South America
ISO 639-3
4.26°, -77.36°
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Dura, Eladio Quiro & Phillip Lee Harms. 2007. Epena. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Harms, Judith A. 1993. Vocabulario Ilustrado eperã pedeede eperaari oopata. Bogotá: Editorial Alberto Lleras Camargo.

Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes General Notes Source
above encima, arriba acima location 'ɨ̃rɨ To 'go up' is ɨ'tʰaa. See Language page
and y e grammar See Language page
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment itʰa'bar̃e 'pʰora Lit. 'fireplace dust'. See Language page
at en, a em, a location See Language page
back espalda costas body e'kʰar̃a See Language page
bad mal mal quality kʰa'čia See Language page
belly barriga barriga body bi See Language page
below abajo, debajo abaixo location e'du; e'daa Respectively: 'to be down/inside'; 'to go down/inside'. See Language page
big grande grande quality (ne-)'čoma Lit. '(gen.-) big'. Also wai'bɨa 'big, many'. See Language page
black negro preto colour pʰãi'maa See Language page
blood sangre sangue body 'waa See Language page
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 'kʰapɨ See Language page
bone hueso osso body 'bɨɨrɨ Also means 'leg' 04.350. 'Joint' is kʰokʰo'rãa. See Language page
breast pecho, seno peito body hu Also means 'breast' in general. See Language page
child niño, niña criança human 'war̃a Also means 'son'. See Language page
cloud nube nuvem environment hɨ̃a'rara Plural form. All segments are realized as their nasalized counterparts. See Language page
cold frío frio quality kʰũra'saa; kʰũ'ra-tɨ Latter is 'cool-inter.change'. To be cold (person) is hi'sua. See Language page
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 'pia Also means 'good'. See Language page
day día dia time e'wari; e'wate A 24 hour day is 'kʰãima. 'Daytime' is ãs'taawa. See Language page
dirty sucio sujo quality hai'kʰoo; me'mee 'Moldy' or 'stained' is ha'yoo; 'tʰãu. See Language page
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page
dry seco seco quality pʰũa'saa; pʰoo- Latter is verbal form. See Language page
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality 'kʰida wa'ree; po'sia Respectively: lit. 'tooth dull', as a knife; dull point. See Language page
dust polvo poeira environment yooro 'pʰora Lit. 'soil dust (particles). See also 'ashes' 01.840. See Language page
ear oreja orelha body 'kʰɨɨrɨ See Language page
earth/soil tierra terra environment 'yooro See Language page
egg huevo ovo fauna (ne-)'ʔɨmɨ Lit. '(gen.)-egg'. See Language page
eye ojo olho body 'tau Also means 'ball (sphere), round-unit (thing)' 12.830. See Language page
far lejos longe quality tʰɨ'mɨa See Language page
fat/grease grasa gordura body (ne-)'traa A fat person/animal is po'ree. See Language page
father padre, papá pai kinship a'kʰõre Cf. 'sun' 01.520. See Language page
feather pluma pena fauna i'sia 'kʰara Lit. 'wing hair'. Also means 'armpit' 04.312. See Language page
fire fuego fogo environment 'tʰɨpɨ 'tau Lit. 'fire round-unit/eye' 04.210, also see 'firewood' 01.880. See Language page
flower flor flor environment (ne-)'pʰono Lit. '(gen.)-flower'. See Language page
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hɨ̃a'rara tʰa'waa Lit. 'clouds foggy/thin'. See Language page
fruit fruta fruta flora 'ne-hõ A large fruit, lit. 'gen.-fruit'. See Language page
good bueno bom quality 'pia; piʔ'ia Latter is 'very good'. See Language page
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 'puda See Language page
hand mano mão body 'hua See Language page
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 'iru; 'iči Respectively: unmarked; marked. 'His/hers' is iru-'de 'him/her (unmarked)-of'; iči-'de 'him/her (marked)-of'. See Language page
head cabeza cabeça body 'poro 'Crown of head' is poro-'sãu. See Language page
heavy pesado pesado quality 'čɨa; čɨ'kʰɨa See Language page
how? como como grammar 'sãga See Language page
1sg yo eu grammar mɨ; 'mɨči Respectively: unmarked; marked. 'Mine' is më're, underlying form: mɨ-'de, 'I/me-of'. See Language page
if si se grammar ba-da-'paara Lit. 'be-that.was-if'. Also -'pɨrã; -ra used with past; used with pres. or future. See Language page
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location e'du See Language page
intestines intestinos intestinos body 'hɨ̃si See Language page
lake lago lago environment 'tʰɨ-da to Lit. 'enter-that.was river', refers to an oxbow lake or a slough. See Language page
leaf hoja folha environment 'kʰiru; kʰi'tua Latter is large leaf. See Language page
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hua-bi-'are Lit. 'hand-belly-side'. See Language page
leg/foot pierna perna body 'hĩru; 'bɨɨrɨ Respectively used for: human or animal; human, animal, thing. The latter also means 'bone' 04.160. See Language page
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pa-'baai Lit. 'thunder-fall'. See Language page
liver hígado figado body 'tʰãri See Language page
long largo comprido, longo quality tee'soo 'Long hair' is ('puda) wa'ree. See Language page
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tʰɨ̃; 'puri Respectively: head louse; bed louse. See Language page
man/male hombre homem human ɨmɨ'kʰĩra See Language page
meat/flesh carne carne fauna (ne-)'čiara Lit. '(gen.)-meat'. See Language page
moon luna lua environment a'tane Also means 'month'. Also 'tači 'nawe, 'our mother'. See Language page
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 'nawe Cf. 'moon' 01.530. See Language page
mouth boca boca body i'tʰai See Language page
name nombre nome human tʰɨ̃ See Language page
near/close cerca de perto quality 'kʰaitʰa See Language page
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ɨ̃'bɨsi See Language page
neck cuello pescoço body o; o-'tau Respectively: also means 'path' 10.720; lit. 'path/neck ball/round'. See Language page
new nuevo novo quality či'widi See Language page
night noche noite time pʰãri'kʰua See Language page
no/not no não grammar See Language page
nose nariz nariz body kʰɨ̃ Also means 'point' 12.352. See Language page
old viejo velho quality či'sore; či'wari Respectively: 'used; mature (plant)'. See Language page
one uno um number 'aba See Language page
other otro outro grammar See Language page
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kʰa'yaa See Language page
person/human being persona pessoa human e'perã See Language page
rain lluvia chuva environment 'kʰoi See Language page
red rojo vermelho colour pʰo'ree See Language page
right/right hand derecha direita location/body hua-'raare Lit. 'hand-right.side'. See Language page
road/path camino caminho manufacture o Cf. 'neck' 04.280. See Language page
root raíz raiz flora 'kʰar̃a Also means 'plant'. See Language page
rotten podrido podre quality be'rau; pʰo'kʰee; mi'kʰia Respectively: 'rotten; rotten plant material or wood; rotten food'. See Language page
sand arena areia environment 'ipu Also means 'beach'. See Language page
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality pʰewe'dee See Language page
short corto curto quality kʰakʰa'tʰua Means 'short thing'. 'Short person' is 'posi. See Language page
shoulder hombro ombro body i'kʰia See Language page
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 'kʰĩra neha'sia Lit. 'face fear'. All sements in both words (other than the kʰ), are realized as their nasalized counterparts. See Language page
skin piel pele body e Also means 'covering/shell' 03.655. See Language page
sky cielo céu environment 'pa-hã; a'kʰõre 'hã Respectively: 'thunder-plane' 01.560; 'father's/sun plane' 02.350 & 01.520. See Language page
small pequeño pequeno quality kʰai'pee; ma'ʔari Latter is 'very.small'. See Language page
smoke humo fumaça environment 'nari See Language page
star estrella estrela environment [lu'sero] From Span. 'lucero'. See Language page
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pa'kʰuru See Language page
stone piedra pedra environment 'mau See Language page
tail cola, rabo rabo body tru; tu See Language page
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 'ãra; 'ãči Respectively: unmarked; marked. See Language page
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pa'daa A fat person/animal is po'ree. See Language page
thin delgado fino quality na'mia A thin person is kʰaite'kʰee; sĩau'taa. See Language page
this este/esta este grammar See Language page
2sg xx xx grammar pɨ; 'pɨči Respectively: unmarked; marked. 'Yours (sg.)' is pë're, with underlying form: pɨ-'de. See Language page
throat garganta garganta body o-'siru Lit. 'path/trail-flute' (vocal apparatus). Cf. 'neck' 04.280. See Language page
three tres tres number õ'pee See Language page
thunder truenos trovão environment pa; pa hĩ'waa The latter 'thunder to.sound'. See Language page
bite morder morder body kʰaa- See Language page
blow soplar soprar body hãra-pʰua- See Language page
breathe respirar respirar body ĩapa- See Language page
burn quemar queimar environment urua- Also means 'shine'. A 'burning sensation' is ura-tɨ-. See Language page
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kʰai-kʰayaa-; kʰai- See Language page
climb subir subir motion ɨ'tʰɨ pa- Lit. 'up.there arrive'. See Language page
come venir vir motion če- See Language page
cook cocinar cozinhar impact (ne-)čuu; (ne-)hoo- Lit. '(gen.)-cook', with water. See Language page
count contar contar mental huasia- See Language page
cry llorar chorar mental hẽe- See Language page
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tʰɨɨ-; tʰɨa-pʰe- Latter is 'cut-instrument'. See Language page
die/be dead morir morrer state hai-ʔi'daa-da Refers to humans, lit. 'sickness-many-that.was'. 'piu-da, refers to animals, lit. 'die-that.was'. Verbal forms are hai-ʔidaa-; piu-, human, animal. See Language page
dig cavar cavar impact kʰoro- See Language page
dream soñar sonhar mental kʰãi-mokʰaraa- See Language page
drink beber, tomar beber body to- Also means 'river' 01.360. See Language page
eat comer comer body kʰo-; ne-kʰo- Lit. trans.; intrans. Also hõ-, 'eat fruit'. See Language page
fall caer cair motion baai- 'To fall down' is tu'du pa-. See Language page
fear miedo medo mental neha'sia; wa'wee Respectively: includes body sensations; respectful fear. Also ãčobee-ʔi'daa 'fear-many' (f. of what will happen). See Language page
flow fluir fluir motion wee- See Language page
fly volar voar motion wãa-bai- See Language page
grow crecer crescer state wari- See Language page
hear oír ouvir mental ũri- See Language page
hide esconder esconder motion miru-; mera- Respectively: hide self; hide something. See Language page
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wɨ- See Language page
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page
kill matar matar impact pee- See Language page
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kʰawa- See Language page
laugh reír rir mental ëi- Also means 'smile' 16.251. See Language page
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion hẽra bee- Lit. 'lie.down-do'. See Language page
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body čo'kʰai bɨ Lit. 'awake be'. Cf. 'sleep' 04.610. See Language page
open/uncover abrir abrir other ewa- See Language page
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact sĩ- See Language page
say decir dizer mental hara- See Language page
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page
see ver ver mental unu- Also means 'find' 11.320. See Language page
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact batʰa-; trɨ- Respectively: shoot a gun; shoot an arrow or dart. See Language page
sit sentar(se) sentar state su-ʔakʰɨ bee Lit. 'sit-stand-do'. See Language page
sleep dormir dormir body kʰãi- See Language page
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ɨ̃- primarily transitive See Language page
spit escupir cuspir body idu- Verbal form. Noun is i'du-ba, 'spit-liquid'. See Language page
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tʰoo-pʰe Lit. 'divide-instrument'. See Language page
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact hu-; pʰuya- Respectively: 'squeeze to extract juice or milk' 04.410; 'wring', as with a twist. See Language page
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact su-; awa- Respectively: 'stab; pierce'. See Language page
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state akʰɨ nɨbee-; bai nɨbee- Respectively: people; animals and things. Lit. 'stand-continue.do'. See Language page
steal robar roubar other (ne-)čɨa- See Language page
suck chupar chupar body sõ- See Language page
swell hincharse inchar body ooro- See Language page
swim nadar nadar motion kʰui- Also means 'bathe'. See Language page
think pensar pensar mental kʰĩsia- See Language page
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact batʰa- See Language page
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hɨ̃- See Language page
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pʰɨr̃abai- may be transitive or intransitive See Language page
vomit vomitar vomitar body ãpʰo- See Language page
walk caminar, andar andar motion ni; nipa- Respectively: pres.; nonpres. See Language page
work trabajar trabalhar other mimia- See Language page
yawn bostezar bocejar body ipʰoo- See Language page
tongue lengua lingua body kʰĩ'ra-me ~ kʰĩra-'me Lit. 'face-protuberance' 04.204; 04.492. See Language page
tooth diente dente body 'kʰida See Language page
two dos dois number o'me See Language page
water agua agua environment pa'nia See Language page
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 'tači no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted See Language page
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 'tai See Language page
wet mojado molhado quality be'kʰee See Language page
what? que, qué que grammar 'kʰãare; kʰa'sa Respectively: as in 'What (was it)?'; 'What (is your name)?'. Also sãga-'hi-ma 'What happened? (past information)'. See Language page
when? cuando quando grammar sãa'pai; sãa'weda Respectively: in future; in past. See Language page
where? donde onde grammar 'sã-ma; sã-'maa Respectively: to be where; to go where. See Language page
white blanco branco colour tʰo'r̃oo See Language page
who? quien, quién quem grammar 'kʰai See Language page
wife esposa esposa kinship či 'wẽra Lit. '(referential) his woman'. See Language page
wind viento vento environment 'nau Verbal form 'wind blows' is pʰua-. See Language page
wing ala asa body ne-ʔi'sia; i'sia Lit. 'generic-wing'. Also means 'fin' 03.652. Also ne-'ʔi, 'generic edge'. See Language page
woman/female mujer mulher human 'wẽra 'Indian woman' is e'perã 'wẽra. See Language page
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kʰua'raa See Language page
2pl ustedes vocês grammar 'pãra; 'pãči Respectively: unmarked; marked. See Language page
foot pie body 'hĩru Also means 'leg'. Also 'bɨɨrɨ, which also means 'bone'. Note symmetry with 'arm, hand' 04.310, 04.330. See Language page
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar wa'ya See Language page
all todo todos other 'čaa; 'hõma-'weda See Language page
ankle tobillo tornozelo body 'bɨɨrɨ 'kʰooro Lit. 'foot knob'. See Language page
armpit axila, sobaco axila body i'sia 'kʰara Lit. 'wing hair' 04.392 + 04.144. See Language page
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body 'ãa- Also means 'open'. Noun form 'dung' is 'ãa. See Language page
lung pulmón pulmão body pʰopʰo'tʰoo See Language page
sweat sudar suor, suar body 'hɨa če- Lit. 'sweat come'. See Language page
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body i'sia See Language page
bark corteza casca environment pa'kʰuru e Lit. 'tree skin'. See Language page
fingernail uña unha body 'hua pʰi'si Lit. 'hand claw'. See Language page
heart corazón coração body Also means 'suck' 05.160. See Language page
sun sol sol time a'kʰõre 'hĩru Lit. 'father's foot'. Also 'tači a'kʰõre, 'our father'. See Language page
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment 'ee See Language page
green verde verde quality pʰãwa'raa See Language page
hot caliente quente quality wã'sia; wasta'waa Respectively: 'hot to touch'; hot person. See Language page

Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. imi'čiči See Language page A 'vampire bat' is 'ĩkʰa.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna i'pana See Language page
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica 'kʰare See Language page Widespread A small parrot is 'mista.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ne'hõpɨ See Language page
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ã'koso See Language page Widespread South America
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family [pʰa'tʰikʰa] See Language page From Span. 'pato'.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris 'usa See Language page Not native; widespread
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 'čikʰo See Language page Also means 'food'.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata pʰapʰãyo-hõ-'mia See Language page Lit. 'papaya-fruit-strong/like'. Also 'iguana' is o-'pʰoo, lit. 'throat/neck-dry' 04.280.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 'taama See Language page
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria si'bii; be'ber̃e See Language page Widespread Respectively: water t.; land t.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis tʰũ See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes jẽe hẽe chontaduro Harms 1993: 41
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given')
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pʰi'daa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. 'sera 'kʰar̃a See Language page Fruit is 'sera; 'pʰata; ãpor̃o'mia, meaning 'banana; plantain (cooking banana); guineo'.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) pʰua'hãra See Language page
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays pe; pe-'tau See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains 'Grain of corn' is pe-'tau 'tau, corn-round-unit.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna pa'kʰuru See Language page Also means 'wood'.
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia)
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas [ba'tʰatʰa] See Language page plant
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ĩ'kʰade See Language page
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) hia'tau See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. [sa'pʰaya] See Language page From Span.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. hɨ̃-'kʰara See Language page secondary forest, floodplain Lit. 'tie-hair/fiber'.
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. to'kʰã See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation Actually is a leaf—not root. 'Curare' is pa'kʰuru 'neera, 'tree poison'.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ne-'pʰisi See Language page Lit. 'generic-tiny/ claw'. Also 'leaf-cutter a.' 'tʰãa; 'army a.' ['huan san'gulo], from Span.; 'tucandera a.' hẽ'saa. An 'ant-hill' is ne-'pʰisi te, lit. 'ant house'.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata hẽ'saa See Language page
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. 'tʰãa See Language page
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis 'kʰimi See Language page A small black bee.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kʰẽ'per̃e See Language page
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kʰã'kʰãi See Language page
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera para'pau ~ paa'pau See Language page
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora mo'kʰitʰa euhã-de'pema See Language page Lit. 'worm land-origin'. A caterpiller worm is kʰi.
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda 'eto See Language page
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones tu'sõre See Language page
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ɨ̃'gana See Language page Refers to a blue fly. A 'deer fly (tábano)' is 'sĩta.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ne'tɨr̃ɨ See Language page
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kʰooro See Language page Also means 'knob'. Cf. 'ankle' 04.371.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pe'gɨrɨ See Language page
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae poo'sãi ~ poro'sãi See Language page
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu ['sina] See Language page From Span. 'cochino'.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page A mountain rat (edible) is kʰa'wodo.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus 'bigi See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page

Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kʰo'raa See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kʰɨ'r̃ɨma See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material 'kʰɨda Refers to bedding. Hammock is ['makʰa]. See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ['makʰa] See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ã-'kʰau Lit. 'buttocks-stool', used by shaman. See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tʰõ'doo See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hai'pana Refers to shaman. See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 'pʰaru See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other 'tʰɨpɨ Also means 'fire' 01.810. See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 'haure kʰa'čia Lit. 'spirit bad'. See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology 'tači a'kʰõre Lit. 'our.incl.father'. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology 'siru; pʰi'pʰana Latter is 'panpipe'. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material [lo'wero] See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool 'čaara especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 'sia 'Blowgun dart' is u-'kʰida, lit. 'blowgun-tooth'. See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 'miasu; 'to-su Latter, lit. 'river-spear', refers to instrument used for fish. See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool ema'trɨma Refers to hunting. See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport 'toi A pole for canoeing is 'totʰe. See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material [pʰa'ratʰu] From Span. See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 'kʰuuru Refers to metal vessel. See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material 'sãu Refers to a gourd bowl/dipper. See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool -- agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page
wax cera cera other 'hɨr̃ɨ Refers to a tar-like product from small wild bee colonies. See Language page
honey miel mel food 'hɨr̃ɨ ['miele] Lit. 'bee.tar [honey]', from Span. See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hɨ̃-'kʰara Means 'vine', lit. 'tie-plant'. 'Twine' is čɨ; 'tumpline (head strap) is hau'čira 'bark'. See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material te 'kʰiru Lit. 'house leaf'. See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology a'kʰõre 'euhã; ɨ'tʰari Respectively: lit. 'father's land'; 'up.high'. See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation ['kʰartʰa] 'kʰiru Spanish 'carta' + 'leaf' 08.560. See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kʰãi-mokʰaraa- See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation e'tʰer̃e See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology 'hãɨra Refers to cemetery. See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other [kʰa'čĩ ba] See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 'sĩa-sõ Lit. 'cane-suck'. 'Cane (caña brava)' is 'sia. See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [sol'dao] See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation ['miči] See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 'pʰawã 'Blowgun' is 'ugu. See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress [so'perna] From Span.'sombrero'. See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology 'tači 'poro Lit. 'our head'. Also 'tači wai'bɨa, 'our great'. The spiritual shaman leader (female) is 'tači 'nawe 'our mother'; (male) 'tači a'kʰõre 'our father'. See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pa'kʰuru 'hua Also means 'limb of a tree'. See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool 'Fishing pole' is tu'watʰɨ. See Language page
salt sal sal food tʰã See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology kʰari- See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pʰe'pʰema Used to fan cooking fires. See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food ne-hɨrɨ- Lit. 'gen.-hunt'. See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ne-[ʔani'mal] From Span. 'animal' (undomesticated). See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool hia'tau See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool ba'rawa See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool kʰũ'ruma See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kʰũ'ruma 'kʰida Lit. 'metate (mortar) tooth'. See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture bekʰa-i'tʰua Refers to 'masato' or 'chicha'. Also bekʰai'tʰua petau-'dee, 'chicha corn-of'. See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ['nasa] From Span. 'nasa'. See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page
house other te Means 'enclosure'. See Language page