mortar

Semantic Field
subsistence tool
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
mortero
Meaning Portuguese
pilão

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla qawuvaxal mortar (stone), mortar & Pestle unique vaxal is probably the *paha word Stubbs 1085, qaw is 'rock' compound, other complex rock-mortar Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño ilyapal mortar unique contains *paha (Stubbs 2011 1085); I had as 'bedrock' but Merriam has tă-pah'-wish for bedrock and this as portable other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño toopal mortar for grinding inheritance *typpa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1083 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino tō-kwe-is to:kwi$ el mortero H 250, 530 portable stone mortar inheritance *ty-kwis Takic also in Kitanemuk other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
Serrano too'-e-hwat portable mortar unique formation on 'grind' Stubbs 2011 1086 derived, other complex Merriam 48:179 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tükwiš mortar, small, as in house inheritance *ty-kwis Takic also in Gabrielino other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal kūppahhal portable mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 phrase, other complex wood-mortar K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim po-ho-wahl' portable stone mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts UA is pa -- is this Yokutsan loan? I don't think so. WW %polwa other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu paha mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi pahA mortar (of any kind) inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Ute mara-cI mortar, rock bowl used for grinding corn inheritance *ma7ta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1082 this is really the 'metate' word other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone paha mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ty-ta-mma-wy-kkicah mortar (for a pestle) unique compound Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche huu aawo, huaawo, huakwo mortar, wooden vessel (arch. Bedrock mortar?) inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 N compounded with 'wood' word phrase R Jane Hill
Western Mono pAha mortar, pounding place inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute paha mortar, rock with hole in it inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok lopa7-:a- small mortar unique this has the %pa element and looks suspiciously like a UA *topa??? But it's from Pmis lopa- 'to mash' other complex lop:a- 'to pound, smash' Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7y/m:e- mortar inheritance Proto-Sierra Miwok Mins 7ym:e 'portable mortar' simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok co:se- mortar (originally, bedrock mortar) inheritance *čo:se- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:25 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok co:se- bedrock mortar, mortar inheritance *čo:se- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:25 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok támih large stone mortar unique also tukúlli, portable mortar, a small, round rock about six inches deep used for pounding pepperwood berries 141 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu jókkym 7ó mortar, lit. pounder rock unique note PM *jok 'pound' *Ultan 1964:363); Merriam ōm'-lul-lo 41:275 phrase jôk 'pound dry material' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan pulu mortar loan Northern Sierra Miwok WW %polwa simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani k'oiwoc portable mortar inheritance Proto-General Yokuts derived probably -ac' suffix Kroeber 1962 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi pőwac portable mortar inheritance Proto-General Yokuts Kroeber 1962 says powac is bedrock m., also padiñ 'bedrock mortar', k'oiwoc 'small mortar' derived instrumental -ac'? Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo 7la:m bedrock mortar unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu simis flat rock under the mortar basket for pounding acorns unknown simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki kutëm bedrock or slab mortar inheritance Proto-North Yukian k'o(:)l 'mortar, pounding basket' derived suffix -m nmlzr Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
Wappo lel-tókel' bedrock or slab mortar loan direction unknown Lake Miwok compound lel 'rock' Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
Mutsun 7urkan mortar unknown Merriam 39:99 confirms as 'portable stone mortar' simplex see Okrand note on p. 243 Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen pamma mortar unknown Pinart; has the pa- element common in mortar/pestle words, loan? simplex Heizer 1952 Jane Hill
Salinan A T<xo/l mortar unknown Proto-Salinan čoxal Pinart p. 75, tokol 'hopper mortar' Pinart p. 75; may be loan from Yokutsan into ProtoSalinan, note Yokutsan *k'ojwos 'portable mortar' other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M T<oxo/L mortar unknown Proto-Salinan may be loan from Yokutsan into ProtoSalinan, note Yokutsan *k'ojwos 'portable mortar' other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tSiLmu7 mortero (to pound) unknown tu-na/-mu Henshaw derived Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7alqap mortar inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno al-kap mortar inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno pā-yes peyeš Applegate 'a mortar that sits by itself' Ch. 10 p. 3 portable mortar unknown I think this is an error: pej 'to stick to' suggests this is bricklaying mortar??? Or maybe Mamet's peješ form (60) is really the portable mortar??? Maybe al-qap Applegate 1973 4:17 derived Merriam 38:23 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7ehmuu bedrock mortar inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; kalymuu small mortar, portable mortar p. 25 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa xmu mortar (said to be made of cottonwood or mesquite) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7ahmo wooden bowl or mortar for pounding mesquite inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai 7Uhmū mortar inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; also kWè:túyi p. 400 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-h+nya7-tay-u7 deep mortar (Sp. molcajete) unknown tay is 'big' derived h-nya7 'pound, hammer' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ziix an ihanéezj mortar, molcajete (cosa en que se machaca) unknown haacala bedrock mortar phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua kâh-at-daʔ kâh-at-daʔ unique Derived smash-nmlz-clːround See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu induá induá inheritance *ɨnuʔa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani ẽbõ-ka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï to'ta ʰtota doubtful loan cf. Tukanoan, Puinave Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami hii hi ka hi: hi ka (for grinding bones of the dead) for grinding bones of the dead unknown Phrase for grinding bones of the dead?, unclear what the parts mean See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam tokoli paka tokoli paka loan widespread; cf. Spanish taco Compound a kind of tree + hole See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria docaadʉ dokaadʉ inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo totaibʉ totaibɨ inheritance? cf. Orejon See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano dikekɨhɨˊ dikekɨhɨʔ inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms Based on verb 'pound' or noun 'log'; similar form in Tuyuka can also use “pamôga dikekɨhɨˊ” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Maihiki tou tou inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup tok teg tok teg doubtful loan E. Tukanoan; cf. Tuyuka doka-ri-ga; onomatopoeic same as 'pestle' Derived pound=CL:stick See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw sok rẽér ʃɔk hẽ̌h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani wahubo wajubo inheritance Proto-MSC Compare Macaguan wɨp Probably has -bo classifier See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan wʉp wɨp inheritance Proto-MSC Compare Sikuani wahubo Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon akoo (E1980) ako (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio ak ak inheritance Proto-Carib Loan into Wapishana See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi séni séni unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa ako ako inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna tujláka'aruna tuhlákaʔaɾuna inheritance? cf. Ignaciano See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana yéːda 'pequeno pilão para preparo do epadú' jéːda 'pequeno pilão para preparo do epadú' a small mortar to prepare “epadú” unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana akʰu akʰu loan Carib also Pemón ako; Alternate: imiʔitʰan-naa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa aanáda; -tothíoko aanáda; -tothíoko inheritance; inheritance? Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro tho?khoótsií tʰoʔkʰoótsií inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yir-Yoront lith-mart top grindstone unique With lith 'beach-stone', mart 'small'; contrast lith-ngamayrr 'bottom grindstone' Barry Alpher
Nyangumarta matyarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Ngarluma matyarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul not used not used Claire Bowern
Bardi not used not used Claire Bowern
Yulparija nyakurnpa unique Claire Bowern
Djinang ŋuyarr unique Claire Bowern
Mangala pipinyanu unique semantic shift? mother? Claire Bowern
Burarra rambala unique Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu rlimbik unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri wiranyamarta unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngamanyan inheritance its mother -ie of the muller its mother -ie of the muller Patrick McConvell
Mudburra lartaranga loan Jingulu Patrick McConvell
Jaru lartaranga unknown stone-big stone Patrick McConvell
Gurindji tyikurnu loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi paltyati inheritance poss rel's to palawan? kurra muller (pestle) Patrick McConvell
Bunuba palanytya unique seed grinding not in north WW %palawan seed grinding not in north Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng japalawarna loan Nungali WW %palawan Patrick McConvell
Jaminjung japarlawan loan direction unknown with masc. ja- added? Nungali? WW %palawan Patrick McConvell
Jingulu lartaranga unknown Patrick McConvell
Kija kutu-kutu-kirriny inheritance grind-REDUP - thing.for complex Patrick McConvell
Wardaman tyapalawarna loan Jaminjung large flat stone needed for food preparation; via Mudburra Patrick McConvell
Achagua á:na á:na inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco ayáiba 'pilón' ajáiba 'pilón' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero wi'yaľ̥i wi'jaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi ˈnotxi ˈnotʃi unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá ana ana inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora cáánu kʰáánɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane cábɨ́ɨ́cɨga (W97) kábɨ́ɨ́kɨga See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai ako ako inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana apotop apotop unique See Language page PLE
Carijona akə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó ako ako inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo përëkëtë (millstone- also means wheel, car, and bike) pɛrɛkɛtɛ (millstone- also means wheel, car, and bike) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai aaku aaku inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari aka aka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Northern Emberá pi'lon (Sp loan; IDS) pi'lon (Sp loan; IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Pumé to puɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave tou tou doubtful loan cf. Tukanoan, Pume, Hoti See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Aguaruna čimihinč tʃimihintʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses macueste, senad (mortero de maiz) makueste, senad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua sanãho sanãho unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano muchka mutʃka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa tawawek'a tawawek'a loan Arawak; cf. Ignaciano tijuwareka See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Tuyuka doka-ri-ga doka-ri-ga See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Karitiana ãm, pynakapa ãm, pɨnakapa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama takaru tupa takaɾu tupa loan widespread; cf. Spanish taco See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɛnuʔa ɛnuʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó mua mua inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá enuˀa enuˀa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Iquito suhuánaja; ajírataaja; ajátaari (moledor tradicional usado para moler la masa de masato en una batán; hecho de un bloque de madera cuadrada con dos agarradores en las puntas superiores); amuútaaja (tipo de mazo que se usa para triturar comida o barbasco) suwánaha; ahírataaha unique; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ahiryasutaka ahirjasutaka See Language page Becky Walker
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-kekwa-poho-xi e-kekwa-poho-xi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña makana makana unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá hɛ, mũsi hɛ, mũsi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima enɬe-ɗuʔu enɬe-ɗuʔu See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang krèj krɛy See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi kütü køtø See Language page PLE