salt

Semantic Field
food
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
sal
Meaning Portuguese
sal

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla iŋ-ił salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño yewal salt unique Merriam confirms 48:511 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño engla salt, salt lick inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino ongo:r (H) salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
Serrano čuka't salt semantic shift *coka Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller tso-03 'sour' other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hyavi-t salt unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ungāl salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim ung-ahl salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7owa-vi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 7owavI rock-salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute oavI salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute 7oa-vI salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone ongwapi, omapi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone oha-pin salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche onaabI salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex R Jane Hill
Western Mono omAbi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute ongabe salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- (pMi) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:33 siplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kójjo salt inheritance *koj:o- Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu bám wasása salt inheritance *ba Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362; bahm Merriam 41:285 phrase wasása 'things, stuff, material, ingredients' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan ba7, ba salt inheritance *ba Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani khuyu7 salt inheritance *khuyu7 Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi koi'-yo salt inheritance Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Merriam 44:353 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami kā'-yu salt inheritance Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Washo 7uŋábi, 7aŋabi salt loan Northern Paiute simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu weL, we:L salt inheritance *we(:)L Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:194 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki kum salt inheritance *kum Proto-North Yukian simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo čúme salt inheritance Proto-Yukian simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
Mutsun 7akkes salt inheritance *7akW:es ? Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:105 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen mak-h<a-la-na salt unknown Henshaw other complex ncs suffix -na attested here Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta:kai/' salt unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M Takai/ salt unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tepu7 salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7esily salt inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa ş7ir salt inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7ath7ii salt inheritance Proto-Yuman see Yavapai 7thí: simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai 7thí: salt inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa kw+7iy salt (what is salty) inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 derived not transparent for kw+7il-y 'what is salty' Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hantíp salt unknown hmm, note Chumashan *tip 'salt' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua nɨm-ni nɨm-ni unique Also ʧûj-ʧǎʔ 'salt.plant-clːlong.leaves' Derived be.salty-adjvz See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu yukira (C11) jukira (C11) inheritance - WW *jukɨr Proto-Tupi-Guarani Donor: Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb RN juki:ɾ; Cubeo jukila, etc. Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani kati (IDS) loan Quechua katʃi See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï ka'bayǝ doubtful loan Piaroa kɁærue buɨh See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami mositima, mitirimɨ, sayu (MM07) mositima, mitirimɨ, saju (MM07) unique; loan Span/Port (via Carib?) Alternate: mitirimɨ, saju Derived mositi “to salt”, -ma nominalizer? See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam sayu saju loan Span/Port (via Carib?) May originate in Span/Port sal Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam waihok waihok Doutbtful loan Pemon Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria moa moa inheritance/sem shift? original meaning 'salt plant' Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo yuquira jukira loan - WW %jukira Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira la may mark mass nouns? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano moâ' (HR 97) moâʔ (HR 97) inheritance/sem shift? original meaning 'salt plant' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano moa moa inheritance/sem shift? original meaning 'salt plant' Simplex See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki cachi ja katʃi xã loan Quechua Simplex xã= neuter noun classifier See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup b'ǒh b'ǒh unknown Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw xiìl’ xîl’ loan - WW %jukira Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani jaho jaho loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC Saliba ʤeho Also: yáyo (Rivet 1948) Simplex See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan yója jóha loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC Saliba ʤeho Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero dom dom loan Achagua/Piapoco Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon pan, sararu (A1981); waiyoo (E 1980) pan, sararu (A1981); waijoo (E 1980) inheritance; loan Akawaio-Pemon Span/Port Alternate: pan, sararu See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio waiyoo waɪjo unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi pan pan inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa paamë; sayu (MM) paamë; saju (MM) inheritance; loan Proto-Carib? Span/Port Alternate: saju See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna yukira; (híwi=carurú) (R01) jukiɾa; (híwi=carurú) (R01) loan - WW; inheritance %jukira Alternate: hiwi (vegetable salt used in ceremonies). Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana íwi íwi rock salt inheritance *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana d̨i̵u d̨i̵u loan - WW *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa íiwi (=carurú, R01) íiwi (=carurú, R01) inheritance *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro kanaamáʔo; iíwi (R01) kanaamáʔo; iíwi (R01) table salt loan; inheritance Bora Alternate: iiví (rock salt) ʔó = classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
Warrwa birimbirri unknown Claire Bowern
Gumatj dye'la inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal dye'la inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu dye'la inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu dye7la inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra dyoḻp unique Claire Bowern
Bardi ka:ra loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul ka:ri, karr loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
Yulparija kari inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru kari loan Ngumpin-Yapa WW %kari Claire Bowern
Karajarri karimarta unique Claire Bowern
Djinang munatya semantic shift Claire Bowern
Mangala rlaŋa loan with semantic shift Warnman < dirt Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu rrathaŋu semantic shift salt water Claire Bowern
Ngarluma tyintharr doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyinytyirr unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri karaka inheritance karaka not in dict; kara bitter, salty= langa WW %kerrela karaka not in dict; kara bitter, salty= langa Patrick McConvell
Jaru lungkarru inheritance listed as 'grey' in dict of hair Patrick McConvell
Gurindji karang inheritance WW %kerrela Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi langa loan Walmajarri Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng koyokin inheritance Miriwung karram Patrick McConvell
Kija kilyarn loan direction unknown Mir. Karram Gaj. Kerrelangarin On karampa. Kula WW %kerrela Patrick McConvell
Miriwung karram loan direction unknown Gaj. Kerrelang WW %kerrela Patrick McConvell
Jingulu lungkarru inheritance Patrick McConvell
Achagua iwíduma iwíduma inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco iwi(duma) (R01) iwi(duma) (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari íiwi íiwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena yukira (LG loan) jukira See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero yu'kira juʔkira See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi salo salo loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure 'čobi ~ 'čobe tʃobi ~ 'tʃobe inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ɨhɨwɨ ɨhɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora cánáámaá (salt); ume (salt made from plants) kʰánáámaá (salt); ume (sal de monte) unknown; inheritance loan into Resigaro? direction uncertain See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ɨ́muhu 'salt'; átyóga 'sal de monte' (W97) ɨ́muʔu 'salt'; átjóga 'sal de monte' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai sautu sautu loan Dutch (via creole) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana pëma pǝma inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona hame inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Makiritare sayu (IDS); sa :yu (KH) saju (IDS); sa:ju (KH) loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai yɨmɨtɨ jɨmɨtɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari bakyma 'sour, salt' bakɨma 'sour, salt' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa pam pam See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca nygua, niwa nɨgua, niwa See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá tã (IDS) tã (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán ansi ansi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra yomi jomi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro chane ʃanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez nega [loan Muisca?] nega [loan Muisca?] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna yu3cü3ra5 jukɨra loan - WW %jukira See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina tebe tebe loan - WW %tewe See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke ñɒ'kɒ ñɒʔkɒ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé ya-goe-mẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave sa-yu sa-yu loan Span/Port See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar wee wee See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa wee wee See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna wɨɨ wɨɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses sa sa loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo čopara čopara loan Cayuvava (direction unknown), prob. originally Arawak, cf. Baure tʃobi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua tivyiy tiwjij loan - WW %tewe See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua cachi katʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kachi katʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua cachi catʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano kachi katʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa k'Erue buɨh kɁærue buɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llejo ʤeho loan, direction unknown Macaguan, Sikuani See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano bõã bõã See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana moa moa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna moa moa inheritance/sem shift? See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti bṍã bṍã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bõ'ã bõ'ã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano bõ'ã́ bõ'ã́ See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca dyu'kira dju'kira loan - WW %jukira See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bõ'ã bõ'ã See Language page
Tuyuka móa móa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bṍã bṍã See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje ũha ũha inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ʔõwa ʔõwa inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ã'si ã'si See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana tawara 'salty' tawara 'salty' loan - WW %tewe See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama tewe, tsewe tewe, tsewe loan - WW %tewe See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi [sautu]; yukɨ (palm ash salt) [sautu]; jukɨ (palm ash salt) loan; inheritance Dutch, via Creole/Wayana See Language page PLE
Sirionó emikesa (Literally that which gives flavor) emikesa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá jukɨt (K12) jukɨt (K12) inheritance - WW See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina jááidya hááidja unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto ɯ́.aitaɯ ɯ́.aitaɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ɯ́.aiθaɯ ɯ́.aiθaɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto ɯ.aiθaɯ ɯ.aiθaɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito isája isáha (Sp) loan Spanish or possibly Arawak, cf. čewe forms See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ichahwa iʧahwa See Language page Becky Walker
Wari namaje (Sousa2009) namaje (Sousa2009) From Portuguese. See Language page PLE
Cavineña bano bano inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá tsɛ̃ tsɛ̃ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ɗoyon̉ ɗojon̉ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai iakɨr iakɨr loan - WW %jukira See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang sa (loan Pt?) (IDS) sa See Language page PLE
Suyá katua katua See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi kukänĩ kukǝnĩ See Language page PLE