Waurá

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
wau
Location
-13.30°, -53.70°
Notes
Xingu region
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Corbera Mori, Angel. 2012. Waurá e Mehináku: um breve estudo comparativo. In Descrição e análise linguística, 196-205. Universidade Federal de São Carlos. Mello, Maria Ignez Cruz. 1999. Música e mito entre os Wauja do Alto Xingu. Florianópolis: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Postigo, Adriana Viana. 2012. Gênero, número, avaliativos e classificadores em Wauja (Arawák). In González, Hebe and Gualdieri, Beatriz (eds.), Lenguas indígenas de América del Sur I. Fonología y léxico, 207-225. Mendoza: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Richards, Joan. 2000. Waurá. Intercontinental Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. Ihttp://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location enu; -penu enu; -penu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
and y e grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wehepe wehepe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
at en, a em, a location See Language page Joyce McCormick
back espalda costas body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
bad mal mal quality pɨnaya; -itʸaki (latter is a modifier) pɨnaja; -itʸaki unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
belly barriga barriga body ci'ču-i (Richards73) tsi'ču-i (Richards73) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -tepɨ -tepɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
big grande grande quality weke; au; ki-kĩyãkã weke; au; ki-kĩjãkã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
black negro preto colour yala'ki; itʸula (latter is also "blue, green, blue-black") jala'ki; itʸula unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
blood sangre sangue body -ɨža -ɨža inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kumic̷i kumi¢i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
bone hueso osso body -napɨ -napɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
breast pecho, seno peito body siña (Payne91) siña (Payne91) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
child niño, niña criança human yamuku-tai jamuku-tai inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
cloud nube nuvem environment iye-pe ije-pe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
cold frío frio quality ka-tɨka; amɨna ka-tɨka; amɨna inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality kamalažɨ; c̷ama; awɨžɨ (the first two are listed under "true", the latter under "correct/right") kamalažɨ; ¢ama; awɨžɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
day día dia time kamɨmawa kamɨmawa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
dirty sucio sujo quality kulepe; kamalatɨ kulepe; kamalatɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Joyce McCormick
dry seco seco quality uluhɨ uluhɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality me-kic̷i me-ki¢i See Language page Joyce McCormick
dust polvo poeira environment tɨmuukai tɨmuukai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
ear oreja orelha body -tu'lũ -tu'lũ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
earth/soil tierra terra environment kehɨ-tɨ kehɨ-tɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
egg huevo ovo fauna iic̷ai ii¢ai inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
eye ojo olho body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
far lejos longe quality kawaka kawaka unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fat/grease grasa gordura body #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
father padre, papá pai kinship pa'pa; -žɨ pa'pa; -žɨ doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
feather pluma pena fauna -mapɨ (also means "body hair") -mapɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fire fuego fogo environment ic̷ei i¢ei inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
flower flor flor environment #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment amiyã-mi'yã amijã-mi'jã See Language page Joyce McCormick
fruit fruta fruta flora #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
good bueno bom quality awɨžɨ awɨžɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hand mano mão body -wɨžɨku; -kapɨ -wɨžɨku; -kapɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nežɨ nežɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
head cabeza cabeça body -tɨwɨ -tɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
heavy pesado pesado quality ɨmɨna ɨmɨna inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
how? como como grammar ka-ic̷e-pei ka-i¢e-pei unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
1sg yo eu grammar na-tu na-tu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
if si se grammar -miyã; -ec̷e -mijã; -e¢e See Language page Joyce McCormick
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
intestines intestinos intestinos body isitʸa-pi isitʸa-pi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
lake lago lago environment a'wa a'wa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
leaf hoja folha environment -pana; ata-pana -pana; ata-pana inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wahulu-pa-lu wahulu-pa-lu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
leg/foot pierna perna body -katɨ -katɨ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment yamiruka jamiruka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
liver hígado figado body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
long largo comprido, longo quality awapa; au-pi awapa; au-pi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna #NAME? -nee¢e inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
man/male hombre homem human enɨža enɨža inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
meat/flesh carne carne fauna -hɨtai -hɨtai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
moon luna lua environment kežɨ (also means "month") kežɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ma'ma; -ɨnu ma'ma; -ɨnu loan; inheritance Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
mouth boca boca body -kana-tɨ -kana-tɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
name nombre nome human -kupɨ'na -kupɨ'na unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
near/close cerca de perto quality -kanu; -pažutɨ -kanu; -pažutɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body -punu-; ɨ-punu-naku -punu-; ɨ-punu-naku See Language page Joyce McCormick
neck cuello pescoço body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
new nuevo novo quality auc̷a- au¢a- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
night noche noite time yiyawa jijawa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
no/not no não grammar aic̷a ai¢a unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
nose nariz nariz body #NAME? -ki¢i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
old viejo velho quality autu-pa-žɨ; aripi autu-pa-žɨ; aripi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
one uno um number pawã pawã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
person/human being persona pessoa human ĩyãu ĩjãu unknown prob. loan into Trumai See Language page Joyce McCormick
rain lluvia chuva environment iya-ɣa; unɨ ija-ɣa; unɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
red rojo vermelho colour mɨhɨža; k-ɨža mɨhɨža; k-ɨža inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
right/right hand derecha direita location/body k-iyežẽ-pe-lu k-iježẽ-pe-lu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
road/path camino caminho manufacture ahɨ-napu ahɨ-napu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
root raíz raiz flora tjmã:tiʔ (Postigo11) tsmã:tiʔ (Postigo11) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
rotten podrido podre quality ɨhɨ; ukuwa ɨhɨ; ukuwa unknown; doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani, cf. also Carib See Language page Joyce McCormick
sand arena areia environment kehɨ-penu kehɨ-penu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ke-kic̷i ke-ki¢i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
short corto curto quality ãhã-tãi; peric̷i ãhã-tãi; peri¢i unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoulder hombro ombro body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental aipitsi-'ki (Postigo2011) aipitsi-'ki (Postigo2011) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
skin piel pele body #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
sky cielo céu environment enu-taku enu-taku inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
small pequeño pequeno quality -tãi; ãhã-tãi; muyepe -tãi; ãhã-tãi; mujepe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
smoke humo fumaça environment sĩyãla-'ki sĩjãla-'ki unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
star estrella estrela environment kalũtɨ kalũtɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ata ata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
stone piedra pedra environment tɨpa tɨpa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tail cola, rabo rabo body ĩtʸu ĩtʸu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar napapa napapa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ic̷aku i¢aku unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
thin delgado fino quality mapisa mapisa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
this este/esta este grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
2sg xx xx grammar pi-c̷u pi-¢u inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
throat garganta garganta body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
three tres tres number kamaukula kamaukula unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
thunder truenos trovão environment enu-c̷itʸa enu-¢itʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
bite morder morder body taluka taluka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
blow soplar soprar body ežeke; amusa (latter means to blow on fire) ežeke; amusa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
breathe respirar respirar body -ĩ'wĩ (also means "lung") -ĩ'wĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
burn quemar queimar environment usitʸa-ta (transitive verb); usitʸa (intransitive verb) usitʸa-ta; usitʸa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kaluluka kaluluka unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
climb subir subir motion piyu piju unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
come venir vir motion t-uwa t-uwa inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
cook cocinar cozinhar impact a-wakula-ta a-wakula-ta inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cry llorar chorar mental elele elele unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tuka ~ ɨtuka tuka ~ ɨtuka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
die/be dead morir morrer state a-kama a-kama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
dig cavar cavar impact atɨka atɨka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
dream soñar sonhar mental k-isẽpũ k-isẽpũ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
drink beber, tomar beber body tuuka tuuka unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
eat comer comer body ãitʸa ãitʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
fall caer cair motion taka taka unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
fear miedo medo mental mɨža; mɨža-'ki mɨža; mɨža-'ki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
flow fluir fluir motion miyãɣa mijãɣa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fly volar voar motion ala ala inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
grow crecer crescer state weke- weke- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
hear oír ouvir mental eteme eteme inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
hide esconder esconder motion eheže eheže unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
hit golpear, pegar bater impact maitʸa; tau-ta maitʸa; tau-ta inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ɨtuka ɨtuka unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
kill matar matar impact a-k-unute-žɨ-ta a-k-unute-žɨ-ta unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental uuta; kiyeže uuta; kiježe inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
laugh reír rir mental ažatuwa ažatuwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion halalakuwa halalakuwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kutɨ kutɨ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
open/uncover abrir abrir other wanaka (open a door); paitʸa (open a lid) wanaka; paitʸa inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact maitʸa; tau-ta maitʸa; tau-ta See Language page Joyce McCormick
say decir dizer mental um-; aakata um-; aakata inheritance?; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
see ver ver mental -nupa; k-užutai -nupa; k-užutai unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact uku-ta; wasitʸa u'ku uku-ta; wasitʸa u'ku inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
sit sentar(se) sentar state pataka pataka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
sleep dormir dormir body hɨmaka hɨmaka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body kã-iyãla (intransitive verb); ãɨta; eteme ĩyãla (transitive verb); ãɨta ("sniff") kã-ijãla; ãɨta; eteme ĩjãla; ãɨta unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
spit escupir cuspir body esĩyũ esĩjũ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact halaka halaka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact a-huriritʸa a-huriritʸa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact c̷akɨ-ka; c̷akɨ-ka ¢akɨ-ka; ¢akɨ-ka unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state hɨžɨžɨkata hɨžɨžɨkata unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
steal robar roubar other e-mec̷uwa e-me¢uwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
suck chupar chupar body utaka utaka unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
swell hincharse inchar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
swim nadar nadar motion ec̷una e¢una unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
think pensar pensar mental ka-kãi-c̷itʸu; amakanaat-uwa ka-kãi-¢itʸu; amakanaat-uwa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wasitʸa wasitʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact i-c̷itʸa i-¢itʸa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ɣak-uwa ɣak-uwa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
vomit vomitar vomitar body sitʸeke sitʸeke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
walk caminar, andar andar motion ec̷una e¢una inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
work trabajar trabalhar other ka-tuma-la ka-tuma-la inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
yawn bostezar bocejar body apuha apuha inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tongue lengua lingua body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tooth diente dente body #NAME? -¢ewe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
two dos dois number mepĩyãwã mepĩjãwã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
water agua agua environment unɨ unɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ai-c̷u ai-¢u unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
wet mojado molhado quality kahaka; k-ula-ɣa kahaka; k-ula-ɣa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
what? que, qué que grammar ka-i'c̷a; ka ka-i'¢a; ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
when? cuando quando grammar ka-ic̷a-wa-ki-ya ka-i¢a-wa-ki-ja unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
where? donde onde grammar ka-na-i; kayenai ka-na-i; kajenai inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
white blanco branco colour kisuwa kisuwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
who? quien, quién quem grammar ka-i'c̷a; ka ka-i'¢a; ka inheritance same as 'what' See Language page Joyce McCormick
wife esposa esposa kinship #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
wind viento vento environment isĩyã isĩjã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
wing ala asa body #NAME? #NAME? semantic shift from 'arm' See Language page Joyce McCormick
woman/female mujer mulher human -nežu; -lu; -žu -nežu; -lu; -žu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
yellow amarillo amarelo colour weruya weruja unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yi-c̷u ji-¢u inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
foot pie body #NAME? -ki-¢apa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -ma; ɨnama -ma; ɨnama unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
all todo todos other -tɨ'pe -tɨ'pe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
ankle tobillo tornozelo body -tʸalãa-tapa -tʸalãa-tapa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -tɨpɨžɨ-naku -tɨpɨžɨ-naku unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
lung pulmón pulmão body -ĩ'wĩ -ĩ'wĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body weye weje See Language page Joyce McCormick
bark corteza casca environment ažata; ata-mai ažata; ata-mai inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
fingernail uña unha body -hupa-žata -hupa-žata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
heart corazón coração body -ĩwĩ-c̷i -ĩwĩ-¢i unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
sun sol sol time kamɨ kamɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kehɨ-tɨ-kuma kehɨ-tɨ-kuma unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
green verde verde quality ata-pana; itʸulã-iyã ata-pana; itʸulã-ijã unknown; inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
hot caliente quente quality ĩyãta ĩjãta inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. aluwa aluwa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kuhupɨža-tɨ kuhupɨža-tɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. iakavakuá (white-breasted toucan; P11) jakaʒakuá unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Joyce McCormick, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Joyce McCormick, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ulutsá (P11) ulutsá (P11) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae kumesi (Mello 99) kumesi (Mello 99) unknown See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tsula (P11) tsula (P11) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes mulukuhɨ; tuku-tu'ku (generic owl) mulukuhɨ; tuku-tu'ku (generic owl) doubtful loan - WW? %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica saˈkalu (Corberi 12) saˈkalu (Corberi 12) inheritance - WW %kuli See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae watapa; tuku'žẽ watapa; tuku'žẽ inheritance; inheritance? - WW %motkuku See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kuhupɨža kuhupɨža unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae awažatalu; wehɨža awažatalu; wehɨža inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family upi; wanana upi; wanana inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba tsapátsapá (P11) tsapátsapá (P11) unique See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris awaulu-ku'ma (generic dog) awaulu-ku'ma (generic dog) doubtful loan - WW? %auli; cf. TG jawara See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) iupe (Mello99) iupe (Mello99) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Joyce McCormick, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri okaluté (tatu galinha), malulá (tatu canastra) (P11) okaluté (tatu galinha), malulá (tatu canastra) (P11) unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ya'ka (generic alligator) ja'ka (generic alligator) loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kupatɨ kupatɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. puláma (M99) puláma (M99) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. tulukumalu (sapo grande; M99) tulukumalu (sapo grande; M99) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kažutukalu kažutukalu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. yia (M99) jia (M99) inheritance South Arawak See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Joyce McCormick, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata su'la; i'ya; yamu'lu; mayu'wa; ũ'tɨ (generic lizard) su'la; i'ja; jamu'lu; maju'wa; ũ'tɨ (generic lizard) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. iyapu; ka-pala-'ka ijapu; ka-pala-'ka inheritance? reflex of N.Arawak *inatu-li (Ramirez)? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna uwi uwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Joyce McCormick, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Joyce McCormick, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Joyce McCormick, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Joyce McCormick, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa wau'luki (Richard273) wau'luki (Richard273) unknown See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Joyce McCormick, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Joyce McCormick, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Joyce McCormick, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Joyce McCormick, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ayu-pe aju-pe unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Joyce McCormick, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens ai; katamu-tɨ ai; katamu-tɨ unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea he'žetà (Richards73) he'ʒetà (Richards73) See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mapalaka'ka (Richards73) mapalaka'ka (Richards73) unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. banana banana loan Portuguese See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Joyce McCormick, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. wažayu-tɨ; puhama; arisãtɨ wažaju-tɨ; puhama; arisãtɨ unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ata-kahɨ ata-kahɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays maiki maiki inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hɨ'ka hɨ'ka unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ata ata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana yuku (R73) juku (R73) doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani uruku See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Joyce McCormick, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Joyce McCormick, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Joyce McCormick, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana yana (R73) jana (R73) inheritance j-ð (Paresi) correspondence attested See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Joyce McCormick, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Joyce McCormick, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Joyce McCormick, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ule-i (generic manioc) ule-i (generic manioc) semantic shift? from 'potato'; see Yavitero, Warekena elu See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Joyce McCormick, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Joyce McCormick, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas uhu uhu unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. paka (R73) paka (R73) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) haka'na-i (R73) haka'na-i (R73) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. mɨmɨmɨžu mɨmɨmɨžu unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ẽẽpi (R73) ẽẽpi (R73) See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Joyce McCormick, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kuna kuna inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Joyce McCormick, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Joyce McCormick, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic yakawa'ka (can also refer to things in general) jakawa'ka (can also refer to things in general) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kaitʸalu; meic̷ukutɨ kaitʸalu; mei¢ukutɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. tsalápa (P11) tsalápa (P11) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ikitʸunu; tʸulu-tʸulu ikitʸunu; tʸulu-tʸulu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria maakuyalu; mapɨžetelu maakujalu; mapɨžetelu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae wiitʸuku wiitʸuku inheritance? - WW %tjuke See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mapapalu mapapalu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda uwi ɨ-pala'tã uwi ɨ-pala'tã See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones huupa huupa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera itizi (Postigo2011) itiʒi (Postigo2011) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pi:ˈsulu (Mori12) pi:ˈsulu (Mori12) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. eyu; makuku eju; makuku inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ata-pɨža ata-pɨža inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda walu; itʸuwi; ɨtɨžu walu; itʸuwi; ɨtɨžu inheritance; unknown cf. Kalapalo iñu See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yu'wa ju'wa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca leiki (P11) leiki (P11) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella pahɨ 'capuchin' pahɨ 'capuchin' inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae iyula ijula unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis e'weʂe (Mori2005) e'wese (Mori2005) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis e'weʂe (Mori2005) e'weʂe (Mori2005) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu autú (P11) autú (P11) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. pɨ'kɨʂɨ (Mori2005) pɨ'kɨʂɨ (Mori2005) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris i'ʧɛhɨ (Mori2012) i'ʧɛhɨ (Mori2012) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mukutɨ mukutɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris teme (P11) teme (P11) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus aɣama; yu'ta aɣama; ju'ta unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus teme-ku'ma (tapir-?) teme-ku'ma (tapir-?) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material maya-ku; yatalu (generic basket) maja-ku; jatalu (generic basket) unknown; loan - WW %atura See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material yulatɨžu julatɨžu inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material kama (from Port.); amaka (means hammock ) kama (from Port.); amaka (means hammock ) loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material amaka amaka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material se'pi (R73) se'pi (R73) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport ic̷a i¢a inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology yanatɨ-ku'ma (generic drum) janatɨ-ku'ma (generic drum) doubtful loan - WW %kumu See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material waic̷u wai¢u unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology -nai -nai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other aža-tapi aža-tapi unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
firewood leña lenha other ic̷ei-c̷iwi i¢ei-¢iwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yuwežɨ-ku-wi; apapaatai juwežɨ-ku-wi; apapaatai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology watana; kuluta; kawɨka watana; kuluta; kawɨka unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tʸehɨ̃-tãi ('machete-small') tʸehɨ̃-tãi ('machete-small') unique small machete' See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material tʸehɨ̃ tʸehɨ̃ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool e'pi; -ɣawa e'pi; -ɣawa inheritance; inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool u'ku u'ku inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool yuku'mi juku'mi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool ɨ̃ɨtai ɨ̃ɨtai inheritance arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport etene etene inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material makula-tãi; paratu (from Port.) makula-tãi; paratu (from Port.) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kamalu-pɨ; nukãi; makula kamalu-pɨ; nukãi; makula unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material makula; hakanai makula; hakanai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology wa'ũ wa'ũ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
wax cera cera other i'yapi (beeswax; R73) i'japi (beeswax; R73) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
honey miel mel food mapa mapa inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology -sitʸulã -sitʸulã See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ažata; ikic̷i ažata; iki¢i unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology -haa-tɨwɨ -haa-tɨwɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation ata-pana; ɨnupa-ki-c̷aku ata-pana; ɨnupa-ki-¢aku unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology k-isẽpũ k-isẽpũ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wakapɨ wakapɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kanawĩya (from Port.) kanawĩja (from Port.) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material pi'si pi'si unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sitatu sitatu loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation kuruwãu; ĩyãu (latter can also refer to a human being) kuruwãu; ĩjãu (latter can also refer to a human being) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation u'ku u'ku doubtful loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress tɨwɨ-nai tɨwɨ-nai unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology amu- amu- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool watuku watuku See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other ic̷ei-yẽpe i¢ei-jẽpe See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool niyapi nijapi See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
salt sal sal food ɨhɨwɨ ɨhɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology a'pa-i (R73) a'pa-i (R73) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wawai wawai unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food apapatai-mɨna (generic animal) apapatai-mɨna (generic animal) unknown Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool pitsa (Mori2005), haka'na-i (R73) pitsa (Mori2005), haka'na-i (R73) inheritance?; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool i'ña (R73) i'ña (R73) unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ana ana inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ana-tɨ ana-tɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food iki, u'leiki iki, u'leiki doubtful loan Carib agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ule-pe ule-pe doubtful loan (into protolg), direction unknown Carib usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food utʃitʃu'i (Mori2005) utʃitʃu'i (Mori2005) unknown agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tu'api (R73) tu'api (R73) doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool ma'na (R73) ma'na (R73) doubtful loan Carib agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool mutu; atapĩyã; kulutu mutu; atapĩjã; kulutu See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
house other pãi; ɨ-pɨ-na pãi; ɨ-pɨ-na inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick