Ngumbarl

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
XXX
Location
-17.54°, 122.43°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yarreedee <yarreedee> inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngai, ngaia ngay(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar koorrgarda, yinnara <koorrgarda, yinnara> inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar joo, jooa juwa inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tchammin, yeeramulla jamin, yirrmala inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ginying kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location kalboo baaloo goon <kalboo baaloo goon> inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Claire Bowern
alive meejala maaboo, noonja mijala mabu semantic shift Claire Bowern
all todo todos other manja, yarreedee <manja, yarreedee> unknown Claire Bowern
and y e grammar missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body nemedee, nimardee nimirdi semantic shift Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body nimbarrama nimbarrama inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental missing Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment yoola, kajjoorda kajurda inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -kun -kun inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body nēlgun niyalgun inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality lalgar <lalgar> semantic shift Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body noongoo noongoo inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jinbin <jinbin> inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality weedoo <weedoo> doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body moor, moonboongai <moor, moonboongai> unknown Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour rerrga, koorrba <rerrga, koorrba> unknown Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body koorurr kururr inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality noombo, noomboo neelirr <noombo, noomboo neelirr> inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kanjee kanyji inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture lanjee <lanjee> semantic shift Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ningamboo ningambu semantic shift Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngeerurr ŋirurr unknown Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment noorogoon wanma <noorogoon wanma> inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kabboo <kabboo> semantic shift Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human wooba wuba inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion laggal <laggal> inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ngoombal <ngoombal> unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality binja, beenja <binja, beenja> inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion Bowna, kallamboo inja <Bowna, kallamboo inja> inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact wandumbulla wandumbala unknown Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental wangooroo waŋkurru inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact noondin wangara <noondin wangara> unique Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state jillalee ngarring <jillalee ngarring> unknown Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact woditch <woditch> unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna yeela meeda yila mida semantic shift Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality boondoor <boondoor> semantic shift Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental boogarree <boogarree> loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body woola gabboo, woola kabboo woola gabboo, woola kabboo semantic shift Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality weejool beerrmal <weejool beerrmal> inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment joolbarra <joolbarra> inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body neelabub nilabab inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment booroo <booroo> inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body cabboo, kabboo kabu inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna laggooroo laggooroo inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body neemee, nyeemee nimi inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion missing Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality marragup <marragup> inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body lēda liida inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship eebala ibala inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental wajja <wajja> inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna jallowa, jallow <jallowa, jallow> inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment bundaring <bundaring> unknown Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna wallee warli inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion yoongurdeej <yoongurdeej> unique Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment nyeemarr <nyeemarr> unique Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion missing Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment weedoo lammamun <weedoo lammamun> unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body nimbal nimbal inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mai <mai> inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality maaboo mabu inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state yeega dowin, beendain <yeega dowin, beendain> unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body baaloo balu inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body neemala nimala inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body nalma, nalm nalm inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental milla munk, meela gurra <milla munk, meela gurra> inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality deeoo, inbunding <deeoo, inbunding> semantic shift Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion mimmagooloo <mimmagooloo> inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nalma indalm nowloo <nalma indalm nowloo> inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact weeraboo, weerab, weerab wanji <weeraboo, weerab, weerab wanji> doubtful loan Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ngabbooganda <ngabbooganda> inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body noongoo nungu semantic shift Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body tchabboo tchabboo jabu inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact jillellee inma, m?k <jillellee inma, m?k> inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental neela <neela> inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment kalung-unja, jarra wai, woola manja, jargora *diacritic <kalung-unja, jarra wai, woola manja, jargora *diacritic> unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental jooa woora <jooa woora> unique Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment wirrgin, beeramal <wirrgin, beeramal> inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body neemala ngalgarraman nimala inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body nimmardee nimardi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion wallar <wallar> unique Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wal-ng?ree <wal-ng?ree> unique Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body kabir kabir inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality yeewarla <yeewarla> inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ballool balul inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body barrja barrja semantic shift Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wallee <wallee> inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment meerijal, koonyool <meerijal, koonyool> inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship beebee bibi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body neelerr neelerr inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human nyillowel nyilawil inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body nimmana nimana inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality Lannee mai yareera marrin <Lannee mai yareera marrin> unique Yawuru? Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body nimmana nimana inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality maaboo <maaboo> inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ngoomberra, ngoora weedee, ngoombereeda <ngoomberra, ngoora weedee, ngoombereeda> inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar maaloo <maaloo> inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body neemalul nimalal inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality tabboolyoo, tchabboolyoo <tabboolyoo, tchabboolyoo> inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number warrinjarree <warrinjarree> inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar warrin, warrain <warrin, warrain> inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body dardal dardal unique Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human womba wamba inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body tchoolngoor yeega <tchoolngoor yeega> unique Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment woolainbul <woolainbul> inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour doggul, dogul, doogul <doggul, dogul, doogul> unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body neemala pandoorngun neemala pandoorngun inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture maggoor <maggoor> inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora nimmarunga <nimmarunga> inheritance Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality karrail <karrail> unique Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment burnda, joolburra <burnda, joolburra> inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact tchabboo-tchabboo <tchabboo-tchabboo> unique Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental minjalla, nganjalla, jalla <minjalla, nganjalla, jalla> inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality neelirr <neelirr> semantic shift Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality rooburoo <rooburoo> inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body koondeejan koondeejan inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state annee meejala animijala inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body beererr, birrerr beererr, birrerr unique Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment kalboo, koorrwal <kalboo, koorrwal> inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body koolin kulin inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality oobarda, oobardoo <oobarda, oobardoo> inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body Yangee banjo <Yangee banjo> inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment boorgoon, marrja, ngool ngool <boorgoon, marrja, ngool ngool> inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body missing Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact kal warrara <kal warrara> unique Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kool yo wangara <kool yo wangara> unique Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact yingarrin mungoorl goon, jarrbangoojarra <yingarrin mungoorl goon, jarrbangoojarra> inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yalgoo, yaalgoo <yalgoo, yaalgoo> inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment koonyool <koonyool> inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other wangalainbee, ingalaimbee <wangalainbee, ingalaimbee> inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment ngarril <ngarril> unique Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time roomarra, walga rumarra inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body noondoor, noondur noondoor, noondur inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion kallooree yananginna <kallooree yananginna> inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar nyamba, kamba, ginya <nyamba, kamba, ginya> inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality weera <weera> unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental missing Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nyamba <nyamba> inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number koordidee <koordidee> unknown Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body longura, langura longura, langura inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact mungoorl goon mungurl inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment naia <naia> unique Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wonboora gundee <wonboora gundee> unique Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body nengul, neungala nengul, neungala inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body tcharringa, jarringa jarringka inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality Maaloo nungarra <Maaloo nungarra> semantic shift Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Claire Bowern
two dos dois number koojarra <koojarra> inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion yeenja yeenja inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment woola, oola <woola, oola> inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality woolannee <woolannee> semantic shift Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar yangee <yangee> inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar banna <banna> inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar janna, janna goon <janna, janna goon> inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour karrmul <karrmul> unique Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar yanga, yangee <yanga, yangee> inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship jeemarree jimarri inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal koolarra wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body jailow <jailow> unknown Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human jandoo jarndu inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other booragool <booragool> unknown Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngallerr yoongoolain ngallerr yoongoolain unique Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour goomb?ree <goomb?ree> inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis yalwa yalwa unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae leerangunna ngunna leerangunna ngunna unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus jallingmur, tchallingmer jallingmur, tchallingmer inheritance underived? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii pajjalburra pajjalburra inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia karriŋbu unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba tcheerwel tcheerwel inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp minnaminna minyaminya loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wallee warli semantic shift ‘meat’ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri ngarree burn inheritance 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae <moogain> <moogain> semantic shift fly underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda koordoorwain koordoorwain inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus jee babboonan jee babboonan unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula langoor langoor inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) leeree unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius windeegur windeegur loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis gilala gilala doubtful loan cf Gooniyandi underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis parrgurra parrgurra inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera binda binda binda binda inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota mandikurr unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera yoojunÕnungain yoojunÕnungain unique compound? 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) booganool booganool unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda rabbir-abul rabbir-abul inheritance derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo yeela meeda yeela meeda semantic shift dog underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris yeela meeda yeela meeda inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae tchibbilyooroo, jibbilyooroo tchibbilyooroo, jibbilyooroo semantic shift underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong koordoorngan koordoorngan unique derived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta jeeraburra jeeraburra unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae winninee winninee inheritance WW %wini reduplicated 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lammidee lammidee unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) nyeemarr nyeemarr unique compound? 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera moogain moogain inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) nimmanburroo balŋabi inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni longoora longoora semantic shift Saltwater WW %linykurra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni bukarrakulan unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) waljaburring waljaburring unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla wandalanjin unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) koolibel koolibel inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) goonooroo, marrinyarree goonooroo, marrinyarree inheritance underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp jallangurdee jallangurdee unique derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) marra marra loan with meaning change Worrorra WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera jinÕbala <jinÕbala> inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis koorowel semantic shift? 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus ballool unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae loolooloo semantic shift missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae parrjanning parrjanning inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera jinjin-boo jinjin-boo unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) ngooloo ngooloo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus jalboo jalboo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus karringboo karringboo unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya walla munga, kanbur walla munga, kanbur inheritance underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida jooga jooga jooga jooga inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp go-arn go-arn inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis koorowel koorowel inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis kartgoo kartgoo inheritance underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tharree-ul, darreeal tharree-ul, darreeal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum boorrgoo boorrgoo unique underived 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta lanjangin lanjangin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae boogarragoolan boogarragoolan unique compound? 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha tcharrambul tcharrambul inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna goarn, reejee, banmungo, derdel gabbooga goarn, reejee, banmungo, derdel gabbooga inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus kammerangoo kammerangoo inheritance WW %kamaranginy underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tchooroo tchooroo inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae wongarra wongarra inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing <> missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae yamburna yamburna inheritance perhaps with meaning change WW ??tyarrampu underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura mijuwa inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita kallera kallera unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides boorool boorool inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera nyeerwa nyeerwa unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) nyeelgooroo nyeelgooroo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata nimmalgan, ganbur nimmalgan, ganbur unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangadee wangadee inheritance WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) baaloo baaloo inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax moongoonoo moongoonoo unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) tchoogurdoo unique missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna baaloo baalu inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna booya <booya> inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wallee warli semantic shift Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna moogain <moogain> inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yeela yeela meeda inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna marra <marra> semantic shift Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna parrjanning barrjaniŋ inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tchooroo jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wongarra <wongarra> inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress kundil loan Yawuru or Karajarri Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kumbara loan direction unknown used yuwana; said also to mean ‘crab’ by N&W Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material <ba:loo> inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool <lanjee> semantic shift Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport <kalwa> semantic shift Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology moogurdal inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool <nowloo> inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food wandumbala unique Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology <nooloo, boorup> inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology <boogarree> inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool <woobaba:loo> missing Claire Bowern
fire-saw other wupalu unique Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool yuliyulu unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool not found in area missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food kuwatya unique Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food warli inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology <ngarree> inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology jimbin semantic shift Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food <geerbaljoo, moonga> inheritance Claire Bowern
house (European) other <nyeerwa, nyeerrwa> semantic shift Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food pira unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology mupalin unique Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material <tchindibal> unique Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport tyaluŋ unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology <doggul, dogul, doogul> unknown Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food missing Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other nyirrwa inheritance Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology <nooloo> inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mungurl unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material <wondongoo, ba:loo> semantic shift Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics <gilala> loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other missing Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation missing Claire Bowern
corpse food juwarri inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation missing Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress missing Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture moongoo <moongoo> unknown Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin <milgin> inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yoongara yungara loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mungoorl mungurl inheritance Claire Bowern
house other nyeerwa, nyeerrwa <nyeerwa, nyeerrwa> unknown Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense sedentary yes