maize, corn

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
mazorca, maiz
Meaning Portuguese
milho

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Akawaio Zea mays aknaik aʔnaɪk inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Zea mays káana káana inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Zea mays anaci (SM) a’natʃi (H&R) inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Zea mays veavʉ vɛavʉ, we'á (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage - old WW Proto-Tukanoan %bea Possible Wanderwort? Northern Embera: bée; Witoto: beja. Reconstructs to WT. Also a loan into Nukak, prob. from Cubeo. WW %be uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Dâw Zea mays ‘wat w'at loan Tupi-Guarani e.g. Cocama awati underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Zea mays ojodᵾcaporo ohodɨkapoɾo, ohodɨ'ká (H&R) semantic shift (in protolg?) East Tukanoan from banana; cf. Hup, Bora uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Zea mays keʔɲak; ke'ña', Var. ke'ñat, ke'ñai (MM) keʔɲak; keʔɲaʔ, Var. keʔɲat, keʔɲai (MM) doubtful loan North Arawak e.g. Piapoco: kanái and similar forms in other Arawak lgs. Also keʔɲat, keʔɲai WW %kana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Zea mays jes hes inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Zea mays jtamu ʰtãbu unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Waorani Zea mays caguingo unique North Arawak ka-, kana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Hup Zea mays pɨhɨt-yṹm pɨhɨt-jṹm semantic shift parallel E.Tukanoan, Bora maize-sow' compound banana-plant See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women very little raised; mostly used for beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Pattie Epps
Kakua Zea mays ho hû loan East Tukanoan East Tukanoan, e.g. Macuna, Siriano, Barasano oho-rika underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Zea mays jetsá hetsá inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi Zea mays aʔanáí aʔanáí inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu Zea mays mílyu (from POR) mílju (from POR) loan Portuguese Also: auatí (awatí) Mello 2003 (inherited PTG) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Zea mays lulumok, rIrimos (gom) lulumok, ɾɯrimos (gom) unique underived N-CLF ; mok = "seed" Goodwin-Gomez 90 See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
Nukak Zea mays weá, kánáʔ (P07) loan - WW; loan - WW Tukanoan; Arawak wea = Cubeo or West Tukanoan; kana = Arawak WW %kana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant
Maihiki Zea mays bea ja bea xã doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW Proto-Tukanoan %bea Possible Wanderwort? Northern Embera: bée; Witoto: beja. Reconstructs to WT and also appears in Cubeo. WW %be uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Daniel Valle
Pemon Zea mays aknaik (A1981) aʔnaɪk (A1981) inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Zea mays veéká?ó veékáʔó doubtful loan - WW %bea (but not from Bora/Witoto?) Witoto, Bora shared forms bέdʒa WW %be uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Zea mays sinimo sinimo inheritance? missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Zea mays jaratabüjetsa (246), jetsa (2) hétsa inheritance also jaratabüjetsa (246) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Tariana Zea mays kána kána inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
Tukano Zea mays ohôka ohôka semantic shift (in protolg?) East Tukanoan from banana; cf. Hup, Bora uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria Zea mays yo jóó (stenz), jo (H&R) semantic shift (in protolg?) East Tukanoan from banana; cf. Hup, Bora Loan into Kakua ho uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Zea mays maẓikʰi maẓikʰi inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
Yanomam Zea mays shidi (WS76); uxirima (black grains), hrare (orange grains), aurima (white grains) (all WM99, nom. Class: mokɨ) ʃidi; uʃiɾima, hɾaɾe, auɾima inheritance? uxirima (black grains), hrare (orange grains), aurima (white grains) uncoded mokɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
Yanomami Zea mays yono mosi jono mosi unique mosi = CLF underived N+CLF mosi = CLF (class isn't well defined) (Ramirez 94) may actually be mo "CLF edible grain" and si "CLF ~grass" See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Zea mays kaxné (h) kaxné (H&R) inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup Zea mays hóka hóka loan Tukano Tukano ohôka underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Achagua Zea mays ká:na ká:na inheritance Inland N. Arawak See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Zea mays canái kanái See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Zea mays kanha (h) kanha (h) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena Zea mays numákawasi numákawasi See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Zea mays kana kana See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi Zea mays kozeto koðetu unknown See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Zea mays čoro tʃoro unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Zea mays maiki maiki inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Zea mays ïxɨ {kernel}, ḯxɨ-ï {ear}, ḯxɨ-ʔo {plant}, ïxɨ-ʔe ɯxɨ {kernel}, ɯ́xɨ-ɯ {ear}, ɯ́xɨ-ʔo {plant}, ɯxɨ-ʔe semantic shift? same as banana, as in Tukanoan and Hup See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Zea mays béǰa {borr. From Huitoto?} bέdʒa {borr. From Huitoto?} See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Zea mays oxinase oxinase inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana Zea mays ehnai ehnai inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
Tiriyó Zea mays aːnaci aːnaci inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
Makiritare Zea mays ənɲa (IDS) ənɲa inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo Zea mays ë'nai ɛ'nai See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Zea mays nasɨ-nasɨ nasɨ-nasɨ inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa Zea mays ipistapó, míʃk( r) meʔ (H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains Phon only in source plant Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo Zea mays a'na a'na inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
Muisca Zea mays aba aβa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Zea mays bée bée; pe(H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán Zea mays ppu´ppu phɯʔphɯ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Zea mays yovato jowato doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Taushiro Zea mays ho´antu´ hoʔantuʔ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Páez Zea mays cocavi kokavi; kutʲh(H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Tikuna Zea mays chawũ; tchá-que (Alv44) tʃawũ; tʃáʔke doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan ʃaa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Zea mays katoḍzi katotʃi unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa Zea mays mátse mátse See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Andoke Zea mays soboi soboi unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Zea mays pʰʊɛ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Zea mays kãn kãn loan North Arawak See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao Zea mays naukamo naukamo See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant John Blaha
Ashuar Zea mays shaa ʃa: See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Huambisa Zea mays shaa ʃa: See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Zea mays sháa ʃáa doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Ticuna tʃa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Matses Zea mays picabo, shicshu pikabo, ʃikʃu unknown; loan into protolanguage Arawak/Tacanan See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Zea mays ṣ̌ɨki ṣ̌ɨki loan into protolanguage Arawak/Tacanan See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
Yagua Zea mays didu ndindu unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Zea mays sara saɾa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Ingá Zea mays sara sára(H&R) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Zea mays sara saɾa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Zea mays kaspa kaspa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa Zea mays (ear of corn) namɨt'ä namut'æ inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Zea mays llomo ʤomo inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
Barasano Zea mays oh'ó-riká oh'ó-riká See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Carapana Zea mays orica ɔɾika, 'ó-ríka See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Makuna Zea mays ojorica oxolika, oho-rika semantic shift (in protolg?) from banana; cf. Hup, Bora See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Yuruti Zea mays órika órika See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Waikhana Zea mays joo joo See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Siriano Zea mays ojodʉca ohodɨka See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca Zea mays o'aka o'aka semantic shift (in protolg?) from banana; cf. Hup, Bora See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo Zea mays ó-'ríka ó-'ríka See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka Zea mays jórika hórika See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja Zea mays ódikʰà ódikʰà See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje Zea mays veavʉ beabʉ, βea doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW %bea See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Siona Zea mays huea wea doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW %bea See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya Zea mays huea we'a See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Amanda Meeks
Karitiana Zea mays gijo gijo unknown See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
Kokama Zea mays ahuati awati inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi Zea mays awasi awasi inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
Sirionó Zea mays ibaši̯; abači̯ ibaši̯; abači̯ inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá Zea mays awatsi (K12) awatsi (K12) inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina Zea mays xóɸiiro xóɸiiro unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Zea mays béǰa bέdʒa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Zea mays béǰa bέdʒa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Zea mays beǰa bɛdʒa loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %bea See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Zea mays siíquiraja (general term); cajíyaaqui (variedad de maíz que tiene granos de varios colores); cáraaqui (mazorcas de maíz chico con granos grandes y choclos que crecen después de las primeras plantas); sacáruuqui (mazorca de maíz) siíkiraha (general term); kahíjaaki (variedad de maíz ke tiene granos de varios colores); káraaki (mazorcas de maíz chico con granos grandes j choclos ke crecen después de las primeras plantas); sakáruuki (mazorca de maíz) doubtful loan into protolanguage - old WW %šiki See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Zea mays sawku sawku See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
Wari Zea mays mapak, papak (Sousa2009) mapak, papak (Sousa2009) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Zea mays e-šixe e-šixe See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Zea mays ihike ihike See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara Zea mays tonqo tunḳu See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
Kwazá Zea mays atxitxi atxitxi See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
Movima Zea mays kʷah-taʔa kʷax-taʔa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai Zea mays ot̯et̯ ot̯et̯ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang Zea mays gãr ŋãr See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
Suyá Zea mays wɔsɨ wɔsɨ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi Zea mays txitxi tʃitʃi See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE