fish (generic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
pez
Meaning Portuguese
peixe

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim lo'-pit Fish loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *lopiTh (Golla 1964:62) WW %lvp same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 0 1 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone penkwi Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically a phrase -- water-fish Crapo 1976:132 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla kíyul ˈkijul fish inheritance <*kïcuC> fish (Manaster Ramer 1992: 257) Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex ˈkiju-l simplex root -non.possessed.noun suffix -7aʃ “pet” possessed with possessive suffix -ki (perhaps as meat?), but also with possessie classifier -7ash (Seiler 1977:305) Seiler&Hioki 1979:82 no info 0 1 0 hunted All boiled, roasted 0 0 Bean 1972:62 says fish were obtained in trade, and that some Cahuilla had Pacific coast fishing rights in Diegueño territory All Americas lakes, streams (and apparently near-shore ocean fish used by Cahuilla) no
Central Sierra Miwok 7é:wy- fish (small) (usual cognate is “minnow” so this is right) unique Note Yukian-Wappo *həw other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi pah'-gwits, pah-goots' paˈgə·tsI JPH fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same other complex paˈgə·-tsI fish-ABS Merriam 59:535 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno 7al'il'imuw fish inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno other complex 7alal- Agentive prefix Beeler 1978:FIND 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno ahl-le'-de-mo' fish (any) inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno other complex 7al- Merriam 55:17 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno tšhka7a fish unique underived JPH III:1:119 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno ʧoʧonɨʃ fish (Merriam confirms) unique reduplicated Mamet 2008:26 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cocopa siɂíły fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH, also contains the ?-?il WORM word same underived diachronically fish-worm Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
Comanche pekwi fish inheritance *paNkwi Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically phrase water-fish Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cupeño qeyul qəˈjul fish inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex qəˈju-l fish-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 0 figures in Coyote and Flood story 1 no info hunted all killed by poisoning 0 0 Americas water no
Esselen kalul (Pinart) fish unique Esselen other complex -l classifier suffix -l Turner & Shaul 1981:116 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino kiyu:r (keu:r @ 606) kiˈju:r fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex kiˈju:-r fish-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 057, 596 no info 0 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 no info hunted all diverse methods 0 0 ocean resources traded inland Americas water no
Iipay 'Aa che' fish (any) inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH, same underived Merriam 55:181 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu pa-gɨɨ-zi fish inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same other complex pa-gɨɨ-zi water-fish-ABS (really root is not synchronically complex in Kawaiisu, that's an etymology) Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa xa?=tay-l=t-kw+yaq fish (lit. sea-dweller) unique same relative clause xa?=tay-l=t-kw+yaq water=big-in-NMR-REL-lie Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk kihuč ˈkihuʧr fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex ˈkihu-ʧr fish-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:351 no info 0 1 no info hunted men fish spears, poison. No info on preparatin. 0 0 Americas water no
Lake Miwok káac fish unique underived Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Luiseño 7anámat ʔaˈnamat fish, generic unique same other complex ʔaˈnama-t fish-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:118 no info 0 couplet: anámat, pipilwut “fish, shark” 1 principal food for people living on coast (Sparkman 1908:198) no info hunted all roasted, broiled, boiled, many preparations 0 0 Americas water no
Maidu máko fish (general) unique underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mojave ɂachii fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH; Yuma 7aci/. Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mutsun hoo'-ye fish (any) inheritance Costanoan Kroeber 1910 has only in Sjb; Pinart has huuyi form for Co I, II; Note Yukian *həw, Wappo 7ew underived Merriam 55:417 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nisenan pala fish unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute paggwe Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < *pa:-kVyu Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically a phrase, “water-fish” Merriam 61:147 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok lapi:saj-y- fish inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Probably Yok-Utian if cognate with Yokutsan lopit words (Callaghan 1997:32, 2001:326) WW %lvp other complex -y nominalizer Callaghan 1987 0 1 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok pu:- fish loan Patwin Callaghan 2001:326 (but note that pu:- occurs in other Miwokan as “fish eggs” JHH underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan A šwan' fish unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:73 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan M cwá'N fish unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) zixcám fish unique see 88 same underived looks like etymologically might have the ziix “thing” element so common in the rel. clause animal names; perhaps onomasticized version of the generic “animal”,in (88) making this the prototype Comcaac Dictionary 634 0 1 0 0 0 no
Serrano ke'-ho>tR fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) other complex -t NPN Merriam 60:111 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute pagɨU Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived historically a compound pa:- kɨyu Sapir 1930:638 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok lapi:s-aj- fish inheritance *lapi:s-aj Sierra Miwokan only Probably Yok-Utian given Yokutsan lopit, etc. WW %lvp other complex -aj theme Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute pagų fish inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < ka:-kVyu Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived Givon 1979 0 1 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal kuyül kuˈjɨl fish inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex kuˈjɨ-l fish-npn Hill 2010:38 no info 0 1 no info hunted all used fish traps (men), poison (everybody), diverse preparations, mainly roasting on coals 0 0 Americas water no
Tümpisa Shoshone pangwi, pengwi fish inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived old pa- “water” now obscure Dayley 1989:188 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wappo 7éw fish (CHM confirms 52:579) inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *həw; note Costanoan hu:yi underived Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Washo 7át'abi7 fish (any) unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
Western Mono pakwi fish (general term) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived historically compound (*pa:-kɨyu) Bethel et al.;126 no info 0 1 no info fished all no info 0 0 no
Wintu nur fish, salmon inheritance *nur Wintun Shepherd 2005; salmon definitely the prototype. Slightly irregular, she has speculations p. 135 underived nur ... Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yavapai ɂčí· fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami lophʰoţ fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi dopiT fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Kroeber 1961:205 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne lOpiT fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Newman 1944:226 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuki hąw A, F fish, salmon inheritance *həw Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elemendorf 1997:80 Wappo 7ew underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuma ?aci/ Fish (any) inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH; Yuma 7aci/. Halpern 1:30 unknown Merriam 61:465, Halpern 1:30 0 1 0 0 0 no
Akawaio moorok morɔk inheritance Northern Carib? (Akawaio, Makushi, Mapoyo, Pemon) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa kóphe kúpʰe, dawáki (FS), keewiíte (FS), ţéephe (FS) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also dawáki (FS), keewiíte (FS), ţéephe (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona ikuca (SM) iku’tʃa (H&R) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo moacʉ (generic term), búpijĩcʉ, búpiyo, cuitótecarʉ, ẽtaroco, jiatʉravacacʉ, mamʉrʉmoacʉ, ocorʉmoacʉ, põejiaparidʉ moakʉ (generic term), búpihĩkʉ, búpijo, kuitótɛkarʉ, eɛ̃taroko, hiatʉravakacʉ, mamʉrʉmoakʉ, okorʉmoakʉ, põɛhiaparidʉ doubtful loan Bora/Resigaro amoo Also búpiɣĩkʉ, búpijɔ, kuitɔ́tɛkalʉ, eɛ̃talɔkɔ, ɣiatʉlavakacʉ, mamʉlʉmɔakʉ, ɔkɔlʉmɔakʉ, pɔ̃ɛɣiapalidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw rãáp hã̌p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano wahi wahi inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa kana kana inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero baxí baxí inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï bõʰtõ bõʰtõ doubtful loan: Makushi moróʔ Carib e.g. Makushi moróʔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani gæyæ unique No info (fish type - not clear whether generic exists. Might be yae.) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup hɔ̃̌p hɔ̃̌p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 most species 0 fished men, children, sometimes women (when fish poison is used) boiled or smoked 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua keh keh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan bópi bópi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi moróʔ moróʔ inheritance Northern Carib? (Akawaio, Makushi, Mapoyo, Pemon) Doubtful loan into Hodï: bõʰtõ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu pirá pirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tšarakə (EM72) tʃaɾakə inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Nukak a1 kaji2 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
Maihiki yadibai ago jadibai ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon morok (A1981) moɾok (A1981) inheritance Northern Carib? (Akawaio, Makushi, Mapoyo, Pemon) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro ámoogí ámoogí loan Bora (directionality unclear, but Seifart notes that it probably follows the general pattern of B>R) Bora amóópɛ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá salaga bɨ (edible fish only), tsaraka (EM72) salaga bɨ (edible fish only), tsalaka (EM72) inheritance salaga bɨ (edible fish only) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani baluwe, baxu (generic small fish), akairu, apürü, arali, arepi, atsebokojibiwi (fish without scales), daütjüdaütjü, tsutsubo, tsutsupabo, tsalewaübo, dujai, dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also means game animal), jj (1), jaja(1) dúhuai, baxu inheritance also akairu, apürü, arali, arepi, atsebokojibiwi (fish without scales), baluwe, daütjüdaütjü, tsutsubo, tsutsupabo, tsalewaübo, dujai, dujuai (1), dujai (1) (also means game animal), jj (1), jaja(1) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana kuphe, kuːphe kupʰe, kuːpʰe inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano wa'î wa'î inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria wa'i waʔi inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana kupaɨn kupaɨn inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomam yuri (small, generic) juɾi inheritance subgroup Narrower uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yuri juɾi inheritance subgroup underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kúpe (dp91); híiɲa (H&R92) kúpe (dp91) inheritance Also kúpe (dp91) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup hɔ̃́p hɔ̃́p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Bardi aarli aarli inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Bunuba gawiy gawiy loan into protolanguage kawi Bunuban Jarragan kapi 'water' in N. Jarragan , 'fish' in Walmajarri WW %kapi underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Burarra gurdijarra gurdidyarra unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhangu guya burirrity inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhay’yi burirritj burirrity inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhuwal guya burirrity inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Djinang guyi guyi inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gajirrabeng goondarring kuntarring inheritance kurntarri Jarragan also belegeggeng, jirrgelng underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gooniyandi gawi gawi loan into protolanguage kawi Bunuban Jarragan kapi 'water' in N. Jarragan , 'fish' in Walmajarri but cf. kawi 'fish' in Worrorran kaaguwi in E. Mirndi WW %kapi underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gumatj bukurru(') barrarritya inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gupapuyngu guya birrpurra inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gurindji yawu yawu loan Western Mirndi loan into NG pre-lenition WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Guugu Yimidhirr guyu & guuju guyu & guuju inheritance *kuyu or *kuya; not clear what if any the etymological relation of /kuuju/ is. /guyuu/ is 'milk, breast'. underived 0 1 0 0 0
Jaminjung yag yag inheritance kaku Mirndi ?kaku>yaku; regular loss of -u WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Jaru yagu yagu loan Western Mirndi WW %yaku uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Jingulu kakuyi kakuyi inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Karajarri guya guya inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kija kurntarri kurntarri inheritance kurntarri Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Koko-Bera koy koy fish inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan simplex
Kuku-Thaypan missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kuku-Yalanji kuyu kuyu inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan Reflexes in some languages suggest *kuya. underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kurtjar wanthork ~ wooy wanthork ~ wooy unique underived Both terms are generic 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kuuk Thaayorre ngat ngat inheritance *ngata pPaman underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Mbabaram yu yu inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan Also widespread: *kuya reflexes. underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Miriwung gundarring gundarring inheritance kurntarri Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngandi ceñ ceny inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngarinyin dyaya dyaya inheritance *tyaya proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngumbarl lammidee lammidee unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nimanburru gōmb gōmb semantic shift underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyangumarta pirrala pirrala unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyikina ngama ngama ngama ngama unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyulnyul kumb(u) kumb(u) semantic shift underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Pakanh nga'a nga'a inheritance *ngata pPaman underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Rembarrnga ceñ ceny inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ritharrngu guya guya inheritance Northern Yolngu? 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Tjaapukay guyu kuyu fish (generic) inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan With an alternant *kuya underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Uw-Olkol uy uy fish inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Uw-Oykangand uy uy fish inheritance *kuyu pPama-Nyungan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Walmajarri kapi kapi loan with meaning change Kajirrabeng Kapi 'water' WW %kapi underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Wardaman barrunin barrunin unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Warlpiri yaku yaku loan Western Mirndi also liwanja WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Wik Ngathan keyngk keyngk scaled fish; fish scales unique underived minh (scaled fish) 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Worrorra dya:ya dya:ya inheritance *tyaya proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Wunambal gawi (V) gawi (V) loan proto-Worrorran WW %kapi 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yan-nhangu guya guya inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yawuru yalwarr, dyanadya yalwarr, dyanadya unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yidiny missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yir-Yoront ngart ngart inheritance *ngata pPaman underived Typically /ngar/ when used as a generic with a simplex specific term. 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Achagua kubái kubái inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco kubái (dp91) kubái (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari kúpha; ʔulle (H&R92) kúpha See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena kúpʰe (hr01), ʃime kúpʰe (hr01), ʃime See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero kuhási (dp91), simasi kuhási (dp91), simasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare kubati kubati See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi kohatse kuhatse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure him; koβes him; koβes inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kupatɨ kupatɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora amóópe amóópɛ unknown possibly Resigaro loan, but probable B > R See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane táaβa táaβa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai kana, arumaxi, pore, sãsawa kana, arumaxi, pore, sãsawa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ka ka inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó kana kana inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare nākukwāno (IDS) ( Refers to fish in the water; lit. 'people who live in the river'. Fish caught and out of the river is oʔtāho); na:kukwa:no (KH) na:kukwa:no unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo moroko moroko See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai generic fish: ootɨ generic fish: ootɨ unique cf. similar form in Makiritare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari xiba ʃiba See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa poshe (SM) po'ʂe; póʃe (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo kaŋa kaŋa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca gua See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Cofán avu aβɯ See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra kayopchi kajopntʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ei´na ɨiʔna See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tʃɔʔnɨ tʃɔʔnɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ate ate unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa beóna beóna See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke be-i (cf. be 'eat') be-i (cf. be 'eat') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé chõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave yəi jəi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar namák achíkchamu namak aʧikʧamu See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa namak namak See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna namák(a) namák(a) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses nuëquid nuɨkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo ṣ̌aɨ; sani-no ṣ̌aɨ; sani-no doubtful loan Tacanan sa(ʔ)e (Girard) See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua quiva kiwã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua challwa tʃaʎwa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá chalwa tʃálwa (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yacu aicha (yacu=river; aicha=meat) jaku aitʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano challwa tʃaʎwa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa pOɨ'cah pɤɨɁsah inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva pajĩdi pahĩdi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano wai wai See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana wai wai See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna wai wai inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti wái wái See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana wa'ʔi wa'ʔi See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano waʔí waʔí See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca waʔ'ia waʔ'ia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo 'wa'i 'wa'i See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka wa'í wa'í See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja wáí wáí See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje va'i, chiacha va'i baʔi, dʒiadʒa baʔi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona hua'i waʔi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya 'wa?'i 'wa?'i See Language page Amanda Meeks
Karitiana ip ip inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ipira ipiɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi pila pila inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó si̯ra; hi̯ra si̯ra; hi̯ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ipira ipira inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina injanm̈a ĩhãm:a unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto čámu tʃámu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ǰḯkï.aï, čámu dʒɯ́kɯ.aɯ, tʃámu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto ǰïkï.aï dʒɯkɯ.aɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito pápaaja pápaaha unknown See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Wari hwam (hwamišiʔ) hwam (hwamiʃiʔ) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo na'o; hai (Girard 1971) na'o; hai See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña wi-ka-motya-ho- (G71) wi-ka-motya-ho- (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara chawlla čawlʸa See Language page PLE
Kwazá manini, ũmãtɛ- manini, ũmãtɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima kon̉-kore (J62) kon̉-kore See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai kaʔte ~ kʔate kaʔte ~ kʔate See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang pirã pirã See Language page PLE
Suyá tɛp tɛp See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi minõ minõ See Language page PLE