Apalai

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
apy
Location
1.50°, -54.75°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Koehn, Edward H. and Koehn, Sally S. 1995. Vocabulário básico Apalaí-Português: Dicionário da língua Apalaí. Brasilia: Sociedade Internacional de Lingüística.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location epoe epoe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
and y e grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment oruno oruno inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
at en, a em, a location See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
back espalda costas body mypa, opya mɨpa, opɨa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bad mal mal quality missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
belly barriga barriga body imone, waku imone, waku unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
below abajo, debajo abaixo location muahtaka muahtaka unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
big grande grande quality eeryhpo, imo, inũme,konõto, zumo eerɨhpo, imo, inũme,konõto, zumo unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
black negro preto colour xinukutume xinukutume inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blood sangre sangue body munu munu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body zae zae unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bone hueso osso body zehpo zehpo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
breast pecho, seno peito body manaty, purohpo, puropu manatɨ, purohpo, puropu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
child niño, niña criança human poeto poeto unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cloud nube nuvem environment akuru akuru inheritance but compare Arawak, e.g. Piapoco akalèe See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cold frío frio quality kõxikene kõxikene inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality nymyry nɨmɨrɨ unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
day día dia time tia tia loan Portuguese See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dirty sucio sujo quality taputapume, xikurome taputapume, xikurome inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dry seco seco quality tonore tonore inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tohpyraro tohpɨraro See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dust polvo poeira environment putoh ãko putoh ãko See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ear oreja orelha body pana pana inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono nono inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
egg huevo ovo fauna ihmo ihmo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
eye ojo olho body onu onu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
far lejos longe quality mya mɨa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fat/grease grasa gordura body tykasere tɨkasere unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
father padre, papá pai kinship papa papa doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
feather pluma pena fauna oroko eny oroko enɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fire fuego fogo environment apoto apoto inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flower flor flor environment ekuru ekuru inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment putokane putokane See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fruit fruta fruta flora epery eperɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
good bueno bom quality kure kure inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body õsehpo õsehpo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hand mano mão body oma oma inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ynoro, ynororo ɨnoro, ɨnororo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
head cabeza cabeça body upuhpo upuhpo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
heavy pesado pesado quality omoxiny omoxinɨ inheritance cf. Carijona See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
how? como como grammar otãto otãto unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1sg yo eu grammar ywy ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
if si se grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ao ao inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
intestines intestinos intestinos body wahxiriri (fino), wehtoto (grosso) wahxiriri (fino), wehtoto (grosso) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lake lago lago environment ikuhpo ikuhpo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leaf hoja folha environment zary zarɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ipoozery ipoozerɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leg/foot pierna perna body axi axi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment konomeru konomeru semantic shift thunder See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
liver hígado figado body ore ore inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
long largo comprido, longo quality mosa mosa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna azamo azamo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
man/male hombre homem human orutua orutua inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
meat/flesh carne carne fauna punu, tõsemy punu, tõsemɨ inheritance; unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
moon luna lua environment nuno nuno inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship eny, ẽ enɨ, ẽ loan Arawak See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mouth boca boca body myta, pota mɨta, pota inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
name nombre nome human esety esetɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
near/close cerca de perto quality tano tano See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
neck cuello pescoço body pymy pɨmɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
new nuevo novo quality exisene, kasenato exisene, kasenato unique; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
night noche noite time koko koko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
no/not no não grammar unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
nose nariz nariz body ouna ouna inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
old viejo velho quality pakato, tamuxi, tamuxime pakato, tamuxi, tamuxime inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
one uno um number toiro toiro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
other otro outro grammar imepyny, tyoro imepɨnɨ, tɨoro unique; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kurepyra, rupome kurepɨra, rupome unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
person/human being persona pessoa human ahno ahno unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rain lluvia chuva environment konopo konopo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
red rojo vermelho colour kamirarame, tahpire kamirarame, tahpire inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
road/path camino caminho manufacture sorohme sorohme inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
root raíz raiz flora imity, mity imitɨ, mitɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rotten podrido podre quality nuriame nuriame unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sand arena areia environment isawany isawanɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality taere taere unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
short corto curto quality mytyhse mɨtɨhse unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoulder hombro ombro body imotary imotarɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ihxipỹke (feminine) ihxipɨ̃ke (feminine) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
skin piel pele body pihpo, pihpyry pihpo, pihpɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sky cielo céu environment kapu kapu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
small pequeño pequeno quality exipyra ro exipɨra ro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
smoke humo fumaça environment orexĩto orexĩto inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
star estrella estrela environment xirikuato xirikuato inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora nonoaty, wewe nonoatɨ, wewe unknown; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stone piedra pedra environment suhpari, topu suhpari, topu unique; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tail cola, rabo rabo body arokyry arokɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
that ese/esa esse grammar mose mose inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar enaroro enaroro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality topuxixime topuxixime inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thin delgado fino quality pipahme pipahme inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
this este/esta este grammar seny, mororo, mose senɨ, mororo, mose inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
2sg xx xx grammar omoro omoro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
throat garganta garganta body esenamuru, osena esenamuru, osena inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
three tres tres number oseruao oseruao inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thunder truenos trovão environment konomeru konomeru inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bite morder morder body emuhkãko emuhkãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blow soplar soprar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
breathe respirar respirar body eunatãko eunatãko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
burn quemar queimar environment jahkãko jahkãko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
climb subir subir motion onuhnõko onuhnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
come venir vir motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ahnõko, tyẽko ahnõko, tɨẽko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
count contar contar mental ekãtõko ekãtõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cry llorar chorar mental xitãko xitãko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ihkohnõko ihkohnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
die/be dead morir morrer state orihnõko orihnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dig cavar cavar impact axikahpyry axikahpɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dream soñar sonhar mental osenehnõko osenehnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drink beber, tomar beber body ẽnõko ẽnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
eat comer comer body õnõko õnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fall caer cair motion epukãko epukãke inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fear miedo medo mental zuno zuno inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fly volar voar motion pekã pekã inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grow crecer crescer state ahtãko ahtãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hear oír ouvir mental etãko etãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hide esconder esconder motion otonånõko otonånõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ipipohnõko ipipohnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
kill matar matar impact owõko owõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental zuaro zuaro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
laugh reír rir mental eunohnõko eunohnõko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ataxikãko ataxikãko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ehse ehse unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
open/uncover abrir abrir other apuruhmakãko apuruhmakãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
say decir dizer mental kary karɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
scratch rascar rasgar impact ixihkãko ixihkãko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
see ver ver mental aosenuhmatohme aosenuhmatohme unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact to ãko to ãko loan, direction unknown Wayampi See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sit sentar(se) sentar state poro poro unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sleep dormir dormir body nyhnõko nɨhnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ipohnõko ipohnõko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact euhkãko euhkãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state xikihme xikihme unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
steal robar roubar other anỹnõko, ematonãko anɨ̃nõko, ematonãko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
swell hincharse inchar body zaũko zaũko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
swim nadar nadar motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
think pensar pensar mental imynyhmapõko imɨnɨhmapõko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact emapory emaporɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact myhtohme mɨhtohme inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
vomit vomitar vomitar body zuamĩko zuamĩko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
work trabajar trabalhar other irohmanohpõko irohmanohpõko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yawn bostezar bocejar body ẽtakãko ẽtakãko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tongue lengua lingua body omi, omiry omi, omirɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tooth diente dente body zery zerɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
two dos dois number asakoro asakoro inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
water agua agua environment tuna tuna inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kymarokomo, kuahtao kɨmarokomo, kuahtao inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar yna ɨna inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wet mojado molhado quality tahxikure tahxikure inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
what? que, qué que grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
when? cuando quando grammar ahtao, otãtahtao, tahtao, tãtahtao ahtao, otãtahtao, tahtao, tãtahtao inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
where? donde onde grammar aza aza inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white blanco branco colour karimutumano karimutumano inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
who? quien, quién quem grammar onokah onokah inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wife esposa esposa kinship pyty pɨtɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wind viento vento environment tyryrykane tɨrɨrɨkane unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wing ala asa body aporiry aporirɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
woman/female mujer mulher human nohpo tomo (pl) nohpo tomo (pl) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yellow amarillo amarelo colour seweme seweme inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amarokomo amarokomo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
foot pie body pupu pupu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ropa ropa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
all todo todos other esses morohne esses morohne inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pyrahtokotoko pɨrahtokotoko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jety jetɨ inheritance? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sweat sudar suor, suar body onãkutanohto onãkutanohto inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bark corteza casca environment pihpyry pihpɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fingernail uña unha body omaxipuhtu omaxipuhtu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
heart corazón coração body oano oano inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sun sol sol time xixi xixi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment somohmano, ypy somohmano, ɨpɨ unique; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
green verde verde quality exipyraro, ezuezume exipɨraro, ezuezume unique; unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hot caliente quente quality axitunety axitunetɨ inheritance? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. rere rere inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna torono torono inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. õko õko inheritance See Language page Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. kãkue kãkue unknown may be cognate See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Rebekah L. Evans
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Rebekah L. Evans
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukuxi, kaikuxi tukuxi, kaikuxi inheritance See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae atura atura inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes suhsuku (owl) suhsuku (owl) inheritance See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. arara (arara azul) arara (arara azul) doubtful loan into protolg - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica parawa parawa loan - WW %awaro, via Nheengatu, Urubu parawa (but may be loan into TG) See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae utukuimo utukuimo loan - WW %motkuku See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae piano piano inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kurumu kurumu inheritance cf. TG urubu See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family oropono oropono inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae etu etu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kaikuxi kaikuxi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Rebekah L. Evans
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kapaxi kapaxi inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. orokore orokore See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kururuimo, zakare kururuimo, zakare unique, loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kana, arumaxi, pore, sãsawa kana, arumaxi, pore, sãsawa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. axitau axitau See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pone pone inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. patakaxi (branca), tawauna (preta) patakaxi (branca), tawauna (preta) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. surui surui See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kuto kuto See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. zuana zuana loan direction unknown - WW %iwana See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebekah L. Evans
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura aikaka aikaka unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna okoi okoi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria peze peze inheritance See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Rebekah L. Evans
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) piupiu piupiu unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebekah L. Evans
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba airiki airiki See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebekah L. Evans
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. apu apu inheritance See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa wai wai See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Rebekah L. Evans
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana marariary marariarɨ See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Rebekah L. Evans
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Rebekah L. Evans
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes epare epare doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %pipiri See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebekah L. Evans
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Rebekah L. Evans
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mauru mauru inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebekah L. Evans
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Rebekah L. Evans
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens aixi aixi loan Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Rebekah L. Evans
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Rebekah L. Evans
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paruru, sãtume paruru, sãtume inheritance? See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebekah L. Evans
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ona, xirikozuru ona, xirikozuru unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays oxinase oxinase inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tamyaryry, matary tamɨarɨrɨ, matarɨ inheritance See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wewe, aramariapo, mopytyky wewe, aramariapo, mopɨtɨkɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana xipo xipo unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Rebekah L. Evans
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. turixi turixi unknown cf. Piapoco irisi See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Rebekah L. Evans
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Rebekah L. Evans
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Rebekah L. Evans
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tutuko tutuko See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Rebekah L. Evans
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum oroxi oroxi inheritance - WW %eroi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebekah L. Evans
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana kurupo kurupo inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Rebekah L. Evans
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Rebekah L. Evans
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Rebekah L. Evans
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebekah L. Evans
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Rebekah L. Evans
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta puremuihmano (for beiju), soko (for drink), tuhpiremy (red skin) puremuihmano (for beiju), soko (for drink), tuhpiremy (red skin) unknown maybe shift from 'potato' See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebekah L. Evans
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebekah L. Evans
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Rebekah L. Evans
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas napi napi inheritance See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. sãsawa sãsawa unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Rebekah L. Evans
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Rebekah L. Evans
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. perepere, xixinato perepere, xixinato See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Rebekah L. Evans
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Rebekah L. Evans
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Rebekah L. Evans
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic puti, sarahkane puti, sarahkane See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae waikuato waikuato See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ano ano inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria arawe arawe loan - WW %arawe, via Tupi-Guarani See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mapetekere mapetekere unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora teteru (minhoca grande) teteru (minhoca grande) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones mynoto mɨnoto inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea torito torito unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera erere, moromoro erere, moromoro inheritance cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. sokoe sokoe unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae itupary ituparɨ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. erere erere unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera nuko nuko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea karimotoko karimotoko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita purutopo purutopo unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae arakaku arakaku inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca kaikuxi, pianoimo kaikuxi, pianoimo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arãta arãta inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella meku meku inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae zare zare unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis awawa awawa inheritance shared Wayana See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakira pakira inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua xieu xieu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuri akuri loan into protolg, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mũpo mũpo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae meri meri inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris maxipuri maxipuri inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kapau kapau inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaru kawaru See Language page Rebekah L. Evans


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ruto, pyraxi ruto, pɨraʃi unique; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kasuru kasuru loan - WW %kasiru See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material otuato otuato inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material epehtopo epehtopo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa, naxikahpyry kanawa, naxikahpɨrɨ doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pyaxi pɨaxi inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology oremi, uhnato oremi, uhnato Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
broom escoba vassoura culture-material sapi sapi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology upo upo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
firewood leña lenha other apotoimo, ipokony apotoimo, ipokonɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology ritonõpo 'Deus' ritonõpo 'Deus' unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology rue, turekoka rue, turekoka inheriance multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics taxika taxika See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
knife cuchillo faca culture-material rato rato unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
machete machete facão culture-material tapema tapema unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wywy wɨwɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pyrou pɨrou inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spear lanza lança subsistence tool warata warata inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bow arco arco subsistence tool taky takɨ unique arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paddle/oar remo remo transport apukuita apukuita loan Tupi-Guarani: Wayampi pukwita See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
plate plato prato culture-material paratu paratu loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool oripo oripo doubtful loan - WW? %parapi See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material kasanamano (tijela ceramica); paxia kasanamano (tijela ceramica); paxia inheritance? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool aitopo aitopo unknown agriculture? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool mopuku mopuku inheritance shared Eñepa See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wax cera cera other moronapu moronapu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
honey miel mel food ano ano inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture amity, eary amitɨ, earɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material marariary marariarɨ unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology paxiky paxikɨ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
school escuela escola acculturation amorepatopo amorepatopo See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kutei kutei See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paper papel papel acculturation pape pape loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology senety senetɨ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kuratiri kuratiri loan - WW %kara See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asukara asukara See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu sapatu See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cat gato gato acculturation pisa pisa loan - WW %pisana See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation arakapusa arakapusa loan Spanish 'arcabuz' See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tuisa, ipãnary tuisa, ipãnarɨ loan - WW; unique %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress mety metɨ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool oka eary oka earɨ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
salt sal sal food sautu sautu loan Dutch (via creole) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology eremiãko (vb) eremiãko (vb) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool anapomu anapomu unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hunt cazar caçar food urakanãko urakanãko See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ikarimory ikarimorɨ inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kasana kasana unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ximari ximari inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ako ako inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kaxiri, tyahka kaxiri, tɨahka inheritance; unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kajama kajama unknown agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food wyi wɨi semantic shift cf. 'manioc' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food imuru imuru inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool myxinu mɨxinu can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
house other tapyi tapɨi loan Tupi-Guarani (Mello2000 *tapiɨj 'casa provisória') See Language page Rebekah L. Evans