “underheath” unknown Jane Hill
Baniwa áapirhe áapirhe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Cubeo cãchinoi; yebai kãʧinoi; jebai unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw bʉʉ́t bɨ̌t  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano doca doka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa yeʔɲe; yehkə (IDS) jeʔɲe; jehkə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï kʰiaka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani gæ-epo-dẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup mɨ̌ʔ ~bɨ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi yepoi (IDS) yepoi (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu yawika ('to lower') jawika (to 'lower') unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Maihiki uibɨ ja uibɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon non bo (A1981); yoknoo (E1977) non bo, (A1981); ʎɔʔnɔ (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro hipóo hipóo unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sikuani büxü (2) bɨ́xu unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Kotiria docai; docabᵾ (all Waltz) dokai; dokabᵾ (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomami yahatoto ha(mɨ) jahatoto ha(mɨ) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kawakó kawakó unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Arabana thuRu unique Claire Bowern
Bardi baybirri baybirri inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba baburru inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwal [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwala rol unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari turu loan Arabana Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang ṉambiḏi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng yiligi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi baabirri inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu rol unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji kanyjal inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru gani- inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi jimpen jimben inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri 3865 inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija yilak inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa wirinungka unique Claire Bowern
Mangala kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung yiligin inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka kaltyuRu unique Claire Bowern
Mudburra jadurr Claire Bowern
Mudburra kanyju- inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini ngarini inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi gardi inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma gardangga Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl jinbin <jinbin> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi -pundhi unique Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla kaniny Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta martukurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta kaniny-karti inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina jimbin; jurdug jimbin; jurduk inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul jumbin jumbin inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi miŋgada Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kawurrhu unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ŋoyŋa Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu dhirripi inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru karntu inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa jidlarra; jadawaa jadawaa inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy lhirribala loan Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ḏilak-wuḏup'thana Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ngari, pandhi inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka ngari inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru jimbin jimbin inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua káinakula káinakula inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cáliacubáata káliakubáata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena epine epine See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero jajlíye hahlíye See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana [-]waranɨ ii [-]waranɨ ii unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi katyahe katyahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure pai-; poe- pai-; poe- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá -tepɨ -tepɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora baá (T98) paá inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane guííno, báavɨ (W97) gííno, báavɨ (W97) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio iidoknoo, diioknoo i'dɔʔno, 'dioʔno inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai muahtaka muahtaka unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana lomok lomok unique See Language page PLE
Makiritare doʔnə (IDS) doʔnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo to'nekiri to'nekiri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai rooΦore ɲhe rooΦore ɲhe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari iky 'under' ikɨ 'under' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa pepena, yotpayi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo isupoŋa; ofiña (both listed as 'beneath') isupoŋa; ofiña (both listed as 'beneath') unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca hicha- hiʂa- See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá udáa, eddá udáa, eddá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Candoshi-Shapra tsapoosho tsapooʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro je'ane xɨʔanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez söo söo See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ñaxtü [5, 3] ɲaʔtɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kaḍzene kaɽene doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito karíira See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tsɨtx-óka, tsman-óka, bʃants-óka tsɨtx-óka, tsman-óka, bʃants-óka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé ɛte-tãrã-ri (tãrã-ri is a more general spatial term) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-nom] nom unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar nungká nuŋka See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nugkan nuŋkan See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ajáuu axau: unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses tëdion, tsidion tɨdion, tsidion unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo nama nama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jare; jariy (suffix with -ra is used as a rel. pn xare; xarij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua ucu uku See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá ukupi ukupi See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua urai uraj See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano uray uɾaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa de'E'anɨh (K76) deʔæʔanɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ubena ubena unique See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana caroca(pᵾ), roca(pᵾ) kaɾoka(pɨ), ɾoka(pɨ) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Koreguaje vʉ'evʉ bʉʔebʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona yijacua jihakua unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya cajeye kahejɛ See Language page Amanda N
Kokama wɨrɨ wɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɨwɨ-kɨtɨ-lɛ (Lit. 'soil/ground-toward-to') ɨwɨ-kɨtɨ-lɛ (Lit. 'soil/ground-toward-to') inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ibi kiti; -ki re ibi kiti; -ki re inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina aan, aann̈a ãã; ããn:a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto ana ana (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito caríira karíira doubtful loan, direction unknown Urarina kaɽene See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari tequipaxi' (lit. 'our thorax; E&K97) tekipaʃiʔ (lit. 'our thorax; E&K97) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kipa-xe; e-ki-mexexe (Girard 1971) kipa-xe; e-ki-mexexe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña e-ma-ke e-ma-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara aynacha aynača See Language page PLE
Movima yan-lo jan-lo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang krɛ̃m; yakrɛ̃m (IDS) krɛ̃m; yakrɛ̃m; ɛ̃prã See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi pfütxe ɸøtʃe See Language page PLE