horse

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
caballo
Meaning Portuguese
cavalho

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Equus caballus kah-bi'-ah Horse loan Spanish Spanish caballo WW %caballo same underived C. H. Merriam 60-453 0 0 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Equus caballus punku horse semantic shift *puNku/pukku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (can include other domestic animals) underived Crapo 1976:143 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla Equus caballus pásukat ˈpasukat horse semantic shift *pa-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk”; horse only in Cahuilla, Gabrielino same derived pa-suka-t big-deer-non.possessed.noun (Seiler & Hioki gloss pa- as “water” but they didn't know about homophonous “big” with good UA etymologies) -7aʃ "pet" -7ash for animals Seiler & Hioki 1979:141 no info 0 0 at least not lately no info Not collected N/A N/A 0 0 surely bought and sold Global with humans no
Central Sierra Miwok Equus caballus kawá:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi Equus caballus war-ar-av, wahr-rav Horse loan Mojave Zigmond says similar Kawaiisu form is from Mojave 'ahat va'oolve (the latter element from Spanish el burro) same underived Merriam 59:525 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno Equus caballus missing inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno Equus caballus kawaju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Harrington III:1:0122 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno Equus caballus kawaju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Mamet 2008:47 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cocopa Equus caballus qwaqš horse unique Could this possibly be ultimately from caballo?? same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
Comanche Equus caballus puukU horse semantic shift *puNku/pukku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) same underived Rejon 1995:32 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cupeño Equus caballus kavaayu kaˈva:ju horse loan unknown same underived -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 no info 0 0 (may have been eaten early on) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
Esselen Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino Equus caballus ah-chah'-che ʔaˈʔaʧin also kava:yo' Harrington 528, inheritance *7aCti- Takic S39; technically not an inherited word for “horse”, but “horse” became prototypical domestic animal throughout Takic, so this is NOT a nonce formation but probably dates to 18th C broader (term just means “his domestic animal”) other complex ʔa-ˈʔaʧi-n its-pet-possessed -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 419 no info 0 0 probably eaten in earliest period of exposure no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 I assume a market in horses once they were there Global with humans no
Iipay 'Aa Equus caballus ɂehatt horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 broader (“pet”, includes dog) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu Equus caballus woɁora-vi horse loan Mojave Zigmond et al. p. 293 says is from Mojave 'ahat va'oolve (the latter element from Spanish el burro) same other complex wo'ora-vi horse-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa Equus caballus nay=t+tha? horse unique same phrase child=pet?? Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk Equus caballus kavayoʔ ˈkavayoʔ horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:346 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
Lake Miwok Equus caballus káwaj horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Luiseño Equus caballus kaváayu (H) kaʹva:ju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived loan Elliott 1999:1477 no info 0 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Lu. bought and sold horses like everyone else in historic period Americas with humans no
Maidu Equus caballus ly/kt'akym sy/, kawáju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mojave Equus caballus ɂahat (vaɂóolve) horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 ; Maricoa qwaqt; (vaɂóolve) is from Spanish “el burro” same phrase pet (dog) el.burro Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mutsun Equus caballus he-cham-ish horse (this is the “pet” word JHH) unique other complex -ish must be suffix, but can't find in Okrand Merriam 55:407 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nisenan Equus caballus kawa:ju Horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute Equus caballus puku Horse semantic shift *puNku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43); originally “dog, pet” broader (also reported in a Merriam expression for “dog”; see Other Notes at “dog” above) underived Thornes 2003:107 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Equus caballus kawa:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok Equus caballus kawa:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan A Equus caballus kă-wah'-yo horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Merriam 55:369 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan M Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) Equus caballus ziix hant quicáayot animal, especially horse unique same relative clause lit. cosa que gatea Comcaac Dictionary 624 0 0 0 0 0 no
Serrano Equus caballus -7a:ci7, kava:ju7 (22) horse, possessed animal inheritance *7aci- Takic The Takic “pet” word, really does seem to be more common based on texts underived KCHill ms 2001:6 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute Equus caballus qava horse loan Spanish Note that a horse owned by someone is pungku (the old “dog” word) WW %caballo same underived Sapir 1930:632 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Equus caballus cymy7-jaH-; kawa:ju- horse unique underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute Equus caballus kavá horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Givon 1979 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal Equus caballus pungkul puŋˈgul possessed animal or bird; dog; horse inheritance *puNku- Uto-Aztecan S38 (Stubbs 2009:43) broader (this is “domestic animal, pet”) other complex puŋˈgu-l pet-npn Hill 2010:75 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
Tümpisa Shoshone Equus caballus kapaayu horse, queen (at cards) loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Dayley 1989:45 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wappo Equus caballus kawa:yu horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Washo Equus caballus ka-wi-u horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Merriam 55:231 0 0 0 0 0 no
Western Mono Equus caballus qawaayu' horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Bethel et al.:166 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
Wintu Equus caballus suku, sukuh dog, horse loan no information Same as “dog” underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yavapai Equus caballus ɂhát horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami Equus caballus kawayuɂ horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Merriam 58:? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Equus caballus gawa:yu' horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Newman 1944:125 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuki Equus caballus kawaye, kawayo A horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuma Equus caballus missing inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Akawaio Equus caballus kawaree kaware loan Portuguese Portuguese cavalho See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Cubeo Equus caballus caballo cabaju missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw Equus caballus kabal kabal missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Hodï Equus caballus [ʰkabayo] [ʰkabayo] missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani Equus caballus [kabayo] missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup Equus caballus kawáyu [Pt loan] kawáju [Pt loan] loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kotiria Equus caballus cawalu kawalu missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Equus caballus kʰawaru kʰawaru loan Portuguese See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
Yukuna Equus caballus kawarú kawarú missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Bardi Equus caballus yaawarda yaawarda loan Kriol? WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba Equus caballus yawada yawada loan Marrngu WW from SW Aus 'kangaroo sp' WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu Equus caballus yarraman' yarraman' loan areal WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi Equus caballus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal Equus caballus yarraman' dya:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djapu Equus caballus yarraman7 yarraman7 loan WW %yarraman 0 0 0 0 0
Djinang Equus caballus yarraman yarraman loan areal WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng Equus caballus yawardang yawardang loan Ngarinyin WW from SWA 'kangaroo' sp WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi Equus caballus dimana dimana loan Jarragan WW origin? WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj Equus caballus yarraman' yarraman' inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu Equus caballus wutjpaḻina dya:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji Equus caballus timana timana loan Western Mirndi WW WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr Equus caballus yarraman yarraman loan Languages to the south, via Kriol WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0
Jaminjung Equus caballus nintu nintu loan Wati cf. Warlpiri nantuwu WW %nantu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru Equus caballus yawada yawada loan Marrngu WW from SW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu Equus caballus timana timana loan areal WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri Equus caballus yawada yawada loan areal WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija Equus caballus timanany timanany loan W.Mirndi areal also yawartany WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera Equus caballus yárrvmvn ~ kutéw yárrvmvn ~ kutéw horse ~ horse, dog loan languages to south and east /kutéw/ as for dog; /yarrvmvn/ is loan WW %yarraman simplex
Kuku-Thaypan Equus caballus ayarraman ayarraman loan some southeastern language WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji Equus caballus yarraman yarraman loan WW %yarraman underived languages to the south 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar Equus caballus yardiman & ruaak yardiman & ruaak loan direction unknown loan source is a language to the south; ruaak ('dog') is an inheritance < *kutaka WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre Equus caballus yarrman; kuta- yarrman; kuta- loan Languages to south and east kuta 'dog' < *kutaka WW %yarraman underived Kuta 'dog' is the generic for domesticated animals 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram Equus caballus dhayár(i) & yàrramán dhayár(i) & yàrramán loan unknown Both are loans; /yàrramán/ from some languge to the south. WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung Equus caballus yawadang yawadang loan Jaru WW from SW Aus WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi Equus caballus yaraman yanuk unknown WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin Equus caballus yawada yawada loan *yawarta proto-Worrorran areal WW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarluma Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan WW %yawarta 0 0 0 0 0
Nimanburru Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan areal WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan areal WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul Equus caballus yawad yawad loan areal WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh Equus caballus yarraman yarraman loan *yarraman Languages to the south WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay Equus caballus yarraman yarraman horse loan Languages to the south WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol Equus caballus mewal; inha- & iyarraman inha-mewal & iyarraman horse unique *yarraman languages to south iyarraman < *yarraman WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand Equus caballus iyarraman & amay; ud- iyarraman & ud-amay horse loan *yarraman Languages to the south WW %yarraman underived ud 'dog' (for domesticated animal), amay 'big' 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri Equus caballus dimana dimana loan Western Mirndi WW WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman Equus caballus nelu nelu unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warlpiri Equus caballus nantuwu nantuwu, timana loan Arandic WW from south WW %nantu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warrwa Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta 0 0 0 0 0
Wik Ngathan Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan *yawarta proto-Worrorran WW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wunambal Equus caballus yowada yowada loan proto-Worrorran WW WW %yawarta 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu Equus caballus yarraman' yarraman' loan WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny Equus caballus yarraman (TC) yarraman (TC) loan languages to south WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront Equus caballus yarrvmvn & karntl; kurta- yarrvmvn & kurta-karntl loan languages to south and east (yarrvmvn) WW %yarraman underived kurta-karntl lit. 'big dog', with kurta as generic for domesticated mammalian spp 0 0 0 0 0 no
Sáliva Equus caballus efe eɸe See Language page Becky Walker
Sirionó Equus caballus tikʷasu (P85) tikʷasu See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Cavineña Equus caballus kawayo (from the Spanish "caballo") kawayo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá Equus caballus mãru mãru See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima Equus caballus kawayo (from Sp.) (J62) kawajo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Suyá Equus caballus rɔpčí rɔpčí See Language page Rebekah Evans
Yagua Equus caballus caváñu kaváɲu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Equus caballus kawallu (CP94) kawaʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Tuyuka Equus caballus caballo cabaju See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Kaingang Equus caballus kãwru (Pt loan) (IDS) kãwru (Pt loan) (IDS) See Language page PLE
Achagua Equus caballus éema (=tapir) éema (=tapir) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Equus caballus cawáyu kawáju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena Equus caballus kavayu kavayu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Equus caballus ka'wayu kaʔwaju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Equus caballus kowoiy kowoij See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Equus caballus teme-ku'ma (tapir-?) teme-ku'ma (tapir-?) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Equus caballus ɨɨ́ju (T98) (also = anteater; mule) ɨɨ́xu (also = anteater; mule) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Equus caballus jééjɨ (also = anteater; mule) (W97) xééxɨ (also = anteater; mule) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Equus caballus kawaru kawaru See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wai Wai Equus caballus kawaru kawaru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Muisca Equus caballus hycabai (from 'caballo') hɨkabai (from 'caballo') See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Equus caballus ka'wayo (loan caballo) (IDS) ka'wayo (loan caballo) (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Páez Equus caballus hiba hiba See Language page Daniel Valle
Pumé Equus caballus yae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Equus caballus [kawayu] [kawayu] See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar Equus caballus kawai (Sp.) kawai (Sp.) See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Equus caballus [kawayu] [kawayu] See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses Equus caballus senadbiecquid senadbiekkid See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Ingá Equus caballus kaballu kabaʎu See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa Equus caballus mu'úro' muɁúroɁ See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Koreguaje Equus caballus cavacho kawaʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama Equus caballus kawariu kawariu See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara Equus caballus kawallo (P04) kawallo (P04) See Language page PLE