2pl

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
ustedes
Meaning Portuguese
vocês

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ynnyn (sg), myhwyh (dl), mymmyn (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla et inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok miko\7 inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi mym(i)/ (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno p-ij- (pl; du is p-ish-); p-ij-ky (indep) inheritance Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno pishche (2), piche (pl) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno p-, p-ish- dual, p-ij- plural A 166 A 166 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno pikshy7 (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno pi7 inheritance Jane Hill
Cocopa see “thou” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche yny (sg), myhy, mykwy (dl), myny (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño em [Ɂəm] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen nomeT “You pl.) unknown Shaul 1995:197, 209 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7omoma (pl)- inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa menyawaap [məɲaˈwaˑp] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu mumi inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok mi/kko (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño 7om-o/m (?) inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu mi/; mi/ncy “you all”, mi/nc'e “you two” inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave manych, many inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun makam inheritance O77:159, 165 Jane Hill
Nisenan mimik'e inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute ymy (pl) inheritance SAA 1982 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok miko- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A mo:m (A), you pl. unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M mom unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ma- (plural subject) unknown Jane Hill
Serrano i:m inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute mym:i- you plur; -ngwy (encl) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok mi-ko (plur) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute ymY (sg), mynI (dl, pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal pum, puumu (subj plur) inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone ymmi inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo mi/si inheritance Jane Hill
Washo mi/: unknown J? Jane Hill
Western Mono yy/qwa (you pl.) inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu mil inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ma/chvchi inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami ma7an (2Pl; there is a dual) inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi mam 270 inheritance K07:261,270 Jane Hill
Yuki mo7os, mos inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Arabana [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Bardi ar-, ara- ar-, ara- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu nyeli inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhuwala nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Diyari yura inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Djapu nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Djinang ildji inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng genyegerr inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi gidi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gurindji nyurrulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi kurr kurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri -nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija nengkerrepen inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung nenggurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka yura inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra nyuntu tartu semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngamini yuRu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma nyindaguru semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl koorrgarda, yinnara <koorrgarda, yinnara> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi yurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru gor kor inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta wirrmanangulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina kurrka kurrka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul kore korre inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi yubalugu loan English Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta nhura inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
Walmajarri nyurrawarnti inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Warrwa n kurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu nyili inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha yura inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi yurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka yurra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru kurryirr kurryirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua ijá ijá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco píacué píakué See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna iká iká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana iha iha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa hía hía inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro ha?á, i- (imperative) haʔá, i- (impeɾative) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warekena ni-ya ni-ja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero niya-ha nija-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana ɨnau ɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi xiso ʃitso inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure yi-'ti ji-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá yi-c̷u ji-¢u inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora ámïḯʔ-a {pl}, ámïʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, ámïʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} ámɯɯ́ʔ-a {pl}, ámɯʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, ámɯʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane amɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, amɨ́ɨ́-si {m.d.}, amɨ́ɨ́-ɸe {f.d.} amɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, amɨ́ɨ́-si {m.d.}, amɨ́ɨ́-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect amɤrɤʔnɔkoŋ amɤrɤʔnɔkoŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai amarokomo amarokomo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ëmëlam kom ǝmǝlam kom inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona aɲamoro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó ëmënjamo ǝmǝnjamo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa aɲimonton aɲimonton inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makiritare ənwanno (IDS); önwanno (KH) ənwanno inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Makushi á-mɨ-rɨ́-nɨ-kóŋ á-mɨ-rɨ́-nɨ-kóŋ inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Mapoyo ankotomo ankotomo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon amörönokon (M2000) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai amyamro amyamro inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa amora a'mots̺a See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca mie mie See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá bʉ́ bʉ́ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán que'i kʸɛʔi See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra siya sija unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro inte intɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez incuexs inkueʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna pemax [3, 4] pemaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ɲaaɾa ɲa:ɽa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tɕɨngabtánga tɕɨngabtánga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke kə̃ə kə̃ə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani bĩ-di-tõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï kyeti doubtful loan Cofan kʸɛʔi See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Pumé mẽnẽrõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave yam jam unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao yatu, -ya yatu, -ya See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar atúm atum See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa atum atum See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna átum átum inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup nɨ́ŋ ~dɨ́g inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Yuhup dɨ̌̃g ~dɨ̌g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Dâw nʉg nɨg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses mi, mibi mi, mibi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo ka- ka- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jirye xirje unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua canguna kanguna See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa ukutu ukutu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ũcuhdo ũkuʔdo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ~bɨa ~bɨa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo mʉja mɨxa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana mʉjãã mɨyãã See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano mʉa mɨa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria ~bʉsa mʉ̃sã inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Makuna ~bɨa ~bɨa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti bɨ̃́hã bɨ̃́hã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bɨ-'sã bɨ-'sã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano mʉʉsá mɨɨsá See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca bĩhã bĩhã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bɨ̃-'hã bɨ̃-'hã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tukano mʉsã́ mɨsã́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka 'bɨ̃ã ʔbɨ̃ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bɨ̃́hã bɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki mɨsa mɨsa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Koreguaje mʉsanʉko mʉsanʉko inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona mɨ̃ʔɨ̃-sa-koʔa; mɨ̃sakʷa mɨ̃ʔɨ̃-sa-koʔa; mɨ̃sakʷa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya mësaru mɨsa'řu See Language page Amanda N
Nheengatu peyẽ pejẽ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Kokama epe epe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi pɛ-; pɛyɛ pɛ-; pɛjɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó hẽ hẽ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá pehê pehê inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina mon(hto)[pl], monxho (m.dual.),monhca (f.dual.) mõ(ʔto)[pl], mõxʔo (m.dual.),mõʔka (f.dual.) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto ómaï {pl}, ómaï-ko {m.d.} ómaɯ {pl}, ómaɯ-ko {m.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ómoï {pl}, ómï-koï {m.d.}, ómï-ŋo {f.d.} ómoɯ {pl}, ómɯ-koɯ {m.d.}, ómɯ-ŋo {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto omoï {pl}, omï-ko {m.d.}, omï-ñoï {f.d.} omoɯ {pl}, omɯ-ko {m.d.}, omɯ-ɲoɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam kahowamak; wamak, kaho wehekə (dual, Em72), kaho wamakə (pl. EM72) kahowamak; wamak, kaho wehekə, kaho wamakə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam kafɨ wafɨk (dual EM72), kafɨ wamakə (pl. EM72) kafɨ wafɨk (dual EM72), kafɨ wamakə (pl. EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami wa-makɨ, kahə wahəkɨ (dual EM72), kahə wamakɨ (pl. EM72) wa-makɨ, kahə wahəkɨ (dual EM72), kahə wamakɨ (pl. EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá kaomak (plural EM72) kaomak (plural EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito quina-, quináaja (stand-alone pronominal form) kina-, kináaha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo kinya, kinyaha kinja, kinjaha See Language page Becky Walker
Wari wahuʔ wahuʔ See Language page PLE Emphatic pronoun.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo mi-kiana; mi-kiana-ya mi-kiana; mi-kiana-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña mi-kʷana; mi-kʷana-ra (The former is the absolutive form, the latter is the ergative form) mi-kʷana; mi-kʷana-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá xyitsɛ xyitsɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima i-ɓi i-ɓi See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai hi-uan hi-uan unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ãjag ʔãyaŋ See Language page PLE