school

Semantic Field
acculturation
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
escuela
Meaning Portuguese
escola

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla sqeela school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Sauvel and Munro 1981:133 Jane Hill
Cupeño εskwεεla school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño piláchilash school unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino missing missing Jane Hill
Serrano yskwela7 school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk missing missing Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ishkwele7 school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu missing missing Jane Hill
Chemehuevi missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Paiute missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Ute po7o-gani school, literallly 'writing house' unique compound Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone natiingwanna school unique derived natiingwa" learn, study, go to school, be taught (na-?) Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone missing missing Jane Hill
Comanche missing missing Jane Hill
Western Mono skunU7 school loan English WW %school simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute sukoodunna sykudynna school loan English WW %school simplex in Numu puggwi sukoodunna "Stewart" (also sukoodu nobe) Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7elelte7:a- school loan Spanish WW %escuela other complex 7elelte 'to read' < leer Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok skwe:la- school loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok papélweji school (book-house) loan Spanish loan blend WW %papel compound Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu jawítikym hybó schoolhouse unique phrase jawí 'read', jawíti 'teach school, jawítiky 'teacher' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan 7isku:l school loan English WW %school simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi missing missing Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo škúl school loan English WW %school simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu missing missing Jane Hill
Yuki papel han school (lit. paper house) loan Spanish loan blend WW %papel phrase Schlichter & Sawyer 1984 Jane Hill
Wappo missing missing Jane Hill
Mutsun missing missing Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7eskwela school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno missing missing Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa skweel school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa 7awnYúr 7usá:w Caps are superscript in Crawford 1989 school unique phrase (sa:w 'read' 7awnYur 'writing') Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave huchqol apóove school unique phrase youth container!! Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai missing missing Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-x+pha7=t-h-u7+sa-w-tay-u7 school (lit. shere they teach (cause to read) unique compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) haaco ano hapáspoj cöicacóaat school (house in which one teaches with paper) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua escuela loan Spanish Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu iskola (Port loan; C11) iskola (Port loan; C11) loan Portuguese also Akawaio skur; Yanomam eskuera Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani ekoeda (Sp loan, IDS) loan Spanish See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï anuediteka anuediteka unique See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami jahi hiramamotima unique Phrase yahi 'collective house', hira 'teach' + NMLZ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam eskuera eskuera loan Spanish Nheengatu iskola; see also Huaorani ekoeda Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam liplu ua wei yãno liplu ua wei yãno unique Loan blend, from loan 'paper' Compound liplu, “paper”; yãno, “house”; wei nominalizer; ua unclear See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria buheri wùhu buheri wùhu Calque Local study house/place' all over Vaupes. Compound buheri=to study/learn See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo bueiñami buei-ɲami Calque Local study house' all over Vaupes. study + Classifier -ñami See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano bu'eri wi'i bu'eri wi'i missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano escuela eskuela missing See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki toya quɨa ue ja toja kɨa ue xã Calque Other complex toja=write; kia=(with 'write' means 'study'); ue= house See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup b'oy mɔy b'oj mɔj Unique Compound study house' See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw êskol ʔeskɔl missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Pemon esenupandok Unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio skur skur loan English English more likely than Spanish escuela; reasonable in context of Guyana history and American missionary presence. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa kapeere yameñkëto' (MM); pirentya-nəto (IDS) kapeere jameɲkëtɔʔ (MM); pirentja-nətɔ (IDS) unique Alternate: pirentja-nətɔ kapeere= paper; jameɲ= drawing/letter; këtɔʔ=?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna jewíña'akajo ñakarelana hewíɲaʔakaho ɲakarelana unique Phrase hewíɲaʔakaho = “study” ɲakarelana “house with a special use” See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Resígaro té?aami-hú téʔaami-hú unique Derived téʔaami (related to writing/paper); -hú “long and horizontal” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
Gumatj goḻ loan English Claire Bowern
Dhuwal goḻ loan English Claire Bowern
Bardi kul loan English Claire Bowern
Karajarri miranu tyanayiti maya semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu wukirri semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi wukirri semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhangu wukirri semantic shift Claire Bowern
Djapu gu:rl loan English Claire Bowern
Piapoco néewáidacatáiwa (from 'teach/learn') néewáidakatáiwa (from 'teach/learn') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero kanainta-kade maľ̥ikuyu 'place where children learn' kanainta-kade maľ̥ikuju 'place where children learn' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure eskoeči eskoetʃi See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Bora uwááboha (uwaabo 'teach') ɯkwáápoʔa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áámene ɨ́ɨ́fɨnɨcɨja (lit. 'house where one looks at books') (W97) áámene ɨ́ɨ́ɸɨnɨkɨxa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai amorepatopo amorepatopo See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana sikolo (loan Maroon) sikolo (loan Maroon) See Language page PLE
Makiritare wo:wanomatoho (KH) wo:wanomatoho (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai eskora eskora unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa otuámpapo, papirtana otuámpapo, papirtana See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Cofán escoera eskoera phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra ískovíara ískowíara See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [skwela] [skwela] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna poperapatá (Alv44) poperapatá See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina eskwela eskwela See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé gõẽ nĩbʊ-reã bɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave mo-hui-dipən mo-hui-dipən See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar pápi áujtai pápi áuhtai See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa papi aujtai papi auhtai See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna [pa'pi] auh-tai ('paper-read') [pa'pi] auh-tai ('paper-read') See Language page Daniel Valle
Yagua catera nũjyo 'place where one writes on paper' katera nũxjo 'place where one writes on paper' See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iachaikui wasi 'knowledge house' iatʃaikui wasi 'knowledge house' See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa huya'ro pahkué wo'dE' hujaɁro pahkué woɁdæɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Carapana buerica wii buerika wii See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Koreguaje utija'o vʉ'e utixa'o vʉ'e See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona uti yeʔyetˀu uti yeʔyetˀu See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kokama escuela escuela See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi [lɛkɔ] [lɛkɔ] See Language page PLE
Ocaina tyohóvuhxo (from 'book') tjoʔóβɯʔxo (from 'book') See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto escuela escuela (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá (lit. 'the house in order to customarily explain paper to us') (lit. 'the house in order to customarily explain paper to us') See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito isacuhuíira (Sp) isakuwíira (Sp) See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Cavineña escuela (C&L89) eskwela See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara yatiña uta (P04) jatiña uta (P04) See Language page PLE
Kwazá erewexynitɛxy erewexynitɛxy See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima eskʷela (from Sp.) eskʷela See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang iɲkɔra; wɛ̃ɲ-kaɲrãn-yãΦã (IDS) iɲkɔra; wɛ̃ɲ-kaɲrãn-yãΦã (IDS) See Language page PLE
Suyá rowahutudzé rowahutudzé See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi nikokäkoä nikokǝkoǝ See Language page PLE