Hodï

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yau
Location
5.64°, -65.43°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Guarisma Pinto, Virginia & Walter Coppens. 1978. Vocabulario Hoti. Caracas: Antropológica, 49: 3-28. Mattei-Müller, Marie Claude. n.d. Hoti wordlist. Rodman, David and Sue Rodman. Yuwana. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Zent, Egleé and Zent, Stanford. 2002. Los Jodï: sabios botánicos del Amazonas Venezolano. Antropológica 97/98. 29-70. Zent, Egleé and Zent, Stanford. 2008. Los Jodï. In Perera, Miguel Angel (ed.), Los Aborígenes de Venezuela, 499-570. Caracas: Ediciones IVIC, Monte Avila Editores, ICAS, Fundación La Salle.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location bɨ̃ke; -bĩlẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kolo'ba unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
all todo todos other tawa'le unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
and y e grammar missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tanemohkwate unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tida unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment i'neo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
back espalda costas body hwï unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
belly barriga barriga body etcho unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kʰiaka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
big grande grande quality u'li unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
bite morder morder body mjyerine unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
black negro preto colour wa'le unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
blood sangre sangue body ihkwo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
blow soplar soprar body huiyu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 'yẽtehai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
bone hueso osso body wawa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
breast pecho, seno peito body ote (breast) me baba (chest) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
breathe respirar respirar body bẽyabekɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
burn quemar queimar environment mohti'bweitata unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kwa'lɨte'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
child niño, niña criança human ini/ha - boy hau - girl unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
climb subir subir motion bẽbai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
cloud nube nuvem environment bĩʰtu ('fog, cloud, smoke') doubtful loan, direction unknown Macaguan mɨ̃tẽ́ See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
cold frío frio quality kio'li unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
come venir vir motion lwai'te unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ka'miuntai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ʰtɨboiʰya unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
cry llorar chorar mental kelo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
cut/hack cortar cortar impact wohtai'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
day día dia time ʰkʸato unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
die/be dead morir morrer state kalu'ti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dig cavar cavar impact hu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dirty sucio sujo quality waleiʰte unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dream soñar sonhar mental abu'ẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
drink beber, tomar beber body ye wayi / woi (I drink) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dry seco seco quality ʰkai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ʰkuʰtai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
dust polvo poeira environment lehte unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
ear oreja orelha body onéka unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
earth/soil tierra terra environment ne unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
eat comer comer body kwa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
egg huevo ovo fauna kə'mame unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
eye ojo olho body búle / bure unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body iki doubtful loan Arawak?; see also Iquito íiki See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fall caer cair motion ko'lati unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
far lejos longe quality tata unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fat/grease grasa gordura body ʰkalawa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
father padre, papá pai kinship laj/baba ʰlai; ai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fear miedo medo mental iti'yu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
feather pluma pena fauna tɨə unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fire fuego fogo environment kule doubtful loan, direction unknown Pume See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fish xx xx fauna bõʰtõ doubtful loan Carib See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion helou unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
flower flor flor environment bu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fly volar voar motion bõwe; ʰkeleibilĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bĩʰtu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
foot pie body mehna unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fruit fruta fruta flora hu; tale; atei unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
good bueno bom quality bũʰkete unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
grow crecer crescer state ʰwoi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tuuwë ɨko unknown; unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hand mano mão body mo hwa hwa / mo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
head cabeza cabeça body tu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hear oír ouvir mental aun'kute'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
heavy pesado pesado quality meki'to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hide esconder esconder motion ʰtoweka ʰka-beibei unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ʰwau unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ʰtilẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
how? como como grammar hibɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
if si se grammar tolã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -ʰkʷa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
intestines intestinos intestinos body hanichyo (small) ihlichyo (large) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ʰluwiye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
kill matar matar impact ʰkʷã lĩlĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
lake lago lago environment bãbo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
laugh reír rir mental wakh unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
leaf hoja folha environment tuhkuhia unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wõiko bõ bã hai-lɨ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ka'bɨte'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment choa bulewe / choburewe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body 'hoa bẽɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
liver hígado figado body oteto unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
long largo comprido, longo quality tamɨih'yɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna hõhõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
lung pulmón pulmão body woihlo tiha (plural) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
meat/flesh carne carne fauna i'nE unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
moon luna lua environment amiye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship abã abã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
mouth boca boca body a unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
name nombre nome human missing See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body hwa hwɨ (ye) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
near/close cerca de perto quality habẽilã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
neck cuello pescoço body kwa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
new nuevo novo quality baih'ya doubtful loan, direction unknown Pume See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
night noche noite time tikwə'to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
no/not no não grammar ĩte unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
nose nariz nariz body ño unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
old viejo velho quality ta'wo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
one uno um number ya'toa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
open/uncover abrir abrir other wai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
other otro outro grammar apahle unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body yã hã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
person/human being persona pessoa human ho (=body) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ʰwau unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
rain lluvia chuva environment o unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
red rojo vermelho colour lu'wa doubtful loan Saliban; possible inheritance? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
right/right hand derecha direita location/body baʰkei bõ bã hai-lɨ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
road/path camino caminho manufacture mana doubtful loan Saliva; possible inheritance? See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
root raíz raiz flora lahla (exterior root of a tree) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
rotten podrido podre quality wali-bu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sand arena areia environment ka'bayu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
say decir dizer mental ũtɨ missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
see ver ver mental wete'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aʰkuwe'te unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact hu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
short corto curto quality aliʰkʷete unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
shoulder hombro ombro body ahkule unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ʰka-ʰtau unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sit sentar(se) sentar state to'ainkida unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
skin piel pele body hetoto unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sky cielo céu environment younaja unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sleep dormir dormir body apuh unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
small pequeño pequeno quality a'li unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
smoke humo fumaça environment kulemihtu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body bĩkĩwe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
spit escupir cuspir body hulepe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ʰkeɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bãlãtɨ eʰlowabei unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact to-ʰkʷe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
star estrella estrela environment ateta / atetï (plural) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
steal robar roubar other bo bẽi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
stone piedra pedra environment ih'tɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
suck chupar chupar body luhlu ʰluʰluwe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
swell hincharse inchar body mɨ'de doubtful loan, direction unknown Pume See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
swim nadar nadar motion ʰkʷei-ai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
tail cola, rabo rabo body ini'nabuka'ti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
that ese/esa esse grammar dibo/baehteu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality bahtu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
thin delgado fino quality lãlẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
think pensar pensar mental unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
this este/esta este grammar bibo/baheteu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
2sg xx xx grammar keh/kye unknown cf. Cofan kʸɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
three tres tres number hweya'tɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
throat garganta garganta body kwambo / kwa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ʰka-lũ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
thunder truenos trovão environment co'ai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact a'liti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
tongue lengua lingua body a nene loan Arawak See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
tooth diente dente body (ehko) / uhku unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ʰka-bãlãlĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
two dos dois number weyata unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
vomit vomitar vomitar body ehtajken unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
walk caminar, andar andar motion ountai unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
water agua agua environment au unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
wet mojado molhado quality kwa'ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
what? que, qué que grammar kwe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
when? cuando quando grammar tolã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
where? donde onde grammar 'ʰtebolã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
white blanco branco colour ʰkʸato unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
who? quien, quién quem grammar ʰwẽya; ʰwoiyu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
wife esposa esposa kinship aun unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
wind viento vento environment hune unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
wing ala asa body ah'kudawah'wa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
woman/female mujer mulher human au unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
work trabajar trabalhar other bou unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
yawn bostezar bocejar body a litoki unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
yellow amarillo amarelo colour iku'lu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
bad mal mal quality yã-hai; yã-hã doubtful loan E Tukanoan, e.g. Bara jã'jã See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar che/kje - he yu/chu - she unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
1sg yo eu grammar ye unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
leg/foot pierna perna body kʰiə unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
man/male hombre homem human mari unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar diti - he (pl) dyudi - she (pl) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ãku unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yeti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kyeti doubtful loan Cofan kʸɛʔi See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
bark corteza casca environment toto unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
fingernail uña unha body tela lo lo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
heart corazón coração body ihkwahu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
sun sol sol time tinawa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment inewa (hill) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
green verde verde quality missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
hot caliente quente quality tu'wəto'hai doubtful loan Salivan See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana jkulilu (Zent 08) unique uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. luwë; hãlɨ̃ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga bourgoni), uli luwe ʰyaɨ (inga edulis), bãyekalõ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga cf. alba), eʰkɔ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga sp.) (all Zent 02a) unique Also hãlɨ̃ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga bourgoni), uli luwe ʰyaɨ (inga edulis), bãyekalõ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga cf. alba), eʰkɔ luwe ʰyaɨ (inga sp.) (all Zent 02a) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. au ʰlẽ au ʰlẽ doubtful loan Carib: e.g. Pemon onwe uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus hwayo wayo unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae nimo (tiny red stinging ant) (Zent 05) missing cf. nimo (tiny red stinging ant), jyo (black army ant) (Zent 05) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana awa jyeï unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. hehtala, walule, jwalule jwajwa (Musa paradisiaca) (Zent 02b) unknown hehtala could be a Spanish-origin loan from a p > h language, or p > h in Hodi jwalule jwajwa (Musa paradisiaca; Zent); kuyi, wayi, hetara (G&C) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ʰkʷayuwã ʰkʷayuwã doubtful loan, direction unknown Salivan, see Saliva kʷãĩxuga compare Piapoco "iwàju", Yavitero "waju" uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. jtuë ibojto unique jtuë ibojto (Zent) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bãilã (preceded by specific species word) (Zent 02a) bãilã ai unique cf. culu'ma (Guarisma & Coppens) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kili (little bird) unique Narrower: small bird uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala jkudile jyaï (Guatteria foliosa) (Zent 02b) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba hãlĩ baʰte (Zent 02a), bate jï (Zent 02b) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) jlaboju (Zent 08) unique jlaboju (Zent 08) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata uli inëdi (bullent ant), jyo (black army ant) (Zent 05) unique uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera warepa waleba unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris hetoware unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum uli eloi ʰyaɨ (Zent 02a) loan - WW %eroi missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum loan Carib Akawaio Ingariko "erɔɪ", Mapoyo "yoroiʔ" and other similar Carib terms WW %eroi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda iliwe iliwe unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kapa unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria oʰkõ oʰkõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu hurihkahwie unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) jnewa (Zent 08) unique jnewa (Zent 08) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura iye unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus jkwajtubo ʰkʷãʰtɨbo doubtful loan Makiritare or Arawak Makiritare kawa:di uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yiwi yewi loan North Arawak, from forms originally meaning 'jaguar' Arawak Yucuna yawi; Piaroa "yæwi"; Wanderwort? See also Tukanoan jai (jaguar/dog), Tupi-Guarani yawara (jaguar/dog) WW %jawi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family abo tuwẽlõ lãhã abo tuwẽlõ lãhã unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kalina (Zent 08) loan Carib: Eñepa kariɲa Eñepa "kariɲa"; also see Pemon and Akawaio "karimura" uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna bõʰtõ bõʰtõ doubtful loan: Makushi moróʔ Carib e.g. Makushi moróʔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. matu'nəu unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera yewi hõhõ yewi hõhõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera nɨ'nɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kia'lo 'ʰkʸẽlõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans ka'namE loan Carib, Eñepa kanamae Pemon "namai", Panare "anamae, kanamae" uncoded ka' may be morphologically segmentable? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae more bole unknown cf. Piaroa pa'reh uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus [ʰkabayo] [ʰkabayo] missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens najte (C. futescens) (Zent 08) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] nimö (Zent 05) unique nimö (Zent 05) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tu'kudi loan Carib, e.g. Macushi tukúí Carijona "tuku’tʃi ", Makushi "tukúí" uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. uana loan - WW %jiwana, Carib Yavitero "iwána", Carijona "iwana" WW %jiwana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca choywei loan cf. Arawak jawi Compare similar form for 'dog' uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra taba'li unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. waʰwɨ (Zent 02a), jwajwï jï (fruit of the Açai) (Zent 02b) loan Carib, e.g. Carijona/Makiritare wahu uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. uli jwane (D. alata), jani jwane (D. trífida), ajtejta jwane (Dioscorea sp.) (Zent 08) unique uli jwane (D. alata), jani jwane (D. trífida), ajtejta jwane (Dioscorea sp.) (Zent 08) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. nənə'a nənə'a unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. jkamaya, uli jkamaya (Zent 05) loan - WW %wakamaja; from Span? or Eñepa Eñepa "kamaja" (but see also Sp. guacamaya, said to be borrowed from Arawak Taino); cf. maya (Guarisma & Coppens) uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays jtamu ʰtãbu unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ale doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib or Arawak Zent: ale for manioc in general? uncoded Probably yapo-are See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ale missing generic? Achagua "á:liri", but other Arawak terms are distinct uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa tuli (Zent 02a) unique cf. di'lihi (G&C); compare Puinave "tui" uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. hi tu'wila ʰtuhelatɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) yakino aʰkilõ unique cf. yakino (Zent) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae uli jowale (Zent 05) yowale; abaʰtuhã loan - WW %jawari Compare Wai Wai " yawari"; see also , Pemon avare, Wapishana " jawari", Yanomami " awaɾe". Cf. abaʰtuhã (Rodman) WW %jaware uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes borea (large) bololo (small) unique Compare Huitoto Murui "búru". Also bololo (small owl) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ineahkuti unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica nolo loan Carib/Arawak, or from Span Eñepa naro/noro, also Yabarana noro uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea mu'li unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes lẽbã (Zent 02a) (jnema, Zent 08) unique lẽbã (Zent 02a) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea mani loan Unknown May be from Spanish, but Sp. maní is thought to be a loan, possibly from Taino (Arawak). uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jtineju, nanaju unique; loan - WW %nana jtineju, nanaju (Zent) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae jkwaejle mojto unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae uli jeme unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ʰwalẽ ʰwalẽ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ih'ti iʰti unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ʰtawɨ ʰlawa ʰtawɨ ʰlawa unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda a'nu ka'nuhtu ʰkalũʰtu loan Arawak, cf. Baniwa kerátto a'nu *G&C) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ih'ko iʰkʷo unique cf. Carib But compare Carib, e.g.Eñepa ajke uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. uli abiyë mojto, bagre rayao (P. fasciatum) (Zent 08) unique cf. bagre rayao (P. fasciatum) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae aʰkuke aʰkuke unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. jnuñejtu, jkujte (Cucurbita moschata) (Zent 08) unknown cf. jkujte (Cucurbita moschata), jnuñejtu (Zent 08) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae jkali loan Carib, prob. Pemon e.g. Pemon " kari-kari", Akawaio kari, also Yanomami " kaɾio"; cf. Zent jkali uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ku'laka'we iʰti unique iʰti (Rodman) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas iye ʰwalẽ unique Compare Camsa "míya" uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris yewö, uli yewa (Zent 05) doubtful loan, direction unknown Piaroa Piaroa owo; Cf. yewö, uli yewa (Zent 05) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea ka'wa doubtful loan Arawak; cf. Nadeb uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura uaihlo unique uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum jkawai ʰkawoi loan Carib Eñepa "kowae; kawae kawaejoʔ", Makushi and Makiritare"kawai" and other Carib uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria woi unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. chejko loan Carib, esp. Makiritare ʃahoko Carijona "tʃaha’ko", Makushi "ʃahoko" (also Wapishana "tʃakui") uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ʰtawɨ ʰtawɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella urihkuayo uli ʰkʷayo unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui jkayena jele (Pouteria venosa) (Zent 02b), duwëna jyaï (Pouteria caimito) (Zent 02b) unique cf. duwëna jyaï (Pouteria caimito) (Zent 02b) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae uli bole bũʰwoli loan; unique Pume cf. bũʰwoli (Rodman), uli bole (Zent) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita mu jadi (possibly plural) (Zent 05) bũhã unique cf. mu jadi (possibly plural) (Zent 05), bũhã (Rodman) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus uli jkwayo (Zent 05) loan North Arawak; Piapoco kuwairi see Piapoco cuwáiri, Yucuna kuwatá uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia uli wejkao, uli weʰkao ʰyaɨ (Pourouma melinonii) (Zent 02a), jani iya wejiolo jyaï (Pourouma guianensis) (Zent 02b), uli wejkao (P. cecropiaefolia) (Zent 08) unknown cf. uli wejkao, uli weʰkao ʰyaɨ (Pourouma melinonii) (Zent 02a), jani iya wejiolo jyaï (Pourouma guianensis) (Zent 02b) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. duëno më, uli më (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) (Zent 08) iye; ʰwalẽ unique duëno më, uli më (Zent 08) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yiwi jewi doubtful loan Jivaro See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kwatɨ'bo ʰkʷãʰtɨbo unique See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool lĩbẽlã ho lĩbẽlã ho bow, arrow? unique hunting, warfare See Language page Brittany Weinstein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tote unique Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Brittany Weinstein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material təna'na; tota wõihta; bĩhĩ unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material lãla Unique Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ʰkʷã lãka ʰkʷã lãka bead, necklace unique Other complex ʰkʷã 'throat' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bed cama cama culture-material abui tekai abui tekai unique Other complex tekai occurs in many words having to do with non-Indian material objects See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material towãkĩ tekai towãkĩ tekai unique Other complex tekai occurs in many words having to do with non-Indian material objects See Language page Brittany Weinstein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool hoana / hwana unique Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bow arco arco subsistence tool lĩbẽlã ho lĩbẽlã ho bow, arrow? unique arco See Language page Brittany Weinstein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material oatileka / nehuatilekahae ʰlẽi ʰwatɨ tekai (te-ka-hai) unique Also: nehuauatilekahae See Language page Brittany Weinstein
canoe canoa canoa transport maluhke / bo unique Also: bo; compare Warekena muɺupewe See Language page Brittany Weinstein
cat gato gato acculturation yewi 'dog, cat'; [kato] cat, dog [maybe also jaguar??] semantic shift; loan cf. 'dog' (loan); English Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation walalu walalu hen unique Spanish? Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food kã'mĩũnãĩ Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Brittany Weinstein
dance (generic) culture-mythology bẽʰlã ʰtɨ̃ ʰtɨ̃ Unique Other complex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hoaile unique Simplex hunting and warfare See Language page Brittany Weinstein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Brittany Weinstein
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology apui apui unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ʰkule ʰkaʰwe unique Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Brittany Weinstein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology yewo ʰtu wayaka unique Other complex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
firewood leña lenha other kule ʰkule bo unique Also: kule Other complex ʰkule 'fire'; bo 'log, wood'? See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food ʰkãʰkã hu unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool bãʰtulẽ Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool ʰkãʰkã hu unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool bõʰtõ laho unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Brittany Weinstein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ʰyowã loan - WW %porowa Akawaio prowa; Wapishana phuruuma; Sikuani bawa WW %porowa agriculture See Language page Brittany Weinstein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tahwibo (2 holes) buhwabo (8 holes) ʰtaʰwibo; ʰwãbo 8 holed unique Also: Buhwabo:2 holes Other complex Probably contains bo 'log, wood'? multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Brittany Weinstein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food hati animal unique Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Brittany Weinstein
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool uhte jlaboju (Zent 08) gourd unique; unique Carib See Language page Brittany Weinstein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool (yuca grater) maniahki unique Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Brittany Weinstein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology konta'ta konta'ta unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Brittany Weinstein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ʰwãlã unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material diye/tiye unique Also: tiye Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
hat sombero chapéu dress tuwayaka unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Brittany Weinstein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
honey miel mel food culu'ma ma'yona məh'kəbu 'mena bãilã unique Also: bãilã (Rodman IDS) Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Brittany Weinstein
hunt cazar caçar food kulunge'da unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material maye loan - WW %marije, prob. via Carib, e.g. Tiriyo maja Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
machete machete facão culture-material ela ya'la unique North Arawak Also: ela Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool to'ta ʰtota doubtful loan cf. Tukanoan, Puinave Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other mena laho unique Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Brittany Weinstein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
paper papel papel acculturation da da unique Other complex ʰya 'leaf' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ʰtota hele ʰtota hele unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material bĩhĩ unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool to unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ñaə wa'debabo unique Other complex ʰtu 'top (of something)' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool du'yata du'yata unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
salt sal sal food ka'bayǝ doubtful loan Piaroa kɁærue buɨh See Language page Brittany Weinstein
school escuela escola acculturation anuediteka anuediteka unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress menahesta menahesta shoe unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology lo'balei'te to sing unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool luhkui luʰkʷi unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ale ale tapioca, manioc, cassava doubtful loan Arawak or Carib ule Compare Achagua See Language page Brittany Weinstein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material ih'tɨ missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ʰkalãlã 'sugar cane' ʰkalãlã 'sugar cane' sugar doubtful loan Spanish Compound ʰkalãlã 'grease' ('tasty'??) + ʰyowã 'grains' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food yu fermented drink unique Other complex yu 'drink' agriculture See Language page Brittany Weinstein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material bãlaya unique Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food liye (or strainer?) unique Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Brittany Weinstein
tobacco (native) narcotics ʰkawoi Loan Carib Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Brittany Weinstein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool malaba unique Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Brittany Weinstein
wax cera cera other me'nau beeswax unique Also: me'nau Other complex bãilã 'honey' See Language page Brittany Weinstein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool liye ʰliye (or tipiti?) unique Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Brittany Weinstein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material nala lãla unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Brittany Weinstein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Brittany Weinstein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology toto unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ǫ́nowóka (soul, spirit generic term); yue 'spirit'; aweila 'soul, spirit' unknown See Language page Brittany Weinstein
paddle/oar remo remo transport malukuehte / hore' unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ulike unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Brittany Weinstein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture wike ʰyu unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Brittany Weinstein
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
house other nowe lũwe unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
300 small HG low mobile