Wayampi

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
oym
Location
1.74°, -52.69°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Grenand, Françoise. 1989. Dictionnaire wayãpi-français, lexique français-wayãpi (Guyane français). (Langues et Sociétés d'Amérique Traditionelle, 1.) Paris: Peeters / SELAF. Grenand, Françoise & Raymond Alasuka. 2007. Wayampi. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location alu alu unknown See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tanɛmu tanɛmu inheritance See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body apɛ apɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality ni-katu-i ni-katu-i inheritance See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body kãlãtãʔã kãlãtãʔã unique See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ɨwɨ-kɨtɨ-lɛ (Lit. 'soil/ground-toward-to') ɨwɨ-kɨtɨ-lɛ (Lit. 'soil/ground-toward-to') inheritance See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality taʔɨ-luwã (Lit. 'small-false') taʔɨ-luwã (Lit. 'small-false') unique See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour piyũ; -ũ pijũ; -ũ inheritance See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body -l-uwɨ -l-uwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kalasapa kalasapa unknown See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body kãŋɛ kãŋɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body susu susu doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human yaʔɨ jaʔɨ unique See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment ɨwakũ ɨwakũ inheritance See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality luwã; -l-ɔʔɨ luwã; -l-ɔʔɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ɛʔɛ ɛʔɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
day día dia time aa; alɨwɔ aa; alɨwɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality kɨʔa kɨʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality sini; -tala; -sikã sini; -tala; -sikã inheritance; unknown See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality n-aimɛ-y ('not sharp') n-aimɛ-j ('not sharp') See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment kuʔi kuʔi inheritance/sem shift? see 'flour' See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body apɨa-kwa ('ear-hole') apɨa-kwa ('ear-hole') unknown See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɨwɨ ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna -l-upiʔa -l-upiʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality kɔipɛ kɔipɛ unique See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ka ka inheritance See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship -l-u; papa (VOC) -l-u; papa (VOC) unknown; doubtful loan See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna pɛpɔ pɛpɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment tata tata inheritance See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment pɔtɨ pɔtɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment atãsĩ atãsĩ See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔa ʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality katu; i-wɔtɛ katu; i-wɔtɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body a a inheritance See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body inheritance See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ɔ-; ãwĩ ɔ-; ãwĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body ãkã ãkã inheritance See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality pɔwɨ pɔwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar manɨwɔ manɨwɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar a-; iyɛ a-; ijɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
if si se grammar #NAME? #NAME? See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pupɛ; pɛ pupɛ; pɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨkɛ ɨkɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment ɨpa ɨpa inheritance See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment kaʔa-lɔ 'plant-flesh' kaʔa-lɔ 'plant-flesh' inheritance See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ɛyau ɛjau inheritance See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body -l-ɛtɨmã -l-ɛtɨmã inheritance See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wɛla wɛla inheritance See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body pɨa pɨa inheritance See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality puku puku inheritance See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kɨɨ kɨɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human kwimaʔɛ kwimaʔɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna miya; -ɔʔɔ (CL) mija; -ɔʔɔ (CL) unique; inheritance See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment yaɨ jaɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ɨ; mãmã (VOC) ɨ; mãmã (VOC) inheritance; loan Span/Port? See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body yulu julu inheritance See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human anɨ anɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality pɨi pɨi inheritance See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body atuakã atuakã See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body alɨpɨ alɨpɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality pɨau pɨau inheritance See Language page PLE
night noche noite time ɨpɨa ɨpɨa inheritance See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar ãnĩ (G89) ãnĩ (G89) unknown See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body inheritance See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality kalakuwa kalakuwa unique See Language page PLE
one uno um number pɛ̃ʔĩ pɛ̃ʔĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar ãmũ (G89) ãmũ (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tɛkɔ-lã ('human being-false') tɛkɔ-lã ('human being-false') unique See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human tɛkɔ; mira tɛkɔ; mira unique; loan from Nheengatu (acc. IDS) See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment amã amã inheritance See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour pilã; pɨtã pilã; pɨtã inheritance See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ɛʔɛ-katu (Lit. 'genuine-good') ɛʔɛ-katu (Lit. 'genuine-good') inheritance See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture pɛɛ pɛɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality nɛ̃ nɛ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment ɨsĩ ɨsĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aimɛ aimɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality atu atu inheritance See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body asiʔɨ asiʔɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ãsĩ ãsĩ unique See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body pilɛ pilɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment ɨwa ɨwa inheritance See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality kiãwĩ; taʔɨ; -miti; -sisi kiãwĩ; taʔɨ; -miti; -sisi unknown; inheritance See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment atãsĩ atãsĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment yaɨ-tata ('moon-fire') jaɨ-tata ('moon-fire') inheritance See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora wɨla wɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment takulu takulu inheritance See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ɔ-...-kupa; ãwĩ-kũ ɔ-...-kupa; ãwĩ-kũ unknown See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality anã anã inheritance See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality salala; sili salala; sili unique See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar ã (G89) ã (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ɛlɛ-; ɛnɛ ɛlɛ-; ɛnɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body kuluka; yɨʔɔ kuluka; jɨʔɔ doubtful loan Portuguese/Spanish? See Language page PLE
three tres tres number maapɨ maapɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment tupã tupã inheritance See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body -suʔu -suʔu inheritance See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body -y-pɨtuɛkɨi -j-pɨtuɛkɨi inheritance See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment -ɛnɨ -ɛnɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -suʔu -suʔu semantic shift bite See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -yɨ -jɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -kɨsi -kɨsi inheritance See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state -manɔ̃; amɨ -manɔ̃; amɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact -pɨkɔ̃y -pɨkɔ̃j inheritance See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body -ʔu -ʔu inheritance See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body -u; -y-miʔu -u; -j-miʔu inheritance See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion -ʔa -ʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental -kɨyɛ -kɨyɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion -pɛy; -sululu -pɛj; -sululu unknown; inheritance? See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state -yɔ̃ĩ; -wɛ̃ -jɔ̃ĩ; -wɛ̃ unique; inheritance See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental -apɨa -apɨa unknown See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion -palã; -yɛmi -palã; -jɛmi unknown; inheritance See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -nupã -nupã inheritance See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental nupi nupi unique See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan Arawak See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body -wɛtɛyĩ -wɛtɛjĩ unknown See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other #NAME? #NAME? inheritance? See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact #NAME? #NAME? See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental yoi-kĩ joi-kĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact amokekei (O78) amokekei (O78) unknown See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact -mɔ̃ɛ̃; -mɔtĩ -mɔ̃ɛ̃; -mɔtĩ unknown See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state -apɨ -apɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body -ɛ̃tɔ̃; -tũ -ɛ̃tɔ̃; -tũ inheritance See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body -yɛnɨmũ; -l-ɛnɨ -jɛnɨmũ; -l-ɛnɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact -ɔka; -mɔʔi -ɔka; -mɔʔi inheritance See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact -amĩ -amĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact -mɔ-mu; -pupu -mɔ-mu; -pupu unknown See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state -puʔã -puʔã inheritance See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other mɔna mɔna inheritance See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body lulu lulu inheritance See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion -ɨa -ɨa inheritance See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental -yaʔa -yaʔa unique See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -mɔ-mɔ; -yapiãpi -mɔ-mɔ; -japiãpi inheritance See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact -pãsĩ -pãsĩ unique See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other -yɛwɨ -jɛwɨ unknown See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body -wɛ̃ʔɛ̃ -wɛ̃ʔɛ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body apɛkũ apɛkũ inheritance See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body -l-ãʔɨ̃ -l-ãʔɨ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
two dos dois number mɔkɔ̃y mɔkɔ̃j inheritance See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment ɨɨ ɨɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ya-; yanɛ ja-; janɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ɔlɔ-; ɔlɛ ɔlɔ-; ɔlɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality suʔũ; -mɔ-ɨ suʔũ; -mɔ-ɨ unique; unique See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar mɔmaʔɛ mɔmaʔɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar manɨwɔ-lɛmɛ̃ manɨwɔ-lɛmɛ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar mapɛ mapɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour sĩ; yu sĩ; ju inheritance; unique See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar awa awa inheritance See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment ɨwɨtu ɨwɨtu inheritance See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body pɛpɔ-kã pɛpɔ-kã inheritance See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human waĩwĩ waĩwĩ inheritance? See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tawa tawa inheritance See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pɛ-; pɛyɛ pɛ-; pɛjɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
foot pie body inheritance See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ãmũ; wɔyĩ ãmũ; wɔjĩ inheritance; unknown See Language page PLE
all todo todos other pilu; piluyĩ pilu; pilujĩ unique See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pɛlɛnã pɛlɛnã inheritance See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body yɨwa-wɨ jɨwa-wɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body tuluɛwɨy tuluɛwɨj unique See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body piliʔay piliʔaj inheritance See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body mɔ̃ mɔ̃ See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment wɨla-pilɛ Lit. 'tree-skin' 04.120. inheritance See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body pãpɛ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body tuluãkã unique See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time kwalaɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨwɨ-tɨ Lit. 'earth-much'. inheritance See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality missing See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality aku inheritance See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. anɨla anɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wɨla wɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. mɨtũ (G89) mɨtũ (G89) inheritance See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tukã (G89) tukã (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans yakami (G89) jakami (G89) inheritance See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. malay (G89) malaj (G89) loan - WW %mare See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae inãmu, suwi (G89) inãmu, suwi (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae wainɨmɨ (G89) wainɨmɨ (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae yawasi (G89) jawasi (G89) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ulukulɛa ulukulɛa inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. alala (G89) alala (G89) loan into protolg? - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kulɛ kulɛ loan - WW %kuli See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae pɨkau; yɛlusi pɨkau; jɛlusi inheritance See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae tawatɔ tawatɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae uluwu uluwu inheritance See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family [alapɔnɔ] (Grenand: Carib loan) [alapɔnɔ] (Grenand: Carib loan) loan Carib See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakala (Pilherodius pileatus) (G89), wɨla (Egretta alba) wakala (Pilherodius pileatus) (G89), wɨla (Egretta alba) doubtful loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae pekũ (G89) pekũ (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yawa jawa semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tamanuwa (G89) tamanuwa (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatu (G89) tatu (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. aʔɨ (G89) aʔɨ (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yakalɛ (G89) jakalɛ (G89) inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus pɨlakɛ (G89) pɨlakɛ (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pila pila inheritance See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. paku (G89) paku (G89) See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae piraĩ (O78) piraĩ (O78) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. talɛʔɨ (G89) talɛʔɨ (G89) See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. pilateau, pilakupɛãsĩ (G89) pilateau, pilakupɛãsĩ (G89) See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. suluwi (G89) suluwi (G89) See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kululu, pilikɔlɔ (G89) kululu, pilikɔlɔ (G89) See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. talawi (G89) talawi (G89) unknown See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata tɛyu tɛju inheritance See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yawɛwɨy, [sɛpali], from Wayana (Cariban) jawɛwɨj, [sɛpali], from Wajana (Cariban) inheritance, loan Carib: Wayana See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura uwa (G89) uwa (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes mɔyu (G89) mɔju (G89) See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae yuwɔy (G89) juwɔj (G89) inheritance? See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mɔy mɔj inheritance See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox yalala (G89) jalala (G89) See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria yãwĩ (Geochelene denticulata) jãwĩ (Geochelene denticulata) inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis -- -- missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) ulupɛ ulupɛ inheritance See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba pinɔ (G89) pinɔ (G89) See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wasɛy (G89) wasɛj (G89) inheritance See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa mɨlɨsi (G89) mɨlɨsi (G89) inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea pasiʔɨ (G89) pasiʔɨ (G89) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes palɛpɨ, pɨpɨy (G89) palɛpɨ, pɨpɨj (G89) doubtful loan, direction unknown - WW; inheritance? %pipiri See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua patawa (G89) patawa (G89) See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mɨnɨyu mɨnɨju inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɨʔɨ̃y kɨʔɨ̃j inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea monowi (O78) monowi (O78) See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nanã (O78) nanã (O78) inheritance - WW See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum wyra (O78) wɨra (O78) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pakɔ-ɨ pakɔ-ɨ inheritance? Mello 2000 reconstructs to PTG; Balée 2011 argues for original meaning banana See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumãna kumãna inheritance? - WW %kumana See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kaʔa; kaʔapiʔi; kwãkwã kaʔa; kaʔapiʔi; kwãkwã inheritance See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays awasi awasi inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pɛtɨ; pɛtɨ-sĩ, makulɛ pɛtɨ; pɛtɨ-sĩ, makulɛ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wɨla wɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana uluku (G78) uluku (G78) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ɨnga (G89) ɨnga (G89) inheritance See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala ɨwi (G89) ɨwi (G89) See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum akayu (G89) akaju (G89) inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana yanɨpa (G89) janɨpa (G89) inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta maniʔɔ maniʔɔ inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yɛtɨ jɛtɨ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. kala kala See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. tayɔ, tãsĩ tajɔ, tãsĩ See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) [mulutuku] [mulutuku] See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. [asikala] ( from Wayana 'asikala') [asikala] ( from Wajana 'asikala') loan Wayana See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ɨpɔ ɨpɔ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ɨmɛku ɨmɛku loan Carib, cf. Taranoan ineku See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae taɨ taɨ See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata tukãngɨ (G89) tukãngɨ (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ɨa, sãlãwɛ̃ (G89) ɨa, sãlãwɛ̃ (G89) unknown See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ɛila-lu ɛila-lu inheritance See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria alawɛ alawɛ inheritance? - WW %arawe, Mello 2000 *taraBe; cf. Carib (*)masarawa See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae ayãpɨtɛʔa ajãpɨtɛʔa unique See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera panã panã inheritance See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ɛwɔi ɛwɔi inheritance See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kũpɛpɛ kũpɛpɛ See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones yawayɨ jawajɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea yamaliku (G89) jamaliku (G89) unknown See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tunɨ tunɨ unknown See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mɛlu mɛlu inheritance See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kɨyu (G89) kɨju (G89) unknown See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. pɨsu pɨsu unknown See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae saʔinɛkɔnɛkɔ (G89) saʔinɛkɔnɛkɔ (G89) See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. yasiʔɔ̃ jasiʔɔ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kupiʔĩ (O78) kupiʔĩ (O78) inheritance See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea jateo (O78) jateo (O78) inheritance Mello *jateßuk See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kaa kaa inheritance See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda uluwa; minuʔa uluwa; minuʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yanu janu inheritance See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yawa (G89) jawa (G89) inheritance cf. Arawak, Tukanoan See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] akɨkɨ (O78) akɨkɨ (O78) inheritance See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella kaʔi (G89) kaʔi (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus kwata kwata unknown - WW %kowata; also in Urubu, Assurini Xingu See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae mɨku mɨku inheritance See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis yawakaka ('jaguar-?'), alalayawa ('macaw-jaguar') jawakaka ('jaguar-?'), alalajawa ('macaw-jaguar') See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis sɔlɔlɔ (G89) sɔlɔlɔ (G89) loan Carib: cf. Wai Wai saroro See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu taitɛtu taitɛtu inheritance See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tayau-sĩ tajau-sĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kwanu (G89) kwanu (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kwasi (Mello2000) kwasi (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akusi (G89) akusi (G89) loan into protolg, direction unknown Carib See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kapiyuwa (G89) kapijuwa (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti akusiway (G89) akusiwaj (G89) See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) paa (G89) paa (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus anuya anuja inheritance See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kusipulu (G89) kusipulu (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tapiʔi (G89) tapiʔi (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus sɔʔɔ sɔʔɔ unique See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material watula; panakari (O78) watula; panakari (O78) doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW; doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW %panaku; %atura See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material -p-ɔʔɨ -p-ɔʔɨ inheritance? See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material yɛapɨpa (lit.'where someone lies down') jɛapɨpa (lit.'where someone lies down') unique See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ini (new), kea (old) ini (new), kea (old) inheritance, inheritance See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material apɨka apɨka inheritance from 'sit' See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport ɨa (G89) ɨa (G89) inheritance See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology [tãpori] [tãpori] loan Portuguese See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology payɛ pajɛ inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material misɔ misɔ inheritance cf. Quechua piʃana See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tɨlu tɨlu inheritance See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other pali pali unknown prob. TG, cf. ARN terms for 'fish barrier' may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other yapɛʔa japɛʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ãŋɛ ãŋɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology [nios] [nios] loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology yɛmiʔa (G89) jɛmiʔa (G89) unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology ɛlɛwu (G89) ɛlɛwu (G89) See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kɨsɛ; [maliya] (Wayana 'malija') kɨsɛ; [malija] (Wayana 'malija') inheritance; loan - WW %marije See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material saa saa unknown %sipara/sapere See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool wɨlapa wɨlapa inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool aši aši unique See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool wɨlapa-ma wɨlapa-ma inheritance arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport pɨkwita; pukwita pɨkwita; pukwita inheritance See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material [palapi] (Galibi 'palapi') [palapi] (Galibi 'palapi') loan - WW %parapi, via Carib See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tuluwa tuluwa loan, direction unknown att. Warekena, Waimiri-Atroari See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ɨwa ɨwa unique See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool yãpɛ̃ ('that is round') jãpɛ̃ ('that is round') inheritance agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology [malaka] [malaka] loan Spanish/Port See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool yɨɨ, ayawa (G89) jɨɨ, ajawa (G89) unknown See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other ɛila-tɨkɛ ('honey-scrap') ɛila-tɨkɛ ('honey-scrap') inheritance See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food ɛi ɛi inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kulawa kulawa unique See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ɔwi ɔwi unknown See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology nai mɨ̃ra ('sky-inside') nai mɨ̃ra ('sky-inside') See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation [lɛkɔ] [lɛkɔ] See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation [kalɛta] [kalɛta] loan Span/Port 'carta' See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology #NAME? #NAME? See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation masakala-l-aʔɨ masakala-l-aʔɨ loan - WW %kara See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology t-ɨwɨ-kwa (Lit. 'earth-hole') t-ɨwɨ-kwa (Lit. 'earth-hole') See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other [paipɔ] [paipɔ] See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation [asikalu] [asikalu] See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material yapãsĩ-tɨlɨ (Lit. 'tie-loosely') japãsĩ-tɨlɨ (Lit. 'tie-loosely') unique See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress [sapatɔ] [sapatɔ] See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation -l-ɔwayã -l-ɔwayã unknown See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation malakaya (also 'margay', Felis wiedii) malakaja (also 'margay', Felis wiedii) semantic shift refers to native cat See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation mɔka mɔka WW %mukawa See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress [sapɔ] [sapɔ] loan Port chapeu See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology -l-uwiyã -l-uwiyã inheritance See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool βino βino See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kalɛmɛ (G89) kalɛmɛ (G89) See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool [nãirõ] [nãirõ] See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food [sautu]; yukɨ (palm ash salt) [sautu]; jukɨ (palm ash salt) loan; inheritance Dutch, via Creole/Wayana See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool pɔpiya (G89) pɔpija (G89) hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool tapɛkwa tapɛkwa inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ɔ-pɨnaitɨ (G89) ɔ-pɨnaitɨ (G89) See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food ɔ-sĩnga (G89) ɔ-sĩnga (G89) inheritance? See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food mɨ̃pɨnã-kĩ mɨ̃pɨnã-kĩ See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food mɔmaʔɛ mɔmaʔɛ semantic shift thing' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool cui, murutuku (O78) cui, murutuku (O78) inheritance; loan %koto/matoko See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool simari (O78) simari (O78) loan Carib esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool mɔmaʔɛ-l-ɛna ('thing-place') mɔmaʔɛ-l-ɛna ('thing-place') unique See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ɛnuʔa ɛnuʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ɨmɨla ɨmɨla See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture [kasili]; -kaʔu [kasili] ("from Arawak-Locono, through Wayana, 'to drink manioc beer collectively'"); -kaʔu loan; unknown Carib (poss. via Arawak?) prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food [kwakɨ] (loan, from French Creole of French Guiana 'couac') [kwakɨ] (loan, from French Creole of French Guiana 'couac') loan French creole agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food mɛyu mɛju inheritance usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food tɛpɨʔɔ tɛpɨʔɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tepisi (O78) tepisi (O78) inheritance word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool mɔmɔʔɛaɨ (G89) mɔmɔʔɛaɨ (G89) unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool urupẽ (O87) urupẽ (O87) inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pinapota (O78) pinapota (O78) can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool βoɨ βɨta-ti βoɨ βɨta-ti See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other ɔka ɔka inheritance See Language page PLE