Tuyuka

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tue
Location
0.39°, -70.04°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Barnes, Janet. 2007. Tuyuca. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Tamayo L., César 1988. Mi primer diccionario: español-tuyuca, tuyuca-español (primera edición), ed. por J. Barnes. Bogotá: ILV.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment dũ'ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location -pɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body suku'bí-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality yã'yã jãʔjã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body 'paaga ʔpaaga See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality pai- pai- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour yĩ'ĩ jĩʔĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body 'dii 'dii See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body kõ'ã kõʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body õ'pẽã õʔpẽã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human wĩ'bã-gɨ̃; wĩ'bã-gõ wĩʔbã-gɨ̃; wĩʔbã-gõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment õ'bẽ́ õʔbẽ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality yɨsɨ'a jɨsɨʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality diabã'kɨ diabãʔkɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
day día dia time 'bɨreko ~ 'bɨrɨko ~ 'bɨriko ʔbɨreko ~ ʔbɨrɨko ~ ʔbɨriko See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality hũĩ'rĩ́ hũĩʔrĩ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality bo'po boʔpo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality asi'jóa-e asi'jóa-e- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment di'tá-bãdã di'tá-bãdã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body kãbõ'pe-ro kãbõʔpe-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment di'ta diʔta See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna di'ye diʔje See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body ka'pea kaʔpea See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality jo'á jo'á See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɨ'se ɨʔse See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship pa'kɨ pa'kɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna 'poa ʔpoa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment pe'ka-bẽ peʔka-bẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment ko'ó-ro ko'ó-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment õ'bẽ õ'bẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora dɨ'ká dɨ'ká See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality ã'yũ ãʔjũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 'poa ʔpoa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body wã'bõ-pãbã wãʔbõ-pãbã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɨ̃'ɨ̃ / ko'o / -- kɨ̃ʔɨ̃ / koʔo / -- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body du'pu duʔpu See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality dɨ'kɨ dɨ'kɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar de'éro de'éro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar yɨ'ɨ jɨʔɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar -gɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location po'péa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body kɨ'tá-bĩsĩ kɨ'tá-bĩsĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment o'pá-taro o'pá-taro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment 'pũũ ʔpũũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body a'kúdĩjã a'kúdĩjã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body jĩ'kã jĩ'kã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨpó 'wãã-jo-re bɨpó 'wãã-jo-re See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body yẽbẽ-di'ti jẽbẽ-diʔti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality jo'á jo'á See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kia-wɨ̃; kia kia-wɨ̃; kia See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human ɨ̃'bɨ̃ ɨ̃ʔbɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dii-'ro dii-ʔro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment bũ'ĩpũ (yã'bĩ-bãkɨ̃) bũʔĩpũ (jãʔbĩ-bãkɨ̃) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pa'ko pa'ko See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body ɨ'se-ro ɨʔse-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human wã'bẽ wãʔbẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tó-gã ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tó-gã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body wã'bɨã wã'bɨã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality bã'bã bãʔbã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time yã'bĩ jãʔbĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar bãdĩ bãdĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body ẽ'kẽã ẽʔkẽã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality bɨ'kɨ bɨʔkɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
one uno um number si'ka- siʔka- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar ã'pĩ́, ape- ã'pĩ́, ape- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human baso'kɨ basoʔkɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment o'kó o'kó See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour sõ'ã sõʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body diabã'kɨ diabã'kɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture bã'ã bãʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora dɨ̃'kõ dɨ̃ʔkõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality 'bóa 'bóa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment di'ta-tupari diʔta-tupari See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality asi'jóa asi'jóa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality jo'á-e- jo'á-e- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body ã'kõ-rõ ã'kõ-rõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body kase-'ro kase-ʔro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment ɨbɨ'ã-se ɨbɨ'ã-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality 'pee-gã ʔpee-gã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment pe'ka-bẽ-õbẽ peʔka-bẽ-õbẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment yõkõã-'wɨ̃; yõkõ'ã jõkõã-ʔwɨ̃; jõkõʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ju'kɨ ju'kɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment ɨ̃'tã ɨ̃ʔtã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩ'kõõ pĩʔkõõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar i-'wɨ i-'wɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 'kɨ̃ã ʔkɨ̃ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ese-be'tí ese-be'tí See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality ese-bẽ'dĩ ese-bẽ'dĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar ati-'wɨ́ ati-'wɨ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar bɨ̃'ɨ̃ bɨ̃ʔɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number iti'a- itiʔa- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨ'pó bɨ'pó See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body ba'ká ba'ká See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body pútí pútí See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment sóe hɨ'ɨ sóe hɨ'ɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion a'tí a'tí See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact taá taá See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state di'a diʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact ko'á ko'á See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body sĩ'dĩ sĩʔdĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body ya'a jaʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion jã'ã́ jã'ã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental ku'í ku'í See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
flow fluir fluir motion õ'bãju õ'bãju See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion wɨ'ɨ wɨʔɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental tɨ'o tɨʔo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 'páa 'páa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨ'ó kɨ'ó See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact sĩ'ã sĩʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental bã'sĩ bãʔsĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kõ'ã, jo'sá kõ'ã, jo'sá See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental hĩ'ĩ́- hĩ'ĩ́- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental ĩ'yã ĩʔjã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state du'í- du'í- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body kã'dĩ kãʔdĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩ'dĩ wĩ'dĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact be'é be'é See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jẽ'ẽ-dijo jẽ'ẽ-dijo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact 'túapa 'túapa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dũ'kũ dũ'kũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body ũ'pũ ũ'pũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body bi'pí bi'pí See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion 'baa ʔbaa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental wã'kũ wã'kũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 'dée-ko 'dée-ko See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact si'á- si'á- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body ɨ'sóti ɨ'sóti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion 'waa-dẽtõ ʔwaa-dẽtõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body yẽ'bẽ-rõ jẽʔbẽ-rõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body u'pi uʔpi See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number pɨa- pɨa- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment o'ko oʔko See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bã'rĩ bãʔrĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ɨ̃'sã ɨ̃ʔsã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality oko-kɨ'ti oko-kɨʔti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar yẽ'ẽ jẽʔẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar de'é-biri de'é-biri See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar dõ'õ dõ'õ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour bu'ti buʔti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar dõ'ã dõʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship dɨ̃'bõ dɨ̃'bõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment wĩ'dõ wĩ'dõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body 'wɨɨ-ro 'wɨɨ-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human dũbĩ'õ dũbĩʔõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sõ'ã sõʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar 'bɨ̃ã ʔbɨ̃ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
foot pie body dɨ'po dɨʔpo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other 'dĩ'ĩ-peti-ra 'dĩ'ĩ-peti-ra See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body bɨkɨ-jẽbẽditi bɨkɨ-jẽbẽditi See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment kase-'ro kase-ʔro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body wãbõ-'se-ro wãbõ-ʔse-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body ye'e-ri-pũdã jeʔe-ri-pũdã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time bũ'ĩpũ ('bɨreko-bãkɨ̃) bũʔĩpũ (ʔbɨreko-bãkɨ̃) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨ̃tã-'gɨ̃ ɨ̃tã-ʔgɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality sɨ̃'bẽ sɨ̃ʔbẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality a'si aʔsi See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus caballo cabaju See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. oso o'só, oso See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna minimacʉ́ minimacɨ́, bĩdĩbã'kɨ̃́ (H&R) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wã'dṍpĩ wã'dṍpĩ See Language page Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. da'sé da'sé See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ka'tá-sõrõ ka'tá-sõrõ See Language page Different types have different localized ranges D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae cãã kãã See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bĩ'bĩ́ bĩ'bĩ́ See Language page Widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae sãna sãna See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bɨ'pɨ-pako bɨʔpɨ-pako See Language page Widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. bã'ã́ bã'ã́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica weco we'kó See Language page Widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae bua bua See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kaa kaa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae yu'ka juʔka, 'káa See Language page Widespread South America D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family díacata díakata See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba yee jee See Language page Widespread South America D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris díayi díaji See Language page Not native; widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨ'kó bɨ'kó See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pã'bṍ pã'bṍ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ'so ɨʔso, ɨ'só See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus sã'ã sãʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wa'í wa'í See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. juu juu See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bɨ'ɨ́ bɨ'ɨ́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura tɨ'bɨ́ro tɨ'bɨ́ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. jua'sṍ jua'sṍ See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata yuasṍ juasṍ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ãñacase-ro ãñakase-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pĩ'dṍ pĩ'dṍ See Language page Widespread Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pĩ'dṍ pĩ'dṍ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ã'jã́ ã'jã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kúu kúu See Language page Widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis o'ko-puti-bate-gɨ oʔko-puti-bate-gɨ See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) di'ti diʔti See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nee nee See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃'dẽ́-wõ ɨ̃'dẽ́-wõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pátu pátu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yu'tá, busa (ct) ju'tá, busa (ct) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bia bía See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus sẽna sẽna See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kã'dɨ̃́ kã'dɨ̃́ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ho'o hoʔo See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. pi'rihori [Sp loan] piʔrihori See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) táa táa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays jórika hórika See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃'dõ bɨ̃ʔdõ, bɨ̃'dṍ See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yu'kɨ juʔkɨ, ju'kɨ́-gɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bũ'sã́ bũ'sã́ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ũñu ũñu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum sũna sũna See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta we'ta; ki'i weʔta; kiʔi See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yã'pĩ jãʔpĩ See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. generic yam: yã'bũ jã'bṹ, generic yam: yãʔbũ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wa'a waʔa, waa-'gá ('gourd, H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. misĩ (general) misĩ (general) See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. eyu eju See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ka'pí ka'pí See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae generic ant: pe'ta; bẽ'kã generic ant: peʔta; bẽʔkã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bũ'bĩã-wɨ̃; bũ'bĩã bũʔbĩã-wɨ̃; bũʔbĩã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kasi'awɨ̃; kasi'a kasiʔawɨ̃; kasiʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae gueeró gueeró See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera momoro momoro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ãũã'wɨ̃; ãũ'ã ãũãʔwɨ̃; ãũʔã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda bũ'dĩ bũʔdĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones cutiapa kutiapa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera noquẽá nokẽá, dõkẽã-'wɨ̃́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera be'kóa-wɨ̃ be'kóa-wɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bɨ̃tẽ́ã-wɨ̃ bɨ̃tẽ́ã-wɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bu'túa-wɨ̃ bu'túa-wɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tẽẽ tẽẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita utiá utiá See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda sʉ̃ʉ̃ sɨ̃ɨ̃ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bʉpʉ bɨpɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca jái jái See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ẽ'bṍ ẽ'bṍ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella a'ké a'ké See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wa'ú wa'ú See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae o'a oʔa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis día-tĩbĩ día-tĩbĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis díatĩmi díatĩmi See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kii-je'sé kii-je'sé See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari je'sé je'sé See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. búu búu See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris día-jese día-jese See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) sẽ'bẽ́ sẽ'bẽ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wĩĩpõtʉ̃ wĩĩpõtɨ̃, wĩ'ĩ̋pɨtɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris we'kɨ́ we'kɨ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus yã'bã́ jã'bã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic basket: pii generic basket: pii See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material generic basket: pii generic basket: pii See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material yãkẽ jãkẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material kõã-rõ kõã-rõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pũũ-'gɨ̃́ pũũ-'gɨ̃́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material dui-'ró dui-'ró See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport yuku'soro juku'soro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology yu'kɨ-tuti ju'kɨ-tuti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology base-'gɨ́ base-'gɨ́ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material hoa-'ri-boka hoa-'ri-boka See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology su'ti su'ti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other sã'dĩ-rõ sã'dĩ-rõ may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other pe'ka pe'ka See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wã'tĩ wã'tĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kõ'ãbãkɨ̃ kõʔãbãkɨ̃ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tõõ-rõ-ri-wɨ tõõ-rõ-ri-wɨ multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wide-'ri-pĩ wide-ʔri-pĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kõ'bẽã kõʔbẽã especially for clearing fields See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kã'dɨ̃-gɨ̃ kãʔdɨ̃-gɨ̃ hunting, warfare See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sade-rí-pĩ sade-rí-pĩ [prob. loan Siriano] See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool bɨ'e-ri-pĩ bɨʔe-ri-pĩ arco See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport waa-'ri-pĩ waa-ʔri-pĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool dii-'rɨ dii-ʔrɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ba'pa ba'pa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology yã'sã-gã jãʔsã-gã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool upe upe See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food mumia mumia only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture pũũ-dɨ'pó pũũ-dɨ'pó See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wʉgoá wʉgoá See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cãrãquãa kãrãkãa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology masãcope masãkope See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation cãnʉ kãnʉ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material sayari sayari See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress zapato zapato See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surara surara See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation pecawʉ pekawʉ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress sapea sapea See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology dutigʉ́ dutigʉ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wasoro wasoro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food móa móa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bu'pú-wɨ bu'pú-wɨ currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool yũkã-pe'ro jũkã-peʔro esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food waikɨ-ra sĩã waikɨ-ra sĩã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wa'a waʔa, waa-'gá ('gourd, H&R) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool doka-ri-ga doka-ri-ga See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool doka-ri-gɨ doka-ri-gɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture peyuru peyuru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food po'ka poʔka agriculture See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food wʉ́abe wɨábe usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food weta weta See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food ñumucu ñumuku agriculture See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool yɨɨ'se jɨɨʔse agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool wa'i wee-'re waʔi wee-ʔre can refer to worms; more generic See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool casa, aruka kasa, aruka See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
house other wi'i wi'i See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
Linguistic exogamy